US 2314102 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 16, 1943, w, POOLE 2,314,102
APPARATUS FOR SCORING AND CUTTING .VENEERS Filed June 20, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 RUSSELL W- FooLE March 16, 1943. R. w. POOLE APPARATUS FOR SCbR ING AND CUTTING VENEERS Filed June 20, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 F W m a m M m Patented Mar. 16, 1943 UNITED STATES ATENT OFFICE APPARATUS FOR SCORING AND CUTTING VENEERS 4 Claims.
This invention relates to the art of manufacturing wood veneer sheets or strip and more particularly to an improved apparatus for scoring and/or cutting the sheets or strip during the process of manufacture thereof. Ihe scored and/or cut veneers have a wide range of utility in various fields as in match and match box manufacture, in basket making, and in furniture production. While the invention has particular applicability in basket making and has in fact been commercially applied to this industry, it should be understood as the description proceeds that the invention is equally applicable to other specific uses.
In the production of the wood veneer sheets or strip it is common practice to employ a lathe which rotatably supports a log and is provided with a knife movable toward the axis of rotation of the log whereby the veneer is peeled from the log as it rotates. To provide the peeled veneer with longitudinally extending lines of cut or score lines which may be essential in the subsequent utilization of the product it has been proposed to incorporate in the lathe apparatus a plurality of cutters or knives which are mounted on the same movable structure as the peeling knife and which are movable along with the peeling knife. These knives or cutters are arranged to impart continuous circumferential incisions in the outer surface of the log before such surface comes in contact with the peeling knife. If the incisions are of sufficient depth, a complete out will be efiected in the peeled veneer but, if-the incision be slight, the material will only be scored.
It has heretofore been difiicult to maintain the desired depth of incision due principally to the decreasing diameter of the log and the wear and resiliency of the mounting of the various knives and cutters employed. This problem presents substantial dificulties when veneers of light gauge are produced. A principal object of the invention is the provision of a simple and inexpensive apparatus for use inconjunction with a veneer lathe and which is operative to effect circumferentially extending incisions of minutely controlled depth in the log being peeled. To this end the apparatus includes provisions for accurately adjusting and maintaining the depth of out of the various incisors and is of a construction enabling the depth of cut to be adjusted while the lathe is in operation.
A further object of the invention is the provision in an apparatus of the kind involved of an improved cutter for making the circumferential incisions in the log which is operative to accomplish its purpose without tearing the fibres of the wood or otherwise damaging the product. It has heretofore been proposed to efiect the circumferential incisions of adjustable depth by employing lathe tools having sharpened ends which engage the log and out the incisions as the log rotates. These tools have a tendency to tear the surface of the log and, as stated above, are difiicult to maintain in proper position to insure a predetermined depth of cut. The present invention seeks to overcome this objectionable aspect by employing freely rotatable rotary knives for making the incisions, which knives are maintained in contact with the log with pressure sufiicient to continually maintain the desired depth of cut. Adjustable means is provided to positively control and limit the depth of penetration of the rotary knives.
A further object of the invention is the provision of an apparatus having the characteristics enumerated above but in which the number of cutting and/ or scoring knives employed and their disposition axially along the log maybe expeditiously and widely varied.
Yet another object of the invention is the provision, in an apparatus having the functions set out above, of an improved arrangement whereby the various cutting knives may be readily retracted either individually or as a group, either while the lathe is in operation or at rest, whereby the operation of the machine and of the manufacturing method generally is substantially facilitated.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from a consideration of the following detailed specification and the accompanying drawings wherein there are specifically disclosed certain preferred embodiments of the invention.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a schematic representation in'plan of a veneer lathe embodying the principles of the invention;
Figure 2 is a front elevation of the apparatus of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a sectional view of the apparatus of Figure 1, the view being taken along the line III-III of Figure 1;
Figure 4 is an enlarged view of the improved cutter and cutter carrying arm of the invention;
Figure 5 is a bottom view of a portion of the arm of Figure 4; and
Figures 6 and '7 are side and bottom views, respectively, of a portion of a modified form of cutter.
In the drawings reference numeral l designates the base of a conventional veneer lathe and in accordance with usual practice the lathe is provided with a pair of axially aligned log supporting and rotating chucks II and l2, one of which, as H, is adapted to be rotatably driven by a motor it through suitable gearing housed in casing id, while the other of the chucks I2 is adjustable along its axis of rotation by suitable mechanism, not shown, for facilitating the insertion and removal of a log between the chucks. In operation, a log is centered between the chucks I I and i2 which are moved toward each other to securely clamp and retain the log between them and rotation of the chuck II will impart rotation to the log, designated by reference numeral I5. Inasmuch as the construction and features of the veneer lathe per se form no part of the present invention, the construction of the lathe is shown but schematically.
A carriage I6 is slidably mounted in the horizontal guides H and is adapted to be moved towards and away from the axis of rotation of the log by a pair of screws l3.
Each of the screws I8 has keyed thereon a worm wheel [9 meshing with a worm gear 20 keyed on a drive shaft 2! which may be suitably driven by the gear box M.
