US 2311946 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 23, 1943. F. KRONER- 7 1 9 PROCESS AND DEVICE FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF OBJECTS FiledSepL 18, 1959 *e e l 2 4 40: 4 4mm In vemor:
Patented Feb. 23, 1943 PROCESS AND DEVICE FOR THE REPRE- SENTATION OF OBJECTS Friedrich Kroner, Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany, assignor to Transart Akticbolag, Goteborg, Sweden, a corporation of Sweden Application September 18, 1939, Serial No. 295,525 In Germany September 22, 1938 3 Claims.
In the representation of objects or parts of one and the same object, especially such as lie behind one another, in space and/or in time, it is previously known to use transparent sheets each of which bears two opaque pictures, of which one is visible from the front and the other from the rear of the sheet, said sheets being arranged in close superposed relationship in correct sequence with respect to space and/ or time and with the pictures masking one another, wholly or in part, in such manner as to obtain combinational pictures of the objects or parts of the object, respectively, forwards as well as backwards with respect to the sequence. If one turns over the sheets of a collection of sheets thus produced, that is to say turns over the sheets in the same manner as leaves in a book, one obtains for each turning a combinational pictorial representation on looking at the left collection of sheets, thus backwards with respect to the sequence, and another combinational pictorial representation on looking at the right collection of sheets, thus forwards with respect to the sequence. This process for the representation of objects may to advantage be utilized for illustrating, for instance, parallel successive sections of an object, such as an organ of the human body, or of an object composed of several different parts, such as a machine or part of a machine. Instead of sections of theobject it is, of course, possible to illustrate in this manner successive layers of an object or objects.
According to a previously known process, the two pictures are applied to one single sheet, usually to opposite sides thereof. As necessarily the two pictures must exactly coincide with each other so as not to disturb each other mutually, said known process involves certain difliculties in the application of the pictures, as no subsequent adjustment of the position of the two pictures in relation to each other is possible.
The principal object of the present invention is to remove these difficulties and to provide a method for the representation of an object or obj ects by successive views thereof in which the production of the pictures is facilitated and an absolutely exact coincidence of the two pictures cooperating with each other can be attained.
A further object of the invention is to provide a method of the class described in which sheets bearing only on their one side a picture of a view of the object or objects in the proper sequence of said views are adjusted by pairs and the sheets of the pairs are connected with each other in such adjusted position. Thereby any inexactness in the application of th pictures to the sheets can be corrected by inserting a manual stage of control after the pictures have been applied to the sheets which is usually performed by a mechanical reproduction process, for instance, by any printing process. Evidently, this adjustment of the two pictures of a pair may be facilitated by applying simultaneously with the application of the pictures certain marks to the sheets, such as points or lines, which in connecting the single sheets are caused to coincide, but, as a rule, the two pictures themselves have agreeing parts which facilitate the adjustment.
The pictures may be applied to separate sheets which after adjustment are connected by pairs with each other. It is, however, also possible to apply the pictures to a connected strip including one or more pairs of sheets, said strip being then folded and the pictures adjusted by pairs whereupon the strip sections of the pairs are connected with each other. Thereby the process of the application of the pictures to the sheets, for instance by printing, is facilitated. Evidently, it is not necessary that the single sheets or strip sections are equally large, even if this may be of advantage, especially when using connected strips. The two sheets of a pair may be assembled in such manner as to cause the two pictures to lie either with both pictures on the outsides or both pictures on the insides or one picture on the outside and the other on the inside of the double sheet. It may be observed that a picture which is to be looked at from the side of the sheet 01')- posite to that on which it is arranged must be applied to the sheet in the form of its mirror image in order that it may be seen in a correct position relatively to the remainder of the pictures in the assembled sheet collection. When the single sheets are connected in such manner that one or both of the pictures lie on the inside and, thus, the outside or outsides of the double sheet is free from picture, the additional advantage is attained of the pictures being protected against damages on the manipulation of the sheet collection.
When the pictures on two sheets to be connected differ from each other only with respect to one or more details but for the rest have equal or substantially equal outlines it is in certain cases preferable to apply the one picture to one side of its sheet and the other picture by its reflected image to the opposite side of its sheet in which case, as mentioned above, the one picture will lie on the inside and the other on the outside of the double sheet. Thereby the production of the pictures is facilitated, as the same stereotypes only with some changes and/or additions may be used for the production of both of the pictures. Further when printing in colours the number of inking apparatus required will also be reduced.
The pictures may be applied to the transparent sheets in any suitable manner. It lies within the scope of the invention onto the sheets to glue pictures applied to opaque supports, such as paper or cardboard. However, it ought to be more suitable to apply the pictures directly onto the sheets by producing the pictures in a manner known as per se by non-transparent or opaque colours, or to apply between the two pictures of a double sheet as connected a separating layer or layers of substantially or completely nontransparent or opaque character.
In certain cases, it may be sufficient to produce only the one picture opaque in itself, for instance with a non-transparent separating layer, the other picture which may be more or less transparent becoming non-transparent first in cooperation with the first-mentioned picture, when the sheets are assembled.
