US 2312920 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Marb 2, 1,943. 'c. v. L l'rToN 24,312,920
ANODE COOLNG" JACKET l Fired Feb. v, 1942 1e I||1|1 1M" inw) l i, 15 i M f i FIG. s.
Patented Mar. 2, 1943 I AN GDE 'COOLING JACKET Charles V. Litton, Redwood City, Calif., assignor to International Standard Electric Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Dela- Ware Application February 7, 1942, Serial No. 429,871
4 Claims. (Cl. Z50-27.5)
This invention relates to vacuum tube construction and particularly to temperature regun lating means for vacuum tubes. Y
The object of the invention is to provide a construction by which the ow of heat from a hot anode to a cooling medium can be controlled.
There have been heretofore provided vacuum tubes of which the anodes are `water cooled by means of a jacket around the anode, through which a cooling uid flows to conduct heat away from the anode. It is sometimes desired that the anode be operated at a higher temperature than the available fluid jacket permits, as for example, when thoriated filaments are used in the tube; for in such tubes, if the anode were maintained too cool the thorium would condense on the anode. Or gas released by electrons might collect and stick there unless the anode be kept warm enough.
In accordance with my invention, there is provided an anode and jacket construction adapted to be placed into permanent cooling systems designed to operate at temperaturesA below the desired temperature, but which by use of the present invention can maintain the anode at the desired higher temperature. This higher temperature is maintained by means of a dummy anode which may be in the form of a wall or cylinder, adapted to be placed in the position of an ordinary anode adjacent the wall of the uid jacket; and the real anode is placed within the dummy anode and joined to the dummy anode by the use of suitable heat conducting struts or webs. The number and the thickness and length-of the webs determine the rate at which the heat is conducted from the real anode to the dummy anode, and consequently controls the temperature of the real anode above that of the cooling jacket.
In the drawing,
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal cross sectional view taken at line I-I of Fig. 2, of an anode cooling device arranged in a water-cooling jacket according to this invention; and
Fig. 2 is a cross sectional view of the device taken at line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
In the drawing, there is shown a fluid cooling jacket such as a water jacket of a general type which has theretoiore been used, into which there is adapted to be placed the anode of a vacuum tube to be cooled. The jacket comprises a cylindrical member IIl having two water connection nipples I I and I2 and a water inlet channel I3. There is placed within the jacket a dummy anode I4 which may be generally cylindrical in shape and spaced from the inner wall of jacket I0 by a narrow annular space I5 which may be of the order of -11-6 of an inch. The jacket is formed with a toroidal cavity I6 around lthe dummy anode at one end, and another cavity I'I at the opposite end, there being an annular gasket I8 between the end of the dummy anode and the jacket to prevent leakage of the cooling uid. Thus, cooling fluid can pass from end of nipple I I through inlet channel I3 to cavity I6 through space I6 to cavity I'I and out the exhaust nipple I2.
-To clamp the dummy 'anode I4 into its position within the jacket, there Vis provided a known type of clamp arrangement somewhat :similar-to that illustrated in Suydam Patent 2,186,563, issued January 9, 1940. 'Ihis comprises an annular ring I9 which is preferably a split ring of two or more sections, which rests against the open periphery of the dummy anode. To bind the ring I9 against the anode, there is provided a pressure collar 20 having an inwardly sloping annular portion 2| terminating in a pressure face 22 which engages with a circular recess 23 of ring sections I9. The
opposite outer surface of ring I9 is chamfered at 24 to contain it within the periphery 25 of the jacket and permit free movement of the ring toward the main body of the jacket. Posts 26 and 2l are fastened to the end of the jacket and threaded at 28 and 29 respectively to receive the corresponding threads on pressure collar 20. Thus by turning the pressure collar, the ring I9 may be tightened downagainst the end surface of member I4 to compress it against gasket I8. By splitting the ring I9 Ainto sections, the member I4 may be removed from the jacket simply by loosening collar 20 and then removing thesections of ring I9 from positions between the posts 26 and 21, as described in the above-mentioned Suydam Patent 2,186,563. The jacket as thus described is of a type widely used to receive the anode of a tube which is to be water cooled.
Ordinarily, when the present invention is not being used, the outer surface of a tube anode will occupy the position occupied by the member I4 of the drawing, and tubes may readily be introduced and taken from the jacket from time to time if desired. In accordance with this invention, the member I4 is not the real anode but is a dummy anode, the real anode being the member 30 4placed within the dummy anode and supported by the latter by a number of webs SI. The heat of anode 36 is conducted through webs 3| to the dummy anode I4 from which it is conducted away by the ow of cooling water. Owing to the limited cross sectional area of heat Conduction of the webs 3|, the temperature of the real anode 30 is maintained higher than that of dummy anode I4 which is next to the cooling uid. By the adjustment of the number, size and thickness of the Webs 3|, the real anode may be maintained at the desired temperature above that of the dummy anode.
Figs. 3 yand 4 show possible modications of the arrangement shown in Fig. 1. In Fig. 1, the anode 30, the fins 3l and the outer wall are shown formed in one piece. section view of the anode, Webs and wall `corresponding to the same elements in Fig. 2, the anode 30a, corresponding to the portion 30 in Fig. 2v
tively with the elements 3l and I4 in Fig. 2. In
Fig. 4 a somewhat different modification is shown wherein the webs 3io, instead of being integral with the outer wall Mb as shown in Fig. 3, are integral with the anode 30h, and the wall |4b is a separate piece. Here, the parts i417, 39h and 3Ib correspond respectively With the lparts lila, 30a and 3Ia in Fig. 3.
By the use of this invention, it is possible to place within existing jackets of an ordinary type, the anodes of tubes which must be maintained at a higher than ordinary temperature. Special types of tubes, such as those having thoriated filaments whose anodes should be maintained at higher than ordinary temperatures for ecient operation can accordingly be provided with the v webbed jacket and placed Within the same cool- In Fig. 3, which is a cross Cil ing jackets as the regular anodes of ordinary tubes which can be be operated cooler. The invention thus provides for the ready interchange ability of the anodes of different types of tubes within the same cooling jacket and system.
What is claimed is:
1. In combination, la. vacuum tube anode, a wall around the lanode and a jacket around the wall, said wall and jacket forming a chamber through which a cooling iiuid is passed, and a web means connecting the anode and the wall, for conducting heat from the anode to the wall, said web means having a cross section and length in respect to the path of the heat flow proportioned to maintain the anode at a predetermined temperature above the temperature of the cooling fluid.
2. A combination according to claim 1 in which the web means are a Iplurality of webs extending radially between the Ianode and the w-all.
3. A combination according to claim 1 in which the anode, the wall and the jacket are cylindrical in shape and concentrically arranged with respect to each other, and the web means are a plurality of webs extending radially between the anode and the wall. l
4. In combination, an anode, an outer wall around the anode adapted to dissipate heat to a medium in contact with said wall, and a plurality of webs connecting the anode with the wall for conducting heat from the anode to the Wall.
CHARLES V. LITTON.