US 2313581 A
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WIRE mruc Original Filed Aug. 1, I938 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 mu nm on w. m o
u m w mmm u mmmu mm 0. WWM own 0 mom ,mommmmom M mow momm W INVENTOR March 9, 1943. w, E RE D 2,313,581
WIRE FABRIC Original Filed Aug. 1', 1938 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 25 (A 1A 7 X n M:
WM? "M W's) wwmw March 9, 1943. w. a-REE WIRE FABRIC Or iginal Filed u 1, 19:58 5 Sheets-Sheet s INVENTOR March 9,1943. w, E, 'REED 2,313,581
WIRE FABRIC Original Filed Aug. '1, 1938 5 She'ets-Sheet 4 1 INVENTOB W. E. REED WIRE FABRIC Mrch 9, 1943.
Patented Mar. 9, i943 Ni'i'E STTES TENT ()FFECE 12 Claims.
This application is a division of my application Serial No. 222,411, filed August 1, 1938 (issued as Patent No. 2,191,682), the said application being directed to a method of forming wire fabric, whereas the present application is directed to the fabric per se.
The fabric may be formed of strands of material other than metal, as hereinafter set forth. The fabric may be made for use as fencing, nets, concrete or stucco reinforcement, fly screens, screen cloth, or to reinforce materials such as rubber, paper, plastics and glass.
One object of my invention is to provide a fabric that possesses various new advantages in the way of form, structural characteristics, flexibility, elasticity and strength as compared to fabrics of the prior art.
Another object of my invention is to provide a mesh formed of continuously-extending strands.
or sets of strands, with the strands of one set positioned in such relation to the strands of the other sets that the fabric thus produced will have desired differences in mesh spacing, structural characteristics, strength and rigidity, as between various portions thereof.
Still another object is to provide a fabric of different multiple thicknesses or plies throughout, or only in certain surface areas.
Still another object is to provide duplex or multiplex fabrics whose strands are interlaced or intermeshed.
Various forms of fabric of the type above referred to are shown in the accompanying drawings, wherein Figure 1 is a view showing one form of fabric at an initial stage of manufacture; Fig. 2 is a face view showing a portion of a completed fabric with the rearmost portions of the strands indicated by dash lines; Fig. 3 is a view showing the lays or folds of Fig. 2 expanded, to more clearly illustrate the manner in which they are laid upon one another; Fig. 4 is a view showing a completed fabric laid according to the showing of Figs. 1 and 2; Figs. 5, 6 and '7 are views similar to Figs. 1, 2 and 4, but showing a different form of fabric; Figs. 8, 9, l and 11 show another form of fabric at preliminary stages of manufacture and its appearance when completed; Figs. 12 to 15 show still a further form of fabric in its preliminary and final stages of manufacture; Fig. 16 shows a modification ofthe fabric of Figs. 1 to 4, and Fig. 17 is a view indicating the manner in which two series of wires may be laid full width and part width of the fabric, with a different angularity of fold than that shown in Figs. to 7; Figs. 18 to 21 are schematic views showing the folds of Figs. 7, 11, and 1'7, respectively, in a partially expanded or spread condition, to show more clearly the manner in which the lays or folds are overlapped.
It will be understood that the fabric can be made by the process and apparatus disclosed in my said application.
Referring first to the fabric dsclosed in Figs. 1 to 4, it will be seen that the said fabric is composedof nine continuousstrands that are folded back and forth along progressively advanced diagonal lines, the broken lines indicating those portions of the wires which are crossed or covered by a succeeding lay. Whereas in fabric of this general type it has been customary to make each lay of strands overlie approximately oneehalf of the preceding lay, in the present instance, as shown more clearly in Fig. 1, each lay covers approximately three-fourths of the preceding lay, and that after the two preliminary lays of wire have been placed as in Fig. 1, as indicated by A and B respectively, the succeeding. lay of wires will be along lines intermediate the lines. along which the ,wires extend in the lay A, such ofiset relation of the wires in the various lays being continued throughout the length of the fabric.