When the two pictures have certain partsin common it is, of. course, not necessary that they have exactly the same outlines, that is to say cover each other completely. In this case it is only necessary to make provision for the one picture being produced in such manner as to cause the parts common to both of the pictures to be visible from opposite sides of the double sheet in the desired manner, for instance similarly from the front as well as from the rear side. However, in certain cases it may be advantageous to produce the two pictures with the same outlines.
The single sheets of the pairs may be connected in any suitable manner dependent on the material of which they are made. If the sheets consist. of a cellulose derivative the connection may be effected by means of any adhesive suitable for such materials. It is, of course, not necessary to connect the sheets over their entire surface, it being sufficient if they hang together in. such manner as to be more or less secured in their mutually adjusted position.
Further, the invention comprises a device for the representation of an object or objects which device is produced according to the process above described and comprises a plurality of superposed transparent sheets, each consisting of two single sheets connected to each other and bearing each a picture only on their one side.
The double sheetsmay in known manner be bound together in the form or" a book or the loose sheets may be placed into a box or the like in which, in the sequence intended, they may be looked at in varying number and in both directions.
The invention will be more fully described with reference to an embodiment of same shown by way of example in the accompanying drawing. Fig. 1 is a view of. a strip bearing eight pictures of an electric handlantern, all pictures being applied to the upper side of the strip. Fig. 2 is a plan view of the lantern showing the planes along which the pictures illustrated in Fig. 1 are seen. Figs. 3, 4 and 5 illustrate different manners of arranging the single sheets of a double sheet according to the invention.
I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3, 1 and 8 designate eight sections or single sheets of a strip of transparent material, such as that known under the registered trade-mark Cellophane or similar materials, said sectionsor single blades being marked by asirese the limiting lines 9, I0, II, I2, I3, I4, I5, I6 and I1. To each section or single sheet there is applied a picture I8, I9, 20, 2|, 22, 23, 24 and 25, respectively. Picture I8 on sheet I is an external view seen from one side of the lantern in the direction of the arrow I in Fig. 2 showing a lateral wall 26' and feet 28. Picture I9 on sheet 2 is a sectional View of the lantern along the line 2-2 in Fig. 2 illustrating the rear side of Wall 26 and the lantern casing 29 in section. Picture 20 on sheet 3 is a sectional view along the line 3-3 in Fig. 2 showing the casing 29 in section and an external view of a lens 21, a lens sleeve 34 and upper and lower pockets 33 and 3I for receiving the accumulator mass, said pockets being separated by a free space32. The pictures on the single sheets 4 and 5 are identical but mutually inverted sectional views along the line 4-4 and 5-5 in Fig. 2, respectively, illustrating in section lens 21, accumulator mass pockets 30, 3|, sleeve 34 and a collecting lens 35 arranged in said sleeve as well as an external view of an electric lamp 33. Further, in these views there is shown a handle 36 for carrying the lantern. Picture 23' on sheet 6 is a sectional view along the line B- -6 in Fig. 2 showing a reflected image of picture 2 on sheet 3, said pictures being equal according to the embodiment shown. Picture 24 on sheet 1 is av sectional View along the line 1-1 in Fig. 2 illustrating the casing 29 in section, the rear side of the opposite lateral wall 31 having an opening 38 covered by a cover 39 secured by screws 40. At last, picture 25 on sheet 8 is an external view of the lantern seen from the opposite side in the direction or the arrow 8 in Fig. 2, illustrating lateral wall 31, cover 39, screws 40' and feet 4|.
According to Fig. 3 the strip is folded inwards along the lines II-, I3 and I5 and outwards along the lines I0, I2, I4 and I6, whereupon the various single blades I to 8, inclusive, are connected by pairs to form double sheets I2, 3-4, 55 and 1-8. Before the connection of the single sheets it is controlled by eye that the mutual position of the two pictures is exact. In certain cases the limiting lines between the strip sections may be of some aid in this control, said lines being in such case marked on the strip in some way or other, 0); points or the like marked on the strip as shown at 42 on sheets I and 2 in Fig. 1 may serve the same purpose. When on folding the strip along the lines I0, I2, I4 and I6 the pictures of a double sheet do not coincide, the subsequent adjustment is made by hand which may require. cutting of the strip along one or more of the folding lines.
The double sheets produced in this manner may be separated along the'lines II, I3 and I5 and arranged in a box or the like, but usually they are bound together in the form of a book at the lines 9, II, I3, I5 and I1. Before bounding together the double sheets, it may be necessary to adjust said double sheets into mutually correct position which operation may also require cutting of the strip along one or more of said lines.
For the following description of the operation of the device it is assumed that the double sheets are assembled in the abovesaid manner to form a book. If said book is looked at from the. sheet I one obtains a combinational pictorial representation composed by picture I8 on single sheet I, lens 21 illustrated on single sheetv 3 and handle 36 shown. on -single sheet ,4, the lens being visible through single sheets I and 2 and the handle through sheets I, 2 and 3.
