US 2318215 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 4, 1943 F. w. GANs 2,318,215
METHOD AND MEASS FORA PRODUCING INLAID LINOLEUM A Filed March 20, 1941 I 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 ,4 TTORNE Y.
May 4, 1943. F. w. GANs 2,318,215
yMELHOD 'AND MEANS FOR `PRDUCING INI-AID LINULEUM Filed March 2o, 1941 2 sheets-sheet 2 INVNToR FRED nf.Y GAA/5,.
Patented May 4, 1943 BETHOD AND IWEANS FOR PRODUCING INLAID` LINOLEUM Fred W. Gans, Trenton, N. J., assigner to Sloane Blabon Trenton, N. JL, a corporation of New Jersey Application March 20, 1941, Serial No. 384,241
19 Claims. (,Cl. 154-22) My invention relates to methods and means for producing inlaid linoleum floor coverings and the like and particularly to methods and means for assembling tesserae or design elements upon a backing of coated burlap, saturated felt or other material, or for assembling tesserae upon a layer of reinforcing material to produce units embodying a number of preassembled design elements.
It has been usual heretofore in the production of inlaid linoleum oor coverings, to assemble tesserae or design elements formed of uncured linoleum on a layer of backing material by means of hand operations or by machine. However, manual operations are slow and intermittent whereas machinesrused for this purpose have been very expensive to construct and operate.
The present invention is capable of use in assembling individual tesserae or design elements on a layer of backing material but it is particularly adapted for use in assembling tesserae on a layer of reinforcing material for the purpose of forming preassembled units embodying a number of design elements or a whole section of a design which is made |up `0f eighteen inch repeats or other design sections as described in my copending application Serial No. 382,444, led March 8, 1941. The invention is similarly adapted for use in` assembling such preassembled units on a layer of coated burlap, saturated felt por other backing material to produce a nished product. For this reason reference to design elements in the following description of my invention and in the claims should be understood to' include both individual tesserae and preassembled units embodying a number of tesserae. Furthermore, in describing and claiming the invention reference to backing material is intended to include reinforcing material use d in forming such preassembled units as well as such materials as coated b-urlap, saturated feltor the like used in forming finished products.
Various types of mechanism may be employed in the practice of my invention but I prefer to employ means for receiving a number of design elements in the -form of a stack or series from element therewith as it rotates to deposit it on the backing in a predetermined position. By coordinating the movement of the drum and back- Cil ing material, the design elements may be placed with their edges directly in contact with each other or they may be spaced predetermined distances apart and the same or other means may be used to insert additional elements between those rst deposited on the backing. In this Way the design elements are assembled quickly and economically on a continuously moving web of material and the cost of producing inlaid linoleum products is greatly reduced.
One of the objects of my invention is to provide novel methods and means for assembling design elements formed of uncured linoleum on a layer of material in producing oor coverings and the like.
Another object of my invention is to provide novel means for receiving a plurality of design elements and serving'to deposit them successively on a layer of material in predeterminedpositions.
Av further object of my invention is to arrange units embodying groups of tesserae constituting a whole section of a design upon a layer of backing material in a single operation.
Other objects of my invention are to reduce the cost and time required to assemble design elements in producing inlaid linoleum, to providesimple and relatively inexpensive mechanism for depositing the elements on aA layer of reinforcing or backing material and to assemble the elements on a movable web of material.
These and other objects and features of my invention will appear from the following description thereof in which reference is made to' the figures of the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view through one typical form of mechanism embodying my invention and adapted for use in the practice of methods embodying my invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view througha portion of an alternative construction embodying my invention;
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of mechanism embodying a plurality of machines of the type illustrated in Fig. 1 as used ina typical method for applying tesserae to a layer of reinforcing materia1 in accordance with my invention; and
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic illustration of a ma# chine of the type illustrated in Fig. l as used for applying units to a layer or" backing material in accordance With an alternative method embodying my invention.
