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Publication numberUS2314604 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 23, 1943
Filing dateApr 25, 1939
Priority dateSep 3, 1938
Also published asDE758779C, US2412698
Publication numberUS 2314604 A, US 2314604A, US-A-2314604, US2314604 A, US2314604A
InventorsHorst Henderik Van Der
Original AssigneeHorst Corp Of America V D
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of producing chromium wearing surfaces
US 2314604 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

- ishing closely to size.

Patented Mar. 23, 1943 Mrrmoo F raonoomo CHROMIUM WEARING SURFACES Henderik Van der Horst, Hilversum, Netherlands, assignor, by mesne assignments, to Van der Horst. Corporation of America, a corporation of Delaware No Drawing; Appli'cationlApr'il 25, 1939, Serial This invention relates to chromium surface layers on wearing surfaces, 1. e., surfaces subject to friction, and especially cylinder bores;

279,018,1In Great Britain February 21, V '{1'r iaim (cram-2s) mium is removed from the surface, and the surface of the chromium after treatment is covered It is known that by providing a surface layer I of chromium on the cylinder bores of engines,

pumps, air compressors and the like the rate of wear of the bore can be very greatlyreduced as the chromium layer is extremely hard and is also highly resistant to corrosion.

The chromium layer can be deposited electrolytically on the cylinder bore, and owing to the hardness of the chromium it is desirable that the deposited chromium should be of such a form and thickness that a minimum of mechani- ,with small grooves, pits or depressions which.

under examination with a low-powered microscope have the appearance of cracks in the surface. After a longer treatment with the reversed current the grooved or lined appearance may disappear, the surface being well pitted however.

The appearance of the surface and-the effective area of the grooves, pits or depressions relative to the total area of the surface depend to a certain extent on the length of the treatment with reversed current and the current density cal finishing of the surface is required. It is also desirable that the finished surface ofthe chm-- mium should not be too smooth as a highly pol-, f

ished chromium surface is liable to pick up under working conditions, that is, to be torn away from a the surface of the cylinderbore'.

provided with a layer orcoating of chromium in the surface of which are formed numerous small grooves, pits or depressions. Under working, con- I ditions oil is retained in these and there is no tendency for the chromium to pick up. Further, such a finely irregular chromium surface permits the piston rings to grind the chromium layer sufficiently to form a close fit between therings preferably a chromic acid solution as used in the and cylinder early in their life, despite the extreme hardness of chromium as a metal, and

also permits the face of a chromium layer to be, i

worked reasonably readily, for example for fin- 1 It is not to be understood however that 'the chromium must be pitted or perforated to the underlying metal (e. g. cast-iron).- Preferably at least the chromium layer is aifected only part way through, the layer as a whole being impervious.

In a preferred method of forming these grooves, pits or depressions a layer of chromiumof the desired thickness or of slightly more than the required thickness is deposited electrolytiduce friction.

employed, and afterv a prolonged treatment the surface may have the appearance of' an open grain cast'iron.

The treatment of the chromium with reversed :current, i. e. with current flowing insuch a direction that the chromium serves as an anode,

may be carried out in the samebath as the depo- According to my invention a. cylinderbore is sition of the chromium but preferably it is ,car-

ried out in a separate bath to avoid spoiling the solution. The solution in the second'bath is first bath, but various other acid or alkaline solutions such as a 20 caustic soda solution may be employed.

Experiments have shown that a suitable surface can be obtained by treating a smooth chromium deposit with a reversed current of from 150 to 450 ampere-minutes per square fdecimetre.

In addition to their function ofretaining oil the grooves, pits or depressions in the surface of the chromium reduce, the effective area of the surface which is in contact with'a piston or other member working in the cylinder bore and sore- Further, the reduction in the effective surface area facilitates any honing or grinding of the surface which may be subsequently carried out to bring it exactly to size as there is less chromium to remove.

cally on the cylinder bore by the process de- 5 chromium of such thickness that the internal scribed in Patent No. 2,048,578 employing an aqueous chromic acid bath or solution as described therein and an anode of circular crosssection and of a diameter only slightly less than that of the cylinder bore; it is not essential howtreatment is that a certain amount of the chro- As a certain amount of chromium is removed when the surface is treated with a reversed cure a rent it is desirable in depositing the chromium v initially on a cylinder bore to deposit a layer of inder, cylinder block or liner of cast-iron or other metal suitable for the foundation and having a bore somewhat oversize, and plate it with chromium electrolytically until its diameter is less than the diameter desired when finished, for

example say about one thousandth of an inch less; then I apply the reversed current treatment until the surface of the chromium is well pitted or porous; and then I hone the treated surface to the size desired, usually using first a rough bone and then a finer one to finish.