Carriage I6 supports a knife 22, the cutting edge of which extends parallel with the axis of rotation of the log l5, and when the parts are in position, as shown in Figure 3, rotation of the log in the direction indicated will result in a strip of veneer 23 being peeled from the periphery of the log E5. The thickness of the veneer 23 will be determined by the rate of inward movement of the carriage I5 and knife 22 as compared with the speed of rotation of the log l5. This in turn is controlled by the speed ratio between the shaft 2| and the driven chuck l! and, if desired, a suitable variable speed mechanism may be incorporated in the drive for shaft 2| to control the thickness of the veneer.
In the preferred and illustrated embodiment of the invention a rod 25 is supported and carried by the carriage l 6 on the brackets 26 extending upwardly from the main body of the carriage and this rod is a considerable distance above and parallel with the cutting edge of the peeling knife 22. Rod 25 is adapted to pivotally support a plurality of cutting or scoring assemblies 2?, now to be specifically described.
Referring more particularly to Figures 4 and 5 of the drawings, each of the assemblies 2'. consists of an arm 23 having an enlarged one end provided with a bore 29 to receive the rod 25. The other end of the arm 28 is provided with an Lip-standing pin 39 which is suitably connected at its lower end with the arm and which is provided at its upper end with a hook or eye 3|. Pin 38 is adapted to retain a weight 32 which may be made adjustable by building it up of a plurality of sections, any number of which may be used. Arm 28 is provided with a vertically extending slot 33 to accommodate a circular knife or cutter 34 which is rotatably carried on a shaft 35 received in a horizontal bore extending through the arm. The outer portion of the wheel 34 is tapered to a thin edge, as shown in Figure 5, which outer peripheral edge is the cutting edge of the tool. Arm 28 is provided adjacent its weighted end with a second slot or an upwardly extending recess to receive an upwardly extending lug 35 of the slice 33. The latter is provided with a smooth curved lower surface, as
shown in Figure 4, and is provided with a forked end, as shown in Figure 5, with the bifurcations thereof on opposite sides of the circular knife 34. Shoe 3'5 is carried by the lug which is pivotally mounted in the second mentioned slot or recess by means of the pivot pin 31. This arrangement provides limited pivotal movement for the shoe 36. Shoe 36 is engaged on one side of the pivot 3! by the lower end of a screw 38 which is screwthreadedly received in a, threaded bore extending vertically through arm 28 and it should be apparent that as screw 38 is screwed down, shoe 35 will be moved counter-clockwise, as viewed in Figure of the drawings, thereby decreasing the projection of the circular knife 34 below the lower surface of the shoe 36. A look nut 39 is provided to hold the screw 38 in final adjusted position. Interposed between the shoe 36 and the arm 28 and on the opposite side of the pivot 31 from the set screw 38 is a spring 40 which maintains the shoe St in tight engagement with the lower end of the screw 38.
One or more of the arms 23 are mounted on the rod 25, as shown in Figures 1 and 3, and it should be understood that this is accomplished by withdrawing rod 25 and slipping the bored ends of the arms 23 over the free end of the retracted rod. To maintain the arms 28 in proper selected positions a collar ll is provided on either side of each of the arms. Collars 6| may be provided with suitable set screws, not shown, to securely clamp them onto the rod. The parts are so assembled that the arms 28 are free to pivot about the rod 25. Any number of the cutter arms 28 may be assembled on the rod 25 and their disposition along the rod may be varied as desired.
As shown in Figure 3, the cutting edge of the peeler knife 22 is slightly below the horizontal plane passing through the axis of rotation of the log 15 and the vertical interval between the cutting edge of the knife 22 and the center of the rod 25 is preferably such that when the log being peeled has been diminished to approximately half of its total diminishment, arm 28 will be substantially horizontal. For example, if the log is to be reduced from a diameter of sixteen inches to a diameter of six inches during the peeling operation, the arm will be substantially horizontal when the diameter of the log is eleven inches. The interval between the centers of the bore 29 and the wheel 34 is preferably such that the tangent of the outer periphery of the log at the point of contact of the wheel 34 is substantially coincident with the lower surface of the shoe 36 at all times. This, together with a very slight conxevity given to the shoe 36 in that portion which is adjacent to the wheel 34, will result in an accurate control of the depth of penetration of the wheel 34 throughout the entire peeling operation. It should be apparent that in practice the circular knife 34 is forced into the wood by the weight 32 while the extent of penetration is limited by the shoe 36 which rides on the outer surface of the log. The weight 32 is of sufficient force to insure the continuous and uninterrupted penetration of the circular knife 34 to any desired extent and under all operating conditions.
Referring to Figure 2 of the drawings a bar 43 having a plurality of downwardly extending hooks or other suitable connecting means 44 is provided to simultaneously retract all of the cutters when it is desired to do so, as when a new log is to be inserted in the machine. The connecting means 44 are detachably connected with the up per ends of each of the weight retaining pins 30 and any suitable means, as the rope 45, may be employed to raise and lower the bar. For this purpose the rope may be draped over one or more pulleys 46 and a hand grip 4'! provided at the depending free end of the rope.