In that form of machine shown Vin Fig. 1A a stack of design elements to be deposited on the backing are shcwn at 2 and are arranged in any desired order or sequence to produce a predetermined design. The stack of elements is placed in a hopper 4 with the lowermost element in contact with the upper surface of a rotatable drum 6 which is located above a bed 8 over which a web of backing material I0 is passed. The drum 6 is provided with suitable means which remove the lowermost element from the stack as the drum rotates and cause the element to travel with the drum to a position over the backing, where the element is deposited on the backing in a predetermined location. Since the elements are inverted as the drum rotates they are placed in the hopper 4 with that surface thereof which is to be exposed in the finished product facing downward to engage the drum 6.
In order that the drum may remove one element at a time from the bottom of the stack it is provided with positioningY means for receiving and holdi-ng the lowermost element in a predetermined position on the drum as it rotates. As, shown in Fig. l` the positioning means are in the form of spaced depressions lf2 into which the bottom element of the stack. 2 settles under the action of a flexible weight I 4. Thel rear abutment shoulders I6 of the depressions I-2 are of sufcient height to engage the lowermost element and cause it to be stripped from the stack 2 and carried by the drum beneath the lower edge of a movable gate I3 which extends over the inner face of the side 2li of the hopper' II.`
The lower edge of the gate I8 is spacedfrom the drum 6 a distance sufcient to permit the lowermost design element 22 located iny the upper depression I2.' of the to pass freely beneath the gate while the edges of upper elements in the'stackv 2 bear against the gate. A flexible strip 24 is carried bythe gate I3 and projects from the lower edges thereof into position to,- bear against the element 212 and prevent the leading edge 26 thereof from springing out. of the-recess. The flexible stri-pl 24 also serves to retard` the element 22 slightly as the drum rotates so that the rea-r edge of the elementX isv brought squarely into contact with the shoulder I'B throughout its length and is accurately positioned on the drum. As shown in- Fig. 1 when the elements. in the stach 2 arethin, the flexible strip: 24 also engages l one or more elements above the lowermost element 22 and thereby aids retaining them in the stack without adjustment of the gate I8'.
As the lowermost element is removed from the bottom of the stack the whole stack descends under the weight I4- and it is found in practice that the edges of the elements (which are relatively soft and fiexible) tend to turn up as they descend in engagement with the gate I8. The gate is therefore moved, to disengagethe edges of the elements as their leading edges move downward. For this purpose the; gate is provided with springs 28V which urge the gate toward a cam 3i] rotated in: timed relation tothe rotation of the drumr. The cam. is provided with a surface engaged by a follower 3-2 on the gate and is shaped tor present a high point' tilv and a low point 36 so that as the cam rotates in a counter-clockwise direction as seen in Fig. 1 the gate is pushed to the right until the follower passes the high point 34. Thereafter the follower falls quickly towthe low point 36 of the cam under the action of the springs 28 and the gate springs tothe left disengaging the edges of thje elements just before the leading edge 38 of the depression I2 passes beneath the gate. The edges of the elements are therefore free to move downward when the leading edge of the lowermost element drops into the depressions I2. The whole stack of elements then moves a short distance with the drum until their edges again engage the gate I8 and they are pushed slowly backward again by the gate as the cam 38 rotates preparatory to the next release of the gate from the stack of elements.