If the spectator turns over the first double sheet I, 2 and looks at said sheet from the opposite direction he obtains a combinational pictorial representation composed by picture I9 on single sheet 2 and feet 28 which are illustrated on single sheet I and become visible through sheet 2. If he looks at the opposite page of the book, he obtains a combinational pictorial representation composed by picture 20 on single sheet 3, handle 36 and lamp 33 on single sheet 4, lateral wall 3'! on single sheet I and feet M on single sheet 8.
The next pages of the book show pictorial representations of the interior of the lantern according to pictures 2I and 22 on single sheets 4 and 5, respectively, picture 2I being completed by the feet 28 shown in picture I8 on single sheet I and lateral wall 26 in picture I9 on single sheet 2, and picture 22 by the feet 4| illustrated in picture 25 on single sheet 8 and lateral wall 31 in picture 24 on single sheet I.
The next pages of the book show to the left a combinational pictorial representation composed by picture 23 on single sheet 6, handle 36 and lamp 33 in picture 22 on single sheet 5, lateral wall 26 in picture I9 on single sheet 2 and feet 28 in picture I8 on single sheet I and to the right a combinational pictorial representation composed by picture 24 on single sheet I and feet M from picture 25 on single sheet 8.
If, at last, the book is looked at from sheet 8, a combinational pictorial representation is obtained composed by picture 25 on said sheet 8, lens 21 in picture 23 on single sheet 6 and handle 36 from picture 22 on single sheet 5.
As mentioned above, the pictures may be applied to the sheets in any suitable manner. If, for instance, the wall 26 on the double sheet I, 2 has the same appearance on the front and the rear side of the sheet, this wall may be shown in picture I8 on single sheet I by a suitable covering colour, whereas the space in picture I9 on single sheet 2 representing said Wall 26 is left blank, said latter picture, thus, showing only the casing 29 in section. If the wall 26 has different appearance on the front and rear side of the sheet, it may be illustrated by corresponding covering colours in both pictures I8 and I9 or by more or less transparent colours but with an opaque background or separating layer in one or both of the pictures.
The free space 32 between the accumulator masses 30, 3| as shown in pictures 20, 2|, 22 and 23 is to be left blank in order to obtain the combinational pictorial representations above described.
As seen, the two pictures of the various double sheets have not completely coinciding outlines.
lie on the outsides of the sheet. According to Fig. 4 the strip is folded outwards along the lines I I, I3 and I5 and inwards along the lines I0, I2, I4 and I6. In this case the pictures on a double sheet lie on the insides of the sheet in which position they are protected against damages.
According to Figs. 3 and 4, all pictures on a strip are arranged on the same side thereof. As already mentioned, it may be advantageous in certain cases to apply some of the pictures on one side and the other on the opposite side of the strip. According to Fig. 5, every second picture I8, 20, 22 and 24 is applied to the one or upper side and every second picture I9, 2|, 23 and 25 to the other or underside of the strip. If the pictures on the same double sheet have the same outlines, the advantage is hereby attained that both of the pictures are true images, as they are always simultaneously looked at from one and the same direction. It should be observed that the pictures may be arranged in various other combinations on opposite sides of the strip which is correspondingly folded.
What I claim is:
1. Method for the production of a pictorial device for the representation of an object or objects, which comprises producing pictures of successive views of the object or objects on a connected strip of transparent material in spaced relation longitudinally thereof, at least one of any two consecutive pictures being opaque, folding the strip into sections each containing one of the pictures while adjusting the strip sections of the consecutive pictures by pairs in successive order in superposed relation to each other so as to set the pictures of each pair into proper relative position, securing the two strip sections of each pair with each other while in said adjusted position so as to form double strip sections, and arranging said double strip sections in close superposed relation to one another in the cor- Picture I8 extends beyond the outlines of picture I9 by feet 28, picture 2I beyond the outlines of picture 20 and picture 22 beyond those of picture 23 by handle 36, and picture 25 beyond the outlines of picture 24 by feet 4I. As already mentioned, the common parts of a double picture should be so produced as to be visible in the desired manner from opposite sides of the sheet. It should be observed that the two pictures on a double sheet may also be produced with exactly coinciding outlines which may be advantageous in certain cases.
According to Fig. 3 the strip is folded in such manner that the two pictures of a double sheet rect sequence whereby combinational pictorial representations of the object or objects are obtained as viewed forwards as well as backwards with respect to the sequence through any number of the double strip sections.
2. A pictorial device for the representation of an object or objects, comprising a pack of sheets arranged in close superposed relation to one another and consisting each of a double-folded strip of transparent material, each section of such a double-folded strip bearing on only one of its sides a picture of a View of said object or objects, at least one of the pictures of each double-folded strip being opaque and the two sections of each strip being connected with each other in folded position with the two pictures adjusted into proper relative position, the pictures of the consecutive strip sections illustrating successive views of the object or objects in succession from the front of the topmost doublefolded strip to the rear of the bottom doublefolded strip whereby combinational pictorial representations of the object or objects are obtained as viewed forwards as well as backwards with respect to the sequence through any number of the double strip sections.
3. A pictorial device according to claim 2, wherein at least one of the pictures of a doublefolded strip lies on the inside of one of the sections of said strip.