US 2318096 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
-tages must be added the Patented May 4, 1943 TRANSFER SHEET Frederick A. Quick, Bellerose, N. Y., assig'nor to All Purpose Gold Corporation, Brooklyn,'N. Y:, a, corporation of New York No Drawing. Application September 4, 1940,
' Serial No. 355,375,
7 Claims. (01. 117-36) This invention relates generally to transfer sheets, that is to sheets from which material may be transferred to a receiving surface by suitable treatment. More particularly this invention relates to transfer sheets the transferable matter on which is in the form of an unbroken film of solid material, desired portions of which may be transferred to a receiving surface by the application of pressure and without any other treatment or the application of heat or solvents.
Coordinately therewith my invention relates to a method of making a transfersheet of the character mentioned.
Before discussing my invention in detail I will premise that my improved transfer sheet comprises a sheet, hereinafter called the "carrier sheet on which is imposed a coating, hereinafter referred to as the transfer'rable film, portions of which may be caused to adhere to a surface, hereinafter referred to as the receiving surface by applying pressure to the reverse side of the carrier sheet so as to press it against the receiving surface.
In its illustrative embodiment and practice selected for disclosure in this application my invention has been described in its application to so-called album paper," which is a rough-surfaced, black paper ordinarily used in photograph albums for mounting photo prints thereon and also used in the moving picture film industry for the writing of titles thereon. While it has been so described,-it will be understood that my invention is not necessarily so restricted, but may have application to other kinds of paper and to surfaces of material other than paper. Nor is it necessarily restricted to material that is black in color.
When it is desired to inscribe matter such as a title or to apply decorative matter on such album paper, it is customary, according to the present conventional practice, to use white ink (Chinese white) or white crayon.
Both of these media leave much to be desired. With white ink uniformity is difficult of attainment, and then only with the greatest care, and unless such uniformity is attainedit is diificult to obtain satisfactory photographic reproduction, which of course is essential where the ink is used on a moving picture film. To these disadvaninconvenience of keeping on hand equipment comprising liquid ink and the necessary assortment of brushes and White crayon on the other hand leaves a greasy surface and the markings are not uniform and have a grayish appearance for which reason they are unsuitable for photographic reproduction.
. These'disadvantages are overcome by my 'in-' vention which has all the convenience of use of carbon paper and which gives clear and distinct markings of uniform appearance and which are constituted byportionsof a solid film. In the particular application of my invention herein disclosed the markings are continuous, opaque, white film portions, which stand out sharply and distinctly from the black back-ground.
It is the general object of my invention to provide in a tranfer sheet of the character described, a, simple, effective and inexpensive composition and structure and further to provide a simple" effective and inexpensive method for manufacturi-ng such a sheet.
It is among the more particular objects of my: invention to provide in a transfer sheet of the character describeda carrier sheet and a transferable film on said carrier sheet having such adhesive properties that whenever pressure is applied to the reverse side of the carrier sheet so as to press the film side against a receiving surface, a portion of said transferable film will separate from the carrier sheet and will adhere to the receiving surface, and the portion of the film so transferred will be substantially coextensive with the area to which the pressure has been applied.
It is further among the more particular objects of my invention to provide in a transfer sheet a transferable film having opposed-surfaces the adhesive properties of which are not the same.
It is alsoamong the more particular objects of my invention to provide in a transfersheet a transferable film the adhesion of which'to the carrier sheet is less than its adhesion to a receiving surface, and further a transferable film the cohesive properties of which are such in relation to its adhesive properties, that pressure'of portions thereof against a receiving surface will cause only those portions to separat from the carrier and from the other parts of the film and to adhere to the receiving surface, while those portions to which no pressure has been applied zivlirlll1 remain in adhesive contact with the carrier my invention now to be disclosed.
I My improved transfer sheet may be most conveniently described in connection with the process of its manufacture. I
As a base or carrier sheet I use a. sheet of material that has surface characteristics so related to the transferable film to be imposed thereon that it will permit separation of the film fromthe carrier sheet under the conditions of use,
in transferring portions of film having a desired v configuration. a I
I have found Cellophane to be a material satisfactory in actual practice. Where Cellophane is used for the carrier sheet the, best results were obtained with a thickness of four an one-half one-thousandths of an inch. Q
Oiled silk and certain kinds of paper may also be mentioned among materials suitable for my purpose. Cellulose acetate'is also suitable but is not adapted for a continuous process of manufacture in which the material is used in rolls,
as it becomes soft under the action of the solvents used in applying the coating. However, it can be used in sheet form'and the coating can be applied by brush.
