US 2315396 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 30, 1943. E A D -j- 2,315,396
EASEL-TYPE BOOK AND METHOD Filed July 27, 1942 %/@7z W Via/20%)? Patented Mar. 30, 1943 UN ETED STATES PAT OFFICE EASEL-TYPE BOOK AND METHOD Earl M. Bucklandi: and Gordon .L; Juttner, Chicage, and John ML Marchok, Elmwood Park, Ill.,, assignors to RockwellrBarnes Company, Chicago, 111;, a corporation of Illinois Application July 2'7, 1942, Serial No. 452,434
8 Claims. (01'. 281-33) Our invention is concerned with astand-up oreasel-type book whose leaves are preferably blank to receive thereon writing, notes, or other data. After application of inscriptions, the book may be advantageously upstood upon a table or desk with the free edges of the covers rested thereupon. In this position the covers are spread apart angularly a relatively short distance with the bound leaves suspended from the book back which is disposed at the top.
The present improvements, applicable to a book of the kind described, have to do in large part with the construction therefor of a flexible back to which are bound the covers and" intervening leaves, each secured along one edge only, and with the construction of the covers and leaves themselves by which to facilitate angular bends crosswise thereof at points relatively' close to the book back. These various features of construction conduce to a firm and secure binding of the covers and leaves to theback, toan easy manipulation of the book, whereby one cover may swing through an arc of nearly 360 relative to the other, to a ready't-ransvers'e yielding of the back which is sufiici'entlyfiexible" to execute a bend upon itself, to" the compact disposition of the leaves; when depending from the back, in such a way as to lie relativelyflat upon the proximate cover whereon it is sup ported, etc. These various objects and advantages, as well as others which will hereinafter appear, are set forth in the ensuing description-,- wherein reference is made to a suggestive embodiment of our invention in the manner following:
Figure l is a perspective view of the book, back uppermost, with its covers in closed position;
Fig. 2'which is a similar view, shows one cover; designated for convenience as the" rear, in a horizontal position, the other or front cover hav ing been swung through an arc of 180 about a pre-formed bend line which is relatively close to, but spaced from, the book back to which the cover is bound;
Fig; 3 shows the front cover swung through nearly 360 to a rear position in which it co.- operates with the rear cover at the front in providing an easel support for the book, whose back is then in an uppermost or top position;
Fig. 4 which is a View similar to Fig. 3; shows the first few of the exposed leaves swung around t'olie against thefront cover at therear;
Fig. 5" which is a view similar t'o-Fig: 4, shows a half or moreofthe exposed leavesswung through their operating range, some of the leaves lying adjacent one cover and: the balance adjacentthe' other cover;
Fig. 6 is a detail in section'al'perspective' show.- ing the makeup of th'e book back and of the leaves and covers associated: therewith;
Figs. 7-11, which are fragmentary details in section taken adjacent thebook back, illustrate the condition thereof duringsuccessive stages in its production; and
Figs; 12 and-l3 are enlargedfragment'ary dc tails in elevation showingthe flexible back in two=nearlyextreme curled positions, the former as when only a few of" the leaves have been turned and th'ela'tter as-when most of the leaves have-been turned, to*' lierearwardly of the user.
The-book herein sl io'wn comprises a front cover F; a rear cover R,- and aL-backB- towhich b'oth covers, along oneedge of each, are bound' -in spacedrelation to eachother; The covers may be mad'e'of any suitable paper board, relatively stiffflsothat when the book isupstood in easel fashion the two covers; together with the connecting back, will provide an' adequate support for a stackof depending leaves L which are accommodated between the covers with each-leaf secured alon'g one-edge to' theback' of the book;
It is an essentialfeature of this invention that the back be relatively flexible to the extent at least that it may" at "any point hen'da-rcuately through ashort radius to complete; if need'be, contact with itselfl As an exampleof such a back I. have shown in Figs. 6 13 a construction in which the" stacked leaves between their enclos illg' covers, all in register alone" the" edge that is to be bound (see-Fig: 7); may betreated" first to water or moisture toreduce the sizing in thepaper; then receive-a light coat g* of glue" (see Fig. 8)' which spreads as a' thin' layer over the registered edges ortheleaves and covers,v and possibly veryslightly therebetwe'en, Q then" receive over' the thin layer of glue a strip 3 of super (a wellknown loosely-woven fabric), then receive over thesuper a heavy layer Gof, glue' which is free to enter through the interstices of the super to unite with the under" layer ofglue 9;. andthen receive overtheouter gluelayer aquantity'of'small short fibers f, desirably of rayon, known" commercially as flocks-z The back so formed is characterized by two layers of integrally joined flexible glue with anintervening strip of super, the under layer of'ggluemaking contact with; one edge'of' eachdeaf and cover to'bindthe sam'e'secu rely" in assembled relation, and the outer layer of glue-being'finishecl upon; its-expose i face with a spread of relatively soft fibers which provide an attractive appearance and durable protection for the book back.