When the elements being applied to the backing are units of the type described in my copending application Serial No. 382,444 and eX- tend the full width of the backing material or when the elements are otherwise formed to have straight' transversely extending edges the abutment shoulders I6 of the depressions I2 extend parallel to the axis of rotation of the drum and serve to straighten the edges of the elements as they are moved into position on the backing. It will be. apparent, however,. that the shoulders I6 may be, otherwise spaced or formed toengage and locate elementswhichhave edges which are irregular in shape or are angularly disposed with respect to the drum;`
As the element 22v in the uppermost recess I2, passes on beneath the gate I8 it is held against the surface of the rotating drum until the drum has rotated nearly one halfA revolution,. after which` the element is deposited. on. the web of backing material passing beneath` the drum. As shown in Fig. 1 the element is held in the recess I'2l by a flexible apron 4I)v which passes about an upper roller 42 and into contact with the surface of the drum andelement 22.` 'I-he apron 4l] moves with the drum tothe lower roller 44 near the surfacel of the web of backing material III while the, element 22 passes: on` with the drum and is. guided` into position` o-nthe backing material by the lip itwhich extends` close tothe upper surface. of the backing. material.v IIhe leading edge 48 of the element 50 located in the recess I2,A which is near the bottomv of the drum lV as. seen in Fig. 1., drops out of theV recess I2. as the drum continues to. rotate and follows along the, upper surface of the.v lip 46 into contact with thebacking materialso as to be depositedthereon in a predetermined4 position- Instead of using the apron 4I) for retain-ing the design elements in place on the drum 6 other suitable means may be employed- As illustrated in Fig. 2 thel surface of the drum Bf' with-in the recesses or depressions I2" is provided with a plurality of small openings 5-2 whichA extend through the depression I2' and communicate with a suction box 54- located adjacent that portion4 of the inner surface of the drum extending from a point near theI gate I8! to apoint adjacent the lower portionI of the drum where the elements are deposited on the backing. With this construction the vacuumappliedV to the elements through the openings 52 serves to-v hold the elementsin engagement withA the drum as it rotates,
It will bey noted that the recess I2 on the drum of Fig. 2 does not present an abrupt leadingL edge and it may be desired to use a recess of this type when other types of retaining means are employed for holding the element in place on the-drum.v It is also possible with constructions employing a vacuum toI eliminate lthe recess on the drum altogether and to use vacuum means to remove.- the lowerrnost element from thestaek. However, I generally prefer to employ a drum having means thereony presenting an abutment shoulder to position the elements accurately on the drum and thereby insure proper location thereof on the backing material.
The speed of rotation of the drum 6 is coordinated with the speed of movement of the backing material l by suitable means such as the chain 56 which extends from the press rolls 58 (Fig. 3) to the sprocket 60 on the shaft 62 which drives the drum 6. The speed of rotation of the drum may be varied by suitable means such as that shown diagrammatically. at 63 so as to deposit the elements on the backing material with the edge of one element located directly in contact with the edge of another elek ment deposited from the same or another recess in the same drum. When so driven the peripheral speed of the drum exceeds the speed of movement of the backing material and a single machine may be used to deposit all of the elements on the backing material. However, it is preferable in some instances to rotate the drum so that the peripheral speed thereof is substantially equal to that of the backing material and in that event two or more machines may be arranged in series and driven so thatone will deposit elements in spaced relation and another will deposit other elements between those first applied to the backing until the whole surface of the backing is covered with elements or units formed of uncured linoleum.
In that form of my invention illustrated in Fig. 3 individual tesserae are arranged on a web of reinforcing material to produce units embodying preassembled elements constituting a section of a design as described in my copending application Serial No. 382,444 referred to above. In this construction a web of reinforcing material 64 such as cheese cloth is supplied from a roll 66 and passed over a bed B8. A machine I0 of the type illustrated in Fig. l is located above the bed 68 and is supplied with two separate stacks of tesserae 12 and 14 formed of uncured linoleum and arranged in theA desired lorder for producing a predetermined design section. The drum 'I6 of the machine 10 is driven at a speed coordinated with the speed of movement of the web of material 64 and the speed of rotation of the rotary press 58 by means of the chain 56. The peripheral speed of the drum 'I6 is made to be substantially equalV to the longitudinal speed of the web and the location and arrangement of the element treceiving recesses on the drum (corresponding tofthe recesses I2 of Fig. 1) are such that the tesserae 18 from the stack '12 are deposited near one edge of the web 64 and the tesserae 80 from the stack 14 are deposited near the opposite edge of the web B4. 'Ihe recesses are also arranged Vin staggered relation as shown at 'l1 so that the drum will deposit the tesserae 18 andl 80 at alternate intervals and spaced longitudinally of the web 64 a distance great enough to permit the insertion of other elements 82 and 84 therebetween. The drum 16 in rotating removes the lowermost tesserae from the stack 12 while the remaining tesserae in the stacks settle into contact with the drum without turning up vat the edges and thereafter removes the lowermost element from the stack 14 in a similar manner. The tesserae removed from the stacks travel with the drum into positions over the reinforcing material where they are deposited with their leading edges spaced a predetermined distance from the rear edges of the tesserae previously deposited on the web 64 and carried thereby toward the second'machine 86.
to be necessary or desirable.