This fabric is more substantial and resistant to lateral deflection and sagging than fabrics formed by having each fold'or lay cover only onehalf the preceding lay, thus forming a two ply fabric. The greater strength arises out of the fact that the construction (perpendicular to the plane of the fabric) is of multiple layers, each succeeding layer crossing a preceding one at an angle, the alternate strand layers being parallel and offset, thus enclosing layers of strands that extend in different directions and making a substantial multiply product. This will be apparent from an inspection of Figs. 1 and 3, wherein folds A, B, C and D partially overlap one another in the finished product, as indicated in Fig. 4.
These different layers are all welded together at crossing points and inner layers are further held firmly in place byouter layers. Also the inner layers. become outer layers when passing along the fabric length, thus binding the strands more substantially together and offering greater resistance to destruction. The intermingling of strands from different layers mutually support each other. This can be seen by tracing strand 5, for example, in Fig. 2, which shows it is enclosed passing alternately above and then below the successive strands it passes, and increasing its resistance to destruction by lateral forces.
The strands, when laid, will be welded or otherwise secured together at their crossings or at certain of their crossings, as explained in my said application.
Referring now to- Figs. 5 to '7 and Fig. 18, a portion of the completed fabric is indicated by the numeral l3 in Fig. 7. In this arrangement, lateral stiffness or strength and cross mesh spacone-half the width of the fabric, each lay of both groups overlying only approximately one-half of the preceding lay of that group, instead of three-fourths as in Fig. 1. Fig. 18 is a View showing the fabric of Fig. 7 expanded, merely for the purpose of illustrating the relative arrangements of the wide and narrow folds. The fabric, however, may be made with each lay overlapping three-fourths or other fractional part of the preceding lay as indicated in Fig. 16, for example.
As indicated in Figs. and 6, the group of wires [5 are laid forwardly and backwardly twice for each forward and return lay of the wires 14. As will appear from the broken lines in Fig. 6, it will be seen that portions of the narrow lay wires [5 are enclosed between layers of the wires l4, and that portions of the wide lays are between layers of the wires I5, and portions of the lays of wires [5 are on top of the wires [4. The wires 14 and 15 are thus periodically intermingled so that they mutually support one another and cannot so readily be torn apart or separated as would be the case if the narrow portion of the mesh were simply secured to the face of the wide laid strands.
It will be seen that narrow lays of wires l5 can be made adjacent to both the top and bottom edges of the fabric, when it is desired to reinforce both edges of the main body of fabric, as shown, for example, in Fig. 14 of my Patent No. 2,125,583, wherein it will be noted that such narrow lays adjacent to the fabric edges may be less than half the width of the fabric and that more than one strand [5 may be laid between consecutive (adjacent) strands I4. It will also be apparent that two or more strands 14 may lie adjacent to each other before their spacing is increased to permit the laying of strands 15 between such groups.
In Figs. 8 to 11 and 19 I show a fabric I! that is composed of three groups of strands, each laid according to the general manner as in Figs. 1 to 3, but the groups 18 and I9 each consisting of four strands and the group 2i! consisting of eight strands. The lays of wires in the group are intermeshed with the lays of the wires in group If! as indicated schematically in Fig. 19, and similarly intermeshed with the lays of wires 19, the succeeding lays of each group being formed simultaneously, that is, when the group I8 is being laid in one direction, the groups 20 and 19 are laid simultaneously or in similar sequence, in the same direction. All of the wire crossings or a suitable number thereof will be secured together to maintain the strands in assembled relation. It will be seen that this arrangement produces a fabric that is of very great strength at its mid portion and of better appearance and greater strength than if the wires 20 were simply welded to the faces of the groups [8 and I9.