Initially the two covers may lie flat, as indicated in Fig. 1, but each is desirably pro-formed with a bend line b, as by scoring, which extends across the cover parallel with the back and at a distance therefrom which is approximately the same as, or slightly more than, the width of the back. In addition, each leaf may also desirably be preformed with a scored or perforated line p extending crosswise thereof parallel to the back and at a distance which is relatively close thereto. The purpose of the bend line in each cover is to facilitate an initial bend of one cover (the front cover as shown in Figs. 2-5), whereby it may be bent through 180 to lie upon itself. After executing this bend, the cover panel between the bend line and the back may then be bent through.
substantially 270 to lie fiat against the back (see Fig. 3), permitting the balance of the front cover to extend downwardly and in cooperation with the rear cover to form an easel support for the book in its entirety. The bottom edges of the two covers, when the book is upstood as shown, are desirably treated with some antifriction material to resist slipping of the covers, whereby to avoid collapse of the book.
In the position of Fig. 3, the face of the first leaf is exposed. The remaining leaves may be exposed by lifting each leaf in turn and swingin it upwardly and rearwardly to receive support against the other leaves already resting against the front cover. Inasmuch as there is a certain resistance to bending inherent in most papers which are suitable for book use, and the adherent binding of each leaf along One edge with the flexible back tends to sustain each leaf, at its point of bending, in a position normal to the back, the leaves incline to bow outwardly adjacent their upper edges. This holds true, regardless of which cover furnishes support to the leaves. To minimize this bowing tendency, the leaves may be weakened for easier bending by a perforated or scored line adjacent the bound edge of each, whereby to facilitate a short radius bend (see Figs. 4 and 5) which. will conduce to a flat-wise resting of one leaf against another, with little or no space intervening therebetween.
When the first few leaves are exposed, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, the back, although flexible, will remain relatively fiat except along its edge which is proximate to the reader. Here the back is subjected to a strain, increasing as additional leaves are turned, tending (1) to pull up the front edge of the back and bend it around rearwardly, thereby starting a curl at that point, and (2) to force the panel at from a relatively horizontal position to one which is more nearly in line with the slanting cover of which it is a part. Continued turning of the leaves will produce an increased curl of the back until it is in contact with itself .(see Fig. 12). When more than half the leaves have been turned, the back while still maintaining contact with itself will shift its curl toward the opposite edge (see Fig. 13). In other words, the back curl, starting along the back edge which is proximate to the reader will progressively move, like a wave, to the opposite edge thereof as more and more leaves are turned. When the last leaf has been exposed, then the book may be reversed, and the procedure started all over again with the rear cover being bent along the line b to form the panel a: which is then bent back to overlie the back while still in a relatively fiat condition. In this way, all leaves of the book may be successfully exposed, first one side thereof and then, upon reversal, the other side as well.
The connection of each leaf to the back is confined substantially to the bound edge. This is important because it facilitates deflection of the leaves, if needed, from a plane which is normal to the back. While the securement of the leaves is firm, so that accidental detachment thereof from the back is effectually prevented, it is possible nevertheless, in response to a properly directed pulling force, to remove any selected leaf from the book. In doing this, a clean separation takes place, because there is little or no direct interconnection between the leaves themselves.
The glue to be used may, if desired, have an animal base and also, if needed, may be given a flexibilizing treatment so that it will remain stable at all times. Desirably the glue should be water-soluble for better adhesion to the relatively smooth paper base afforded by the edges of the covers and intervening leaves all in register. The preliminary moisture treatment given to the paper base conditions it better for adherent association with the glue back that is applied thereover and which is desirably built up in the manner hereinbefore described. The short fibers which are spread over the back while the glue is still in a fluid condition may be blown or otherwise driven to position and. when so placed will penetrate through the glue and super to make contact with the paper base. This is advantageous because the fibers are anchored securely in place and afford a multitude of reinforcements extending transversely through the back whereby to assure maintenance of its integral character without impairing its capacity for flexation.