To avoid excessive removal of chromium from the deposited layer at the ends of the cylinder bore when the current is reversed, cylindrical extensions having the same diameter as the cylinder bore may be temporarily secured to the ends of the cylinder block or liner in alignment with the bore.

If desired the surface of the chromium layer after deposition maybe lightly honed to remove any projections or high spots before the chromium is treated with the reversed current.

A chromium surface in accordance with my invention is particularly adapted for use in the cylinders of engines having aluminium pistons and can be applied to cylinder blocks, barrels or liners of cast-iron, steel or any other metal on which chromium can be deposited electrolytically, and it can also be applied to other cylin- I drical bores.

pumps, compressors and the like, it can be applied to other chromium plated members tending to wear by frictional contact, where the retention of lubricating oil between the contacting members is desirable, or Where the applied chromium is liabl to be picked up, etc.

' I claim:

1. The process of producing grooves, pits or depressions in an electrodeposited chromium wearing surface of a wearing member, which consists in passing current through the surface of the electrodeposited chromium for a short time, in an electrolytic bath adapted to remove chromium from such surface and in such a di rection that the chromium at such surface is an anode, until at least about 150 ampere-minutes of electricity per square decimeter. of the surface, but less than sufficient to completely remove the chromium,. has passed through such surface, there being taken thereafter no electrolytic action closing with metal the grooves, pits or depressions produced by the action of said current. I

2. The process of producing on the wearing face of a member subject to wear a layer of chromium in the surfac of which are grooves, pits or depressions, which consists in electrolytically depositing a layer of chromium on said face, and

after said layer has been completely deposited,

passing current through said layer for a-short time, in an electrolytic bath adapted to remove chromium from the surface of the layer and in such a direction that the surface of said layer is an anode, until between about 150 ampereminutes-and about 450 ampere-minutes of electricity per square decimeter of the chromium surface, has passed through the chromium sur face, to remove electrolytically a part of the deposited chromium.

3.. The process of producing on a wearing member a wearing face of chromium in the surface of which are grooves, pits or depressions, which consists in electrolytically depositing a layer of chromium on said member, and after said layer has'been completely deposited, passing current through said layer for a short time, in an aqueous electrolytic bat-h adapted to remove chromium from the surface of the layer and in ill such a direction that the surface of the layer is an anode, until at least about -ampere-minutes of electricity per square decimeter of the surface, but less than sufficient to completely remove the chromium, has passed through such surface, and thereafter removing mechanically a portion of the surface containing the grooves, pits or depressions which result from the action of said current.

4. In the manufacture of bores, the steps in the method which consist in taking a bore of a foundation metal having a diameter greater than the desired finished diameter, electroplating the same with chromium to a thickness such that the diameter of the bore is substantially equal to or is less than the desired finished diameter, and thereafter passing current through the chromium for a short time, in an aqueous solution of an electrolyte adapted to remove chromium from the surface and in such a direction that the exposed surface of the chromium is an anode, until at least about 150 ampere-mix .utes of electricity per square decimeter of the surface of the chromium has passed through the chromium, to remove electrolytically a part of the deposited chromium and produce therein grooves, pits or depressions.

5. In the manufacture of bores, the steps in the method which consist in taking a bore'of a foundation metal having a diameter greater than the desired finished diameter, electroplating the same with chromium to a thickness such that the diameter of the bore is less than the desired finished diameter, thereafter passing current through .the chromium for' a short time, in an electrolytic bath adapted to remove chromium from the electroplate and in such a direction that the chromium is an anode, and until at least about 150 ampere-minutes of electricity per square decimeter of the surface of the chromium has passed through the chromium, to produce grooves, pits or depressions in the chromium, and thereafter treating the bore by an operation similar to honing to enlarge the bore to the desired finished diameter.

6. The subject matter of claim 1, characterized by the fact that the electrolytic bath is an aqueous solution of chromic acid.

'7. The subject matter of claim 1, characterized, by the fact that the electrolytic bath'is an aqueous solution of caustic soda.

8. A process for producing on the surface of the bore of a cylinder a layer of chromium in the I surface of which are grooves, pits or depressions,

consisting in electrolytically depositing a layer of chromium on the bore and then treating the bore for a short time, in an electrolyte adapted to remove chromium from the layer, with a current insuch a direction that the chromium layer is an anode until from about 150 to about 450 ampere-minutes of electricity per square decimeter of the surface of the layer has passed in said direction.

9. A process as claimed in claim 8 in which the treatment with the chromium layer acting as an anode, is carried out in an aqueous chromic acid solution separate from the bath in which the chromium is deposited.

10. A process as claimed inclaim 8 in which the treatment with the chromium layer acting as an anode, is carried out in an aqueous alkaline solution separate from the bath in which the chromium is deposited.