In Figs. 12 to 15 and 20 I show a mesh 22 that is reinforced centrally thereof in a different manner than the fabric of Fig. 11. This fabric is composed of only two groups of strands 23 and 24, each of which is recurrently laid forwardly and rearwardly in the same general manner as in Figs. 1 to 3, each group in partially overlapping relation to the other group and in offset relation thereto in directions longitudinally of the fabric, to produce the narrow mesh spacing at the mid zone of the fabric. As in the case of the other fabrics heretofore described, certain of the lays or wires 23 will overlie lays of the wires 24, at certain points in the mid zone of the fabric, while at other portions of said zone the wires 23 will underlie lays of the wires 24, thus making for a structure of great strength wherein portions of the band cannot readily be torn apart, even though the strands are only lightly welded together. This overlying and underlying arrangement results in part of a fold of the wires 23 enveloping part of a fold of wires 24, and Vice versa, as more clearly indicated in Fig. 20. Here, also, the angles of lay or fold can be as in Figs. 1 to 4.
In Fig. 16 is shown a fabric similar to that of Figs. 1 to 4, but instead of showing a parallel lay or fold such as C of Fig. 3 partially overlying only one preceding parallel lay such as A, in the completed portion of the folds in this Figure 16, each lay overlies parts of two preceding parallel lays, as in the wider folds, of Fig. 21. The fabric is composed of strands l2-3- l-5618 which cover a distance more than twice the pitch distance of the folds, in a direction longitudinally of the fabric instead of only about twice the pitch width as does the group A of Fig. 1. In this Fig. 16 therefore, each lay covers a much larger portion of the preceding parallel lay than approximately one-half thereof as in Figs. 1 to 4, so that it will partly overlie two preceding parallel lays. In other words, this figure shows each lay overlying all but three of the strands in the next preceding parallel lay.
In Fig. 1'? I show a structure wherein a series of eight strands 25 are laid the full width of the fabric, with each lay overlying more than threefourths of the preceding lay or fold, as in Figs. 1 to 4. At one edge of the fabric a series of four strands 26 are laid between the folds or lays of the strands 25, as schematically indicated in Fig. 21, but the angularities of the strands 26 are the same as are the diagonal lays of the strands 25, the strands 26 being offset from the strands 25 in a direction longitudinally of the fabric, so that a closer mesh spacing and greater strength are secured in the lower portion of the fabric.
The foregoing illustrations show the strands as being spaced over pitch width or a multiple of pitch width, and therefore producing symmetrically spaced mesh fabrics with uniform mesh spacing throughout. It will be understood that one or more of the strands can be omitted, thus producing a fabric of variable mesh opening and of different reinforcement at various sections thereof.
While the fabric has herein been referred to more particularly as wire fabric, it will be understood that materials other than metal wire may be usedsuch, for example, as artificial fibers made from plastic compositions, etc., in which latter case the fibers may be secured together either by the use of small amounts of solvents or by heating. It will also be understood that:
1. The strands may be of various cross-sectional shapes and areas and differ in the same fabric.
2. The strands may be partially of wire and partially of other materials.
3. The strands may be laid on or between other 1 materials or the materials laid on the strands and retained in position. For example, they may be laid on or between sheets of material such as rubber, paper, plastics, metals, fiber, etc.
4. Material may be placed between the layers of strands or between only certain strands or supplemental strands, of the weaves and patterns formed.
5. Strands may be separated by other than uniform distances, which may be varying distances and may intersect.
The various figures showing these fabrics have for simplicity been made with angular bends at the edges of the fabric, but it should be understood that various other forms of edge bends may be made as shown in my previous patents (such as in 2,125,583, Figs. and 1'7, etc.); that is, semi-circular, rectangular or bends may have a longitudinal run covering one or more strand spacings, etc. and forming a single or multiple selvage edgeand that such selvage edge'may be on only the narrow or wide bands, or both, of a fabric.
Also, separate strands may be welded to the fabric to form selvage edges and reinforcement as shown and described in my Patent 2,000,788, Figs. 20, 23 and others. It should also be understood that portions of strands that extend in different directions may have different angularity relative to the longitudinal center line of fabric as shown in Fig. 11 of my Patent 2,125,583.