To one side of this carrier sheet is applied the transferable film, which, as already mentioned, is to possess the property of adhering to a receiving surface and separatingfrom the carrier sheet under pressure applied tothe reverse side of the latter, and further as having such cohesive propertiesthat only the portions p'ressedon will so adhere-and separate- Thepressure that is j to eifect separation may be either a gliding pressure as by applying a stylus, or an'impact pressure,
asby the keys of a typewriter.
the base for sucha coating Ihave found hellac gum to be suitable. This is modified by theaddition of'other gums to obtain the desired adhesive and cohesive properties, and further has suitable plasticizers added thereto to obtain ture,.of;. ahoutl20 Iiahrenheitxand the drying As a preferred formula for the first coat I may give the following:
Into these ingredients, afteri mixing is ground a pigment comprising:
Pounds Titanium dioxide 2 Zinc oxidee 1 Cha1k V2 China clay' -I This grinding operation, when performed in a mill, is complete in about one hour.
The. quantities given havebeen found sufllcient to cover about 800 square feet of the carrier sheet.
The coated sheet isthen-dried at a tempera- ""Ipro'cess,}whenTperformed by .passing the sheet and maintain, the desired consistency. In order to give body to the coating and to obtain opacity,
or color where that is'desired, pigments are also added. 7 t
For purposes of application an alcoholic solution of these ingredients is conveniently made.
In order to obtain adhesive characteristics that are different for the two surfaces of thisfilm I make it in two layers'or coats, the first of which may be a main layer, that gives body to the film and determines its cohesive properties, while the second is a coating for one surface of this main layer that is intended to change the adhesive properties of that surface.
.- When application of this film is made by an alcoholic solution, alcohol soluble gums are required. It will be understood, however, that my invention also contemplates solution in other solvents and the use of gums soluble therein even though not soluble in alcohol, provided they are suitable for the attainment of the objects of my invention.
I have found that when shellac gum and san-.
darac gum are used in the first coat together with pigments the qualities requisite in thesecond coat are attained by the use of shellac gum and Pontianak gum.
through a drying tunnel, has been found to take about two and one half minutes. g
A preferred formula for the secondcoat is the following:
Shellac g oz 6 Pontianak gum oz 2 Ethyl alcohol quarts 10 Toluol "oz. 10 Ethyl acetate oz 10 Methyl alcohol e -oz .10 Glycerine oz 16 Dibutyl phthalate oz 13 This quantity has been found sufiicient to coat about 2,000 "square'f tg. r
This coat is dried ata-temperature ofabout;
150 Fahrenheit. When carried in a drying tunnel thisoperation hasbeen found to take about two and one-half minutes. a w a Thereafter the rolls or sheets'may be out into sizes suitable for sale and may be otherwise treated to prepare it for the market.
It will be understood that the quantities given in' the above formulas maybe departed from and still give satisfactory results, although the best results are obtainedwhen the exact quantities are used. I have obtained satisfactory results when the quantities given are varied 10%.
As an added feature of my invention I may coat the reverse (or uncoated) side of the carrier sheet with a waterproof coating. With such a I coating I find that the lasting qualities of my improved transfer sheet are greatly improved.
Where the reverse side. is to be written on I have found that a better writing surface is secured by applying a coating of nitrocellulose lacquer to this reverse side.
If desired the coating on the reverse side may combine the two qualities of being waterproof and providing a betterwriting surface.
In using my improved transfer sheet it will be understood that it is laid face down on the receiving surface, that is so that the transferable film lies in contact with the receiving surface and some suitable instrument such as a stylus or a pencil traces the matter that is to appear on the receiving surface on the reverse side of .be obvious that instead called for by the appended claims.
- alcoholic varnish composed of sheet to which pressure has been applied from the carrier sheet,-and its adtions of the carrier hesion to thereceiving surface, are effected. v
Where the carrier sheet is transparent the course of the tracing operation will bereadily observable during the operation due to the changed appearance'of the sheetas the opaque the transparent carrier sheet.
Where this effect not necessary to use such as transparent Cellophane," and opaque or semi-opaque or translucent materials or materials having opaque or semi-opaque or translucent coats thereon may be used in the carrier 7 sheet.
Obviously instead of the tracing operation be ing performed directly on the reverse. side of the pattern sheet may be superposed.
carrier sheet a thereover and the tracing operation performed the tracing and pressure operation carried out by following the pattern on the pattern sheet.
