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Publication numberUS2317595 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 27, 1943
Filing dateAug 1, 1941
Priority dateAug 1, 1941
Publication numberUS 2317595 A, US 2317595A, US-A-2317595, US2317595 A, US2317595A
InventorsHarold P Faris
Original AssigneeNat Automotive Fibres Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Carpet
US 2317595 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

lCARPET Filed Aug. 1, 1941 I vINVEI'VTOR. HAROLD P. FARls BY www, ,uw

q' 6M ANRNEYS Patented Apr. 27, 1943 vf 2,317,595 naar Harold P. Faris, Philadelphia, Pa., assigner to Na tional Automotive Fibres, lino., Detroit, Milch., a

corporation of Delaware Application August l, lilil, Serial No. @155,106

(Cl. e-m2) 6 Claims.

granted January 16,1940, the pile surface of the carpet is composed of a multiplicity of individual upstanding bers of a length sufficient to simulate ordinary woven pile in appearance and to have substantial wearing properties.

In the patent referred to, a disclosure was made of the use of relatively stiff bers, such as goat hair, with the statement that such bers were found better suited to the product than fibers of spun yarn, wool, rayon, cotton or the like. In the patent the statement was made that if desired mixtures of these soft fibers could be employed with relatively stiif bers, such as goat hair.

I have now found that greatly improved results are obtained when the pile surface of the carpet is composed of a mixture of relatively long, relatively soft fibers, such for example as wool, and relatively short, relatively stili bers, such for example as goat hair. Preferably the bers of these two dierent characteristics are applied separately, and the relatively soft, relatively long bers are first applied..

With the foregoing general remarks in mind, it is an object of the present invention to provide a new cemented pile carpet of the flock type, characterized by an upper tread surface composed of relatively soft iibers and a lower supporting area comprising a mixture of relatively stili and relatively soft fibers.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a cemented pile carpet of the ock type, characterized by the use of a mixture of relatively long, relatively soft fibers, lsuch as wool, and relatively short, relatively stiff fibers, such as goat hair.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a new method of manufacturing a carpet of the type referred to, characterized by the steps of first applying the relatively long, relatively soft fibers to a cement coated surface and thereafter applying the relatively short, relatively stiff fibers thereto.

Other objects of the invention will be apparent as the description proceeds, and when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, wherein the ligure is a fragmentary section through the carpet embodying the present invention.

In the foregoing, I have shown a carpet as comprising an open woven, reinforcing fabric i@ which may be burlan. Beneath this fabric is a ply of resilient material il which may be sponge rubber, either cemented to or initially calendered to and vulcanized to the fabric l0. Overlying the fabric it is a thin ply of a suitable cement i2. For this cement, rubber cements,v mixtures of rubber and resin, or resinous cements have been found satisfactory.

Overlying the fabric l0 and permanently bonded thereto by the cement l2 is the pile surface indicated generally at i3, which comprises a multiplicity of relatively long, relatively soft fibers as indicated at it, and a multiplicity of re1- atively short, relatively stiff fibers as indicated at it.

As previously stated, the carpet which forms the subject matter of the present invention is of the ock type, which means that the fibers are attached thereto as separate elements and are caused to assume a generally upstanding position as a result of the method of application. This method of application may consist of vibrating a cement coated fabric l0 While the separated pile iibers are sifted downwardly thereon. Due to the vibration, the fibers become embedded at one end, and in many cases penetrate to a. substantial depth in the soft cement. It is not to be understood that the bers are all strictly perpendicular to the surface of the carpet, and in fact such a relationship would be undesirable. As a matter of fact, the fibers when examined closely are found to extend at random, occupying angles with respect to the plane of the carpet,l ranging from about 1G to 90.

This random, inclined arrangement of the majority of the fibers is desirable since a substantial proportion of relatively stiff bers such as goat hair are employed. If a carpet of this type were produced in which relatively stiff bers such as goat hair were all arranged in parallelism and perpendicular to the surface of the carpet, an

undesirable result would be obtained. These stiff fibers, being vertically arranged on the carpet, would resist bending until a substantial force had been applied, so that when the carpet was walked on it would give the user a sense of breaking down, as the bers yielded to the Weight. Since the bers are all arranged at random and at different angles, this result is avoided, and the carpet has a feel comparable with the feel of woven carpets.

While a carpet employing nothing but fibers of goat hair, or a mixture of goat hair and other material of equal length is useful for certain purposes, it does not exhibit the surface softnessand appearance which is desirable for home use. At the same time, it has been found impossible as a practical matter to form a pile of fibers of soft material, such for example as wool, without an admixture of relatively stiff fibers.

According to the present invention the flocking operation is carried out with a mixture of fibers, some of which are relatively long, relatively soft fibers, such for example as obtained from wool, whereas the balance of the fibers are relatively short, relatively stiff, such as obtained from goat hair. By way of example, I have obtained substantially improved results by employing a 50-50 mixture of wool fibers cut to a uniform length of about l/ oiLan inch, and goat hair or similar stili fibers cut to a uniform length of about of an inch.