I claim as my invention:
1. A fabric comprising a series of continuous strands disposed on diagonal lines relative to the fabric width and arranged in partially overlapping layers, a second series of diagonally-extending continuous strands arranged in partially overlapping layers, portions of which are disposed between the first-named layers, the secondnamed layers extending only partially across the width of the fabric, and the strands of each series being offset longitudinally of the fabric from adjacent strands of the other series.
2. A fabric comprising a series of continuous strands disposed on diagonal lines relative to the fabric width and arranged in partially overlapping layers, and a second series of diagonallyextending continuous strands arranged in partially overlapping layers, each series of wires extending inwardly from an edge of the fabric, for a distance substantially less than the width of the fabric, and the layers thereof being interlapped at a zone adjacent to the longitudinal center line of the fabric.
3. A fabric comprising a series of strands arranged on diagonal lines relative to the fabric width and in partially overlapping layers, at one edge of the fabric, a second series of similarly arranged wires at the other edge of the fabric, the inner edges of the two series being adjacent to one another, and a third series of similarly arranged wires disposed in a zone adjacent to the longitudinal center line of the fabric, with layers thereof interspersed with layers of both of the other series of wires.
4. A fabric comprising a group of continuous laterally-spaced strands arranged in a plurality of lays or folds on diagonal lines relative to the fabric width, each lay or fold partially overlying a preceding parallel lay or fold of the group, the wires in each of said parallel folds being offset from the wires in the other parallel folds, in directions longitudinally of the fabric, and means for maintaining the wires in assembled relation.
5. A fabric comprising a group of continuous laterally-spaced strands arranged in a plurality of lays or folds on diagonal lines relative to the fabric width, each lay or fold partially overlying a preceding parallel lay or fold of the group, and also partially overlying a preceding non-parallel lay or fold of the group, and means for maintaining the wires in assembled relation.
6. A fabric comprising continuous laterally spaced strands arranged in a plurality of lays or folds on diagonal lines relative to the fabric width, each lay or fold partially overlying two preceding parallel lays or folds, and also partially overlying a preceding non-parallel lay or fold, and means for maintaining the wires in assembled relation.
'7. A fabric comprising continuous laterallyspaced strands placed on diagonal lines relative to the fabric width, and bent backwardly at the edges of the fabric to form layers each of which covers more than one-half of the preceding layer.
8. A fabric comprising a multiple series of continuous, laterally-spaced strands arranged in a plurality of lays or folds, with the strands of one series placed partly between the folds of another series and partly enclosing the strands of such series, whereby the strands of the different series are intermeshed.
9. A fabric comprising a group of continuous laterally-spaced strands arranged in a plurality of lays or folds along diagonal lines (relative to fabric width), each lay partially overlapping one of the preceding parallel lays of the group, the strands of each of said parallel folds being offset from the strands of the other folds in directions longitudinally of the fabric, and the strands laid in one direction crossing some of the strands laid in the other direction, the crossings being united to form a unitary structure.
10. A fabric comprising a group of continuous laterally-spaced strands arranged in a plurality of lays or folds along diagonal lines (relative to fabric width) each lay partially overlapping one of the preceding parallel lays of the group, the strands of each of said parallel folds being offset from the strands of the other folds in directions longitudinally of the fabric, and the strands of consecutive folds crossing some of those of the preceding fold, the strand crossings being united to form a unitary structure.
11. A fabric comprising a series of continuous laterally-spaced strands laid back and forth along diagonal lines relative to fabric width, each layer overlapping more than one-half of the preceding layer, and a second series of similarly laid strands held in overlapped and unitary relation with the first-named series, but with its strands offset with respect to adjacent parallel strands of the other series, in directions longitudinally of the fabric.
12. A fabric comprising a series of continuous laterally-spaced strands laid back and forth along diagonal lines relative to fabric width, each layer overlapping more than one-half of the preceding layer, and a second series of similarly laid strands held in overlapped and unitary relation with the first-named series, but with its strands offset with respect to adjacent parallel strands of the other series, in directions longitudinally of the fabric, one of said series being laid only partially across the width of the fabric.
WILLIAM EDGAR REED.