From what hasalready been said it will also production in any desired color and thatv it is not necessarily restricted to opaque films, but
that for particular purposes transparent" or translucent transferable films may be found preferable.
While I have hereindisclosed one illustrative embodiment of my invention and one illustrative manner of practising the same, it will be understood that it may be embodied in many forms and practised in many other ways, as will be obvious to those skilled in the art, and that the disclosure herein is by way of illustration merely is not desired it is obviously;
a transparent carrier slfeet,
i of a white transferable film my improved transfer sheet lends itself-to transferable film portions'becomeseparatedfrom and is not to be interpreted in a limiting sense,
and that I do not limit myself other than as Having thus described my invention and illustrated its use, what I secure by Letters Patent. is:
1. A transfer sheet of Cellophane" and a transferable film on one side thereof, said film comprising two layers,
2. A transfer sheet comprisinga carrier sheet of Cellophane havinga waterproof coating on one-side and a transferable film on the, other side thereof, saidfllmcomprisin'g two layers, the first being produced 'by' the application an alcoholic varnish composed of V applied at the'rate of "about" 800 squareflf eet of surface for the quantity given, and the second coat being produced by coholic varnish corn'posed oi j Shellac gum v oz 6 Pontianakgum 'I 'oz" -,2 Ethyl alcohol qts 1'0 Toluol oz 10 Ethyl acetate -0Z.'
Methyl alcohoL, oz 10 Glycerine s oz' 16 Dibutyl phthalate oz 13 at the rate of about 2,000 quantity given.
square feet for 3. A transfer sheet comprising a carrier sheet and a transferable'film on one side thereof, said claim as new and desire to comprising a carrier'sheet thefirst being produced by the application of an alcoholic varnish composed of applied at the rate of about 800 square feet of Shellac gum oz 12 Sandarac gum oz 8 Ethyl alcohol qts 10' Butyl alcohol qt 1 Glycerine oz 4' Castor oil oz 2 in which is suspended f Titanium dioxide lbs 2 Zinc Oxide lb 1 Chalk lb China clay lb surface for the quantity given, and the second coat being produced by the application of, an
Shellac gum oz 6 Pontianak gum oz 2 Ethyl alcohol qts 10 Toluol oz 10 Ethyl acetate oz 10 Methyl alcohoL. oz 10 Glycerine oz 16 Dibutyl phthalate oz Shellac gum oz 6: Pontianal; gurn oz 2 Ethyl al'cohoL, qts 10 Toluol oz s p10 Ethyl acetate 0Z I 10 I Methyl alcohol oz 10 Glycerine oz 16 Dibutyl phthalate oz '13 at the rate of about 2.000 square feet for the 0 quantity given.
composed of I film comprising two layers, the first, being produced by the application of an alcoholic varnish Shellac gumapplied at the rate ofabout 800'square feet of surface. for the quantity given, and the second coat being, produoed'by the application of an H alcoholic varnish composed of at the rate ofabout 2000 square feet for the quan- 4. The method of manufacturing atransfer sheet which comprises the steps of applying to the apiilicationfof an a}; r
at therate of about 800 for the quantity given .an a temperature or the order of 120? Fahrenheit, then applyingover the coating so produced a solutlon comprising Shellac g Toluol Ethyl ac Methyl alcohol Glycerine Dibutyl 'phth nlafp one sideof a thin sheet of smooth, transparent Cellophane a solution comp square feet of I surface d drying said-coating at at the rate of about 2000 square feet of surface for the quantity given, and drying said sheet at a temperature of the order of 150 Fahrenheit.
5. The-method of manufacturing a transfer sheet which comprises the steps of applying to a carrier sheet a first coat comprising shellac gum and sandarac gum in solutiontogether with plasticizers and pigments, drying said coat and superposing on said'first coat a coat comprising shellac gum and Pontianak gum in solution together with plasticizers and drying said coating. 6. The method of manufacturing a transfer" sheet which comprises the steps of applying to a carrier sheet a solution comprising shellac gum and-sandarac gum and then applying a'second solution comprising shellac gum and Pontianak gum.
"l. The continuous process of manufacturing a transfer sheet which comprises applying to a roll of material constituting a carrier sheet, by means of a roller coater, a first coat comprising shellac gum, sandarac gum and pigments, drying saidicoat by passing it through a drying tunnel, applying asecond coat comprising shellac gum and Pontianak gum by means-of a roller coater,
' and drying said second coat by passing it through I a drying tunnel.
FREDERICK ,A. QUICK.