1. An easel-type notebook comprising a back, a pair of relatively stiff covers flexibly connected along opposite edges of the back, each cover being adapted seriatim to swing through 270 to lie across the back, a hinge line across each cover disposed beyond the back edge to which it is flexibly connected to facilitate angular bending of the covers whereby the cover that is swung through 270 may bend along the hinge line into acute angular relationship with the other cover, the two covers when so slanted being adapted to upstand in easel fashion from a horizontal surface whereon their free edges are rested, and a plurality of leaves each having one edge immovably but flexibly connected to the back, for suspension therefrom while resting against one of the covers.
2. An easel-type notebook comprising a back, a pair of relatively stiff covers flexibly connected for swinging movement of 270 along opposite edges of the back, hinge lines across the covers, parallel with the back edges, permitting each cover after swinging through 270 to execute an angular bend downwardly such that it forms with the other cover an acute angle, the two covers when so slanted being adapted to upstand in easel fashion from a horizontal surface whereon their free edges are rested, and a plurality of leaves each having one edge immovably but flexibly connected to the back for suspension therefrom While resting against one of the covers.
3. An easel-type notebook comprising 2. flexible back, a pair of relatively stiff covers flexibly connected for swinging movement of 270 along opposite edges of the back, hinge lines across the covers, parallel with the back edges, permitting each cover after swinging through 270 .to execute an angular bend downwardly such that it forms with the other cover an acute angle, the two covers when so slanted being adapted to upstand in easel fashion from a horizontal surface whereon their free edges are rested, a plurality of leaves each having one edge immovably but flexibly connected to the flexible back for suspension therefrom while resting against one of the covers, and a hinge line across each leaf relatively close to its bound edge to facilitate bending of the leaves for compact disposition thereof as required when the back is bent out of a flat plane.
4. An easel-type notebook comprising leaves and a pair of enclosing covers all having one edge in register, and a flexible back providing a binding for the leaves and covers, the back comprising a thin layer of flexible glue adherently applied only to the registered edges of the leaves and covers, a strip of super applied over the thin glue layer, a heavy layer of flexible glue applied over the super strip and extending through the interstices thereof to unite with the thin glue layer therebeneath, and a spread of short flexible fibers applied over the outer glue layer and extending through the entire back whereby to afford a multitude of flexible transverse reinforcements therefor.
5. The method of forming a flexible back for a book of paper leaves having their to-be-bound edges in register to provide a relatively smooth base, which comprises application to the paper base of moisture for reduction of the sizing con tent thereof, then applying to the base so treated successive layers of flexible glue, super, glue and fibers, the latter in the form of a spread over the exposed surface of the outer glue layer, and so disposed thereon as to extend through the back to provide transverse reinforcements therefor.
6. The method of forming a flexible back for a book of paper leaves having their to-be-bound edges in register to provide a relatively smooth base, which comprises application to the paper base of moisture for reduction of the sizing content thereof, then applying to the base so treated glue in adhesive contact with all the leaves to provide an edge binding therefor, and applying thereover a spread of fibers so disposed thereon as to extend through the back to provide transverse reinforcements therefor.
7. An easel-type notebook comprising a plurality of stacked leaves, and a flexible closed back to which the leaves are flexibly bound along points confined substantially to one edge of each, a pair of relatively stiff covers flexibly connected to the back for swinging movement through 270, hinge lines across the covers, parallel with the back, permiting each cover, in addition to its swinging movement, to execute an angular bend such that it forms with the other cover an acute angle, the back having a flexing capacity such that it may develop a shiftable curve through a short radius to permit either cover to touch the outer back face when the book is opened up to easel position, the covers being adapted to serve as easel supports, with the leaves suspended from the back, when the cover free edges are rested upon a horizontal surface.
8. An easel-type notebook comprising a plurality of stacked leaves, a flexible closed back to which the leaves are flexibly bound along points confined substantially to one edge of each, and a pair of spaced leaf-enclosing covers flexibly bound to the back for swinging movement through 270 and each cover having a hinge line parallel with its axis of swinging movement to permit the cover to execute, in addition to such swinging movement, an angular bend to form with the other cover an acute angle, the back having a flexing capacity such that it may develop a shiftable curve through a short radius to permit either cover to touch the outer back face when the book is opened up to easel position, the covers being adapted to serve as easel supports, with the leaves suspended from the back, when the cover free edges are rested upon a horizontal surface.
EARL M. BUCKLAND. GORDON J. JUTTNER. JOHN M. MARCI-IOK.