In operation the log to be peeled is positioned in the machine in the manner described above and the knife 22 brought into engagement with the outer periphery of the log whereby further rotation of the latter and continued inward movement of the knife will result in the veneer being peeled off the log. The rotary cutters 34, being in pressure engagement with the outer periphery of the log by reason of the application of the force exerted by the Weights 32, will effect circumferential incisions in the outer surface of the log and as the outer surface is peeled the resultant product will be either scored or fully cut through, depending on the adjusted depth of penetration of the knives 34. Since the arms 28 may be rotated about rod the extent of projection of the knives 34 beyond the outer surface of the shoe 36 may be accurately adjusted before the peeling operation is begun. A suitable gauge may be employed for this purpose, if desired. The adjustment is accomplished on each assembly by rotating screw 38. It should also be apparent that if it be found during the peeling operation that the scoring or cutting is insufficient or more than sufiicient the condition may be corrected by manipulation of the screws 38 even While the machine is in operation.
It should also be apparent that the cutting assemblies may be individually withdrawn from and placed into engagement with the log during the operation of the machine if the need of such change in the set up of the machine is required. By reason of the rotary action of the knives 34 the scoring of the log is accomplished without tearing the fibres of the wood and consequently the lines of out or scoring are very clean and sharply defined. The rotary knives cut the fibres cleanly without substantially altering their relative positions.
Figures 6 and 7 illustrate a slightly modified form of cutter in which the circular knife, designated by reference numeral 50, is positioned between two grooved rollers 5|, the axes of which are fixed. The arm designated by reference numeral 28l, supporting the knife and the rolls 5|, corresponds in general to the arm 28 but is modified to enable the knife and rollers to be positioned in a recess of slot in the arm. The axis of rotation of the Wheel 50 is adapted to be adjusted vertically with respect to the axes of the rollers 5| and for this purpose the shaft carrying the cutting wheel 50 may be journ-aled in a block 52 which is vertically slidable in windows in the side walls of the arm and held in adjusted position by the screws 53. Adjustment of the screws 53 vary the depth of penetration of the knife 50 since the peripheral surfaces of the roller 5| ride on the outer peripheral surface of the log being peeled.
It should now be apparent that I have provided an improved apparatus which accomplishes the objects initially set out. The invention provides a flexible arrangement whereby either cutting or scoring incisions may be made in the log and this may be accomplished without tearing the fibres of the wood or otherwise damaging V the veneer. As a cutting edge of substantial length (the circumference of the circular knife) is provided, adjustment to compensate for wear need be less frequent and the maintenance of the equipment is simplified. The depth of the incisions and consequently the depth of the scorings in the produced veneer may be accurately controlled and maintained and the veneer may be cut with a sharply defined edge. The cutters may readily be individually adjusted or retracted from the log altogether While the latter is in operation and all the cutters may be simultaneously withdrawn to facilitate the insertion of a new log in the latter. Thus substantial economies may be effected in the operation of the apparatus.
The above specifically described embodiments of the invention should be considered as illustrative only as obviously many changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. Reference should therefore be had to the appended claims in determining the scope of the invention.
What I claim is:
1. In a veneer lathe, the combination with means for rotating a cylindrical log, a carriage, a peeling knife on said carriage, and means for moving said carriage toward the axis of rotation of said log, of a scoring tool comprising a member rotatably mounting a circular knife adapted to be maintained in contact with the outer periphery of said log and to effect a circumferentially extending incision in said log, means to apply pressure to said member whereby said circular knife will be maintained in pressure contact with said log, a shoe carried by said member and having a portion adjacent said circular knife whereby said knife may project beyond the adjacent outer surface of said shoe, and means to adjust the position of said shoe relative to said circular knife whereby the extent of said projection may be varied.
2. A scoring and/or cutting tool for a veneer lathe comprising in combination an arm adapted to overlie the log being peeled, means at one end of said arm to pivotally mount the same, an adjustable weight mounted on the other end of said arm, a vertical slot in said arm intermediate the ends thereof, a circular knife journaled in said slot and projecting below the lower surface of said arm, a shoe carried by the said arm and having a portion adjacent the projecting portion of said knife, and means to adjust the position of said shoe relative to said knife whereby the extent of projection of said knife below the lower adjacent surface of said shoe may be varied.
3. Apparatus according to claim 2 further characterized in that said shoe is pivotally mounted on said arm and said adjusting means comprises a screw screw-threadedly received in a bore through said arm, said screw having its end engaging a portion of said shoe.
4. In combination with a veneer lathe having means to rotate a log and a peeling knife adapted to be moved toward the axis of rotation of said log, of a rod extending substantially parallel with said axis but spaced substantially outwardly therefrom, an arm pivotally mounted on said rod and overlying said log, means to secure said arm in selected position longitudinally along said rod, a rotary knife journaled on said arm, a weight on said arm adapted to maintain said rotary knife in pressure engagement with said log, a shoe carried by said arm to engage said log to limit the depth of penetration of said knife, and means to adjust the position of said shoe whereby said depth may be varied.
RUSSELL W. POOLE.