When the carpet is flocked with the above described mixture of fibers, it is found that the relatively short, relatively stiff fibers penetrate rather deeply into the soft cement and form a lateral support for the relatively long, relatively soft fibers. At the same time the relatively long, relatively soft fibers become embedded firmly in the soft cement and extend above the upper surface defined by the ends of the relatively short fibers. Therefore the upper surface of the carpet has an appearance and feel which is substantially improved over prior practices.

I have referred to a suitable method of fiocking as comprising vibrating the cement coated fabric while sifting the fibers downwardly thereon. Any other suitable method of flocking may be employed and, if desired, the position of the fibers as a result of an electric field set `up between spaced electrodes may be employed. This latter method is now well known and no claim to it per se is made herein.

While I have stated above that if desired the 50-50 mixture of relatively long, relatively softand relatively short, relatively stiff fibers may be applied at once, I prefer to apply these fibers separately. I have found that by separate application of the two different classes of fibers in va particular manner results in -a better fill, so that the completed carpet has improved appearance and better wearing qualities.

According to my preferred method of applying the fibers, the relatively long, relatively soft fibers are first applied in as great a quantity as the carpet will take. Following this and while the cement is still soft, I apply the relatively short, relatively stiff fibers. Due to the greater density and strength of the relatively short, relatively stiff fibers, these penetrate through the pile formed by the relatively long, relatively soft iibers and serve two important functions. In the first place, they still further increase the fill obtained. In the second place, due to the stiffness and great strength of the fibers, they provide substantial lateral reinforcement for the relatively long, relatively soft fibers, and hold them up, so as to increase the simulation of the .pile of a woven carpet.

It is pointed out that the order of application of the fibers cannot successfully be reversed since the relatively long, relatively soft fibers will not to any substantial degree penetrate through a moderately filled covering of relatively short, relatively stiff fibers.

It will be understood that the figure is intended to be more or less diagrammatic, and that the fill or density of the fibers is substantially greater than illustrated in the figure. It is further to substantially parallelism.

'asians be understood as a practical man it u impossible to insure that all of the relatively short, relatively stiff fibers shall be beneath the surface formed by the relatively long, relatively soft fibers. However, by employing a mixture of two fibers of specifically different lengths, a carpet is `produced -which has a high percentage of the soft bers forming the uppermost surface thereof, and the great majority of the relatively short, relatively stiff fibers are beneath the upper surface thus formed.

It is important to obtain the bers in substantially uniform lengths before application, and for this purpose the fibers are preferably carded and cut to predetermined length while arranged in I have found that improved results areobtained when, after cutting, the two classes of fibers are gradedor sorted, and satisfactory devices for carrying out this classification of the fibers according to lengths are available on the market.-

While I have specifically referred to wool flbers and fibers of goat hair by way vof example, It will be understood that these have been given merely by way of example, and that the essence of the invention is in the use of fibers of different lengths and different characteristics, as set forth. For example, synthetic fibers of various materi- 'als may be manufactured in different diameters and cut to different lengths to satisfy the present invention. This is mentioned merely to show that it is not necessary that the fibers of difierent stiffness and different lengths have a dierent origin.

While I have illustrated and specifically described a preferred form of carpet and have described a preferred method of manufacturing the same, it will be understood that this has been done solely to enable those skilled in the art to practice the invention, the scope of which is indicated by the appended claims.

What I claim as my invention is:

1. A oor covering having a relatively soft baseof sponge rubber, a layer of burlap bonded in surface to surface relation to the upper surface of said base, a relatively thin layer of cement bonded in surface to surface relation to said layer of burlap, and a mixture of individual wool fibers and goat hairs imbedded endwise in and extending upwardly from the layer of cement, the goat hairs being relatively short and relatively coarse and stiff, the upper ends of said goat hairs defining a relatively stiff surface, the wool fibers being relatively soft and longer than the goat hairs, said wool fibers extending upwardly through and above the surface defined by the upper ends of the goat hairs and provided above said stiff surface with a relatively soft tread surface, the goat hairs below said tread surface constituting lateral supports for the wool bers.

2. A floor covering having a base of relatively soft rubber, an open mesh fabric bonded in surface to surface relation to the upper surface of said base, a relatively thin layer of cement bonded in surface to surface relation to said open mesh fabric, and a mixture of individual wool fibers and goat hairs imbedded endwise in and extending upwardly from the layer of cement, the wool fibers being relatively long and relatively soft, the upper end portions of said wool fibers providing a Yrelatively soft tread surface, the goat hairs being shorter than the wool bers and terminating below said tread surface, said goat hairs being relatively coarse and stiff and forming below the tread surface lateral supports for the wool bers;

3. A door covering having a base of relatively soft rubber, an open mesh fabric bonded in sur'- face to surface relation to the upper surface of said base, a relatively thin layer of cement bonded in surface to surface relation to said open mesh fabric, and a mixture of individual fibers imbedded endwise -in and extending upwardly from the layer of cement, approximately 50% of said fibers being relatively long and relatively soft, and approximately 50% of said fibers being relatively short and relatively stiff, the upper ends of the short and stiff fibers providing a relatively stiff surface above and substantially parallel to the layer of adhesive, the long and soft fibers extending upwardly through and above the surface provided by the upper ends of the short and stiff fibers and providing above and substantially parallel to said stiff surface a relatively soft tread surface, the short and sti fibers below said tread surface forming lateral supports for the long and soft bers.