11. A process for producing on the bore of a cylinder a layer of chromium in the surface of current in such a direction that the chromium layer is an anode until at least 150 ampere-min-' utes of electricity per square decimeter oi the surface of the layer has passed through said surface but for less than suflicient time to completely remove the chromium layer,.--to produce in the chromium layer the aforesaid grooves, pits or depressions.

HENDEBIK VAN nun HORST.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2430750 *Jul 18, 1944Nov 11, 1947United Chromium IncMethod of electroplating to produce fissure network chromium plating
US2433457 *Apr 29, 1944Dec 30, 1947Koppers Co IncChrome plated wear resisting surface
US2450296 *Aug 25, 1944Sep 28, 1948United Chromium IncMethod of producing articles having fissured chromium surface electrodeposits
US2498982 *Apr 7, 1947Feb 28, 1950Arthur Percy WarrenAbrasive type cutting element and the manufacture thereof
US2534406 *Sep 22, 1944Dec 19, 1950Jr Harry M BramberryCoated metal article and method of making the same
US2564109 *Jul 22, 1946Aug 14, 1951Hartford Nat Bank & Trust CoLubrication of the cylinders of piston engines
US2575394 *Dec 27, 1944Nov 20, 1951Union Carbide & Carbon CorpReciprocating piston and cylinder mechanism
US2620296 *Jul 14, 1947Dec 2, 1952Monochrome LtdMethod of electrolytically coating and etching bearing surfaces
US2674782 *Jun 20, 1951Apr 13, 1954Surtees Robert EMethod of making oil retainer sleeves
US2947674 *Dec 19, 1957Aug 2, 1960Metal Finishers IncMethod of preparing porous chromium wearing surfaces
US2999798 *Dec 9, 1955Sep 12, 1961Daimler Benz AgMethod of producing a wear-resisting surface on a metal element
US3063763 *Dec 2, 1958Nov 13, 1962Chromium Corp Of AmericaChromium bearing surface
US3123412 *Sep 26, 1961Mar 3, 1964NipTsutomu takao
US3200057 *Dec 27, 1960Aug 10, 1965Ford Motor CoElectrophoretic coating process
US3200058 *Aug 23, 1961Aug 10, 1965Ford Motor CoCyclical current reversal for an electrophoretic deposition
US3657078 *Jul 30, 1969Apr 18, 1972Chromium Corp Of AmericaMethod of producing cylinder liners with different degrees of roughness in high and low pressure areas
US3871799 *Oct 5, 1973Mar 18, 1975IttRotary-piston motor with improved cylinder chamber moving seals
US3890209 *Jun 1, 1973Jun 17, 1975Toyo Kogyo CoAbrasion resistant mechanical member with composite nickel-plating layer having meshlike porous portion and a method for manufacture thereof
US3932228 *Oct 29, 1974Jan 13, 1976Suzuki Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaMetal material for sliding surfaces
US3945893 *Dec 27, 1973Mar 23, 1976Suzuki Motor Company LimitedProcess for forming low-abrasion surface layers on metal objects
US3962834 *Sep 16, 1974Jun 15, 1976Van Der Horst Corporation Of AmericaMethod of producing a pitted, porous electrodeposited chromium coating
US4056339 *Oct 15, 1976Nov 1, 1977Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.Rotary piston type internal combustion engines
US4063644 *Oct 12, 1976Dec 20, 1977Grumman Aerospace CorporationProcess for nondestructive inspection
US4706417 *Mar 10, 1987Nov 17, 1987Chromium CorporationFinish for cylinder liners
US4862864 *Oct 20, 1987Sep 5, 1989Chromium CorporationFinish for cylinder liners
US5085745 *Nov 7, 1990Feb 4, 1992Liquid Carbonic CorporationMethod for treating carbon steel cylinder
DE880241C *Jun 15, 1949Jun 18, 1953Alois Dr-Ing GabrielKolbenring aus Grauguss mit metallischem Laufflaechenueberzug
WO2006087585A1 *Feb 1, 2006Aug 24, 2006Accentus PlcUltrasonic treatment plant
Classifications
U.S. Classification205/220, 205/283, 205/674, 29/898.14, 277/444, 29/898.12, 205/681, 138/145, 29/DIG.120
International ClassificationC25D7/04, C25D5/48, C25F3/08, F02B77/02, F02F1/20
Cooperative ClassificationC25F3/08, C25D7/04, Y10S29/012, F05C2201/0406, C25D5/48, F02B77/02, F02F1/20, Y10S417/01, Y10S428/934
European ClassificationF02B77/02, F02F1/20, C25D5/48, C25D7/04, C25F3/08