4. The method of making a cemented pile carpet which comprises the steps of adhering in surface to surface relation a layer of sponge rubber toone side of a layer of burlap, adhering in surface to surface relation to' the other side of said layer of burlap a layer of relatively soft cement, vibrating the assembly in a vertical direction, sifting a multitude of relatively long relatively soft fibers onto the cement while the assembly is being vibrated so that a substantial portion of said fibers will imbed themselves endwise at random in said cement to provide a relatively soft tread surf/ace, and thereafter sifting a multitude of relatively short and relatively stiff bers onto the cement while the assembly is being vibrated so that a substantial portion of said stiff'bers will penetrate through the pile formed by the soft fibers and -will imbed themselves at random in said cement so as to provide beneath said soft tread surface lateral supports for said long and soft fibers.

5. The method of making a cemented pile car- Cil pet which comprises the steps of adhering in surface to surface relation a layer of relatively soft rubber to one side of an open mesh fasric, adhering in surface to surface relation to the other side of said fabric a layer of relatively soft cement, vibrating the assembly in a vertical direction, sifting a multitude of relatively long wool fibers onto the cement while the assembly is being vibrated so that a substantial portion of said fibers will imbed themselves endwise in said cement to provide a relatively soft tread surface, and thereafter sifting a multitude of relatively short goat hairs onto the cement while the assembly is being vibrated so that a substantial portion of said goat hairs will penetrate through the pile formed by the wool bers and will imbed themselves endwise in said cement to provide beneath said soft tread surface lateral supports for said wool bers.

6. The method of making a cemented pile carpet which comprises the steps of adhering in surface to surface relation a layer of relatively soft rubber to one side of an open mesh fabric, adhering in surface to surface relation to the other side of said fabric a layer of relatively soft cement, vibrating the assembly in a vertical direction, cutting to a substantially uniform length of about la of an inch a multitude of wool fibers, sifting thecut fibers onto the cement while the assembly is being vibrated so that a substantial portion of said bers will imbed themselves endwise in said cement at angles ranging from about 10 degrees to 90 degrees relative to the layer of cement to provide a relatively soft tread surface, cutting to a substantially uniform length of about 3f of an inch a multitude of goat hairs, and thereafter sifting the cut goat hairs onto the cement while the assembly is being vibrated so that a.substantial portion of said goat hairs will penetrate through the pile formed by the wool fibers and will imbed themselves endwise in said cement to provide beneath said soft tread surface lateral supports for said wool fibers.

HAROLD P. FARIS.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2512727 *Aug 4, 1948Jun 27, 1950Mohawk Carpet Mills IncPile fabric
US2602765 *Dec 29, 1947Jul 8, 1952Ahier George CMethod of manufacturing fabrics having a support backing and upstanding pile
US2675337 *Nov 2, 1949Apr 13, 1954British CelaneseMethod of producing an improved pile fabric
US2896304 *Dec 4, 1953Jul 28, 1959Carlo PeroniProcess for obtaining a velvet-like coating or covering material
US2916849 *Feb 16, 1954Dec 15, 1959Lemelson Jerome HInflatable toys
US2991134 *Jul 17, 1957Jul 4, 1961Miller Lubricator CompanyJournal box packing
US2991135 *Mar 10, 1958Jul 4, 1961Miller Lubricator CompanyJournal box packing
US3021240 *Jun 1, 1959Feb 13, 1962B B Chem CoFlocked solvent activatable stiffener sheet material
US3058194 *Apr 7, 1959Oct 16, 1962Havner Robert SCarpet cushion and backing fabric therefor
US3215584 *May 15, 1961Nov 2, 1965Scott Paper CoComposite fabric and method of manufacture thereof
US7425359Jul 1, 2003Sep 16, 2008Dzs, LlcTextured composite material
US7431975Nov 29, 2002Oct 7, 2008Dzs, L.L.C.Textured composite material
US7622408Jul 1, 2003Nov 24, 2009Dzs, LlcFabric-faced composites and methods for making same
US20040106345 *Nov 29, 2002Jun 3, 2004Zafiroglu Dimitri PeterTextured composite material
US20040106346 *Jul 1, 2003Jun 3, 2004Zafiroglu Dimitri PeterTextured composite material
US20050010701 *Jun 30, 2003Jan 13, 2005Intel CorporationFrequency translation techniques
US20060183389 *Jun 28, 2004Aug 17, 2006Zafiroglu Dimitri PFabric-faced composites and methods for making same
US20160265157 *Mar 10, 2015Sep 15, 2016University Of Massachusetts DartmouthStructured flock fiber reinforced layer
US20160302507 *Dec 1, 2014Oct 20, 2016University Of MassachusettsFlexible, fibrous energy managing composite panels
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/89, 428/95, 428/90, 428/92, 156/73.6, 156/279
International ClassificationD04H11/00
Cooperative ClassificationD04H11/00
European ClassificationD04H11/00