`As the web 64 and the elements 18 and 80 move beneath the second machine 86 the drum thereof, whichis `provided with alternately staggered recesses indicated at 19, rotates to remove elements alternately from the stacks 88 and 90 and deposit them in the spaces between the elements 'I8v and as shown-at 82 and 84. The drum and lower portion of the second machine 86 are spaced from the upper surface of the reinforcing material a suflicient distance to clear the tesserae 'I8 and 80 carried thereby so that they will pass beneath the machine 86 without being displacedor'disturbed. The operation of the machine 8.6 is co# ordinated with that of the machine 'l0 so that the tesserae 82 and 84 in being deposited are moved against the rear edges of the previously deposited tesserae I8 and 80 to insure a'vtight joint between the same. Additional tesserae 92 may be placed on the reinforcing material by another machine or by'hand to complete the design sections of the units where this is found As the assembled tesserae are carriedaway from the last machine or station on the f con# tinuously moving web of material 64 they 'pass beneath a rotary press roll 58 which subjects them to heat and pressure and bonds the tesserae to the web and to each other. Thereafter the edges of the resulting intermediate product are trimmed accurately to the desired width by means such as the rotary knives '94 and the material is cut into suitable lengths to produce units 96 embodying a number of preassembled tesserae which may include a complete section of a repeated design for the finished product.
The form of my invention illustrated in Fig. 4 is generally similar to that of Fig. 3 but is shown as used for arranging the units produced by the method of Fig. 3 on a web of backingmaterial such as coated burlap, saturated felt orthe like. For this purpose a web of backing material `Q8 is passed beneath a machine |013 which is supplied with a stack |02 of units such as the units 96 of Fig. 3. Thedrum l04 o-f this machine is rotated by suitable means (not shown) so as to have a peripheral speed substantially greater than the longitudinal speed of the continuously moving web of backing material and such that the units removed from the stack IGZ are deposited on the backing material indirect edge to edge contact with each other. The slight-impact of the more rapidly moving unit being deposited against the rear edgeof the previously deposited unit insures a tight joint between the .units but does not causeany buckling of the unitbeing deposited because the rear edge ofthe unit has moved out of engagement with the abutment shoulder on the drum |04 when it engages the previously deposited unit.
After the units have been assembled on the backing material by machine 10B they are carried by the web of material 93 beneath .a rotary press |06 which subjects the units and backing to heat and pressure to bond the units tothe backing and to each other to produce the nished product. f
The methods described are thus combinedto produce units embodying preassembled tesserae and to assemble the units on a backing tov pro-r duce a nished product. Both operations may be carried out continuously although they may be carried on intermittently if so desired. Moreover the means and operations for depositing individual tesserae on, a backing maybe fused to produce a nished product instead of units or an intermediate product as; descriloedV and the produced by the: method illustrated in Fig;A 3 may' be' assembled onI a backing either manually or by other suitable mechanism. It will. also'be apparent that the number of machines' and the form of the positioning means thereon as. well as tl-ie manner of operation of the machines may be varied so as to' deposit all of they te'sseraev for forming units or an intermediate product in one operationor to deposit the units or design elements on a backing in two or more operations tofy produce the desired designs and variations thereof.
In view of these vand other modication's and changes which may be made in the mechanism described and the methods' of utilizing the same it should be understood that the forms of my invention specifically described above and shown in the figures of the drawings' are intended to be illustrative of my invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the following claims'.
1. Apparatus for use in the manufacture of inlaid linoleum products, comprising a hopper for receiving a stack of design elements, a device movably mounted beneath said hopper in position to engage the lowermost element in' the stack, means for positioning elements with respect to said device and serving to remove the lowermost element from the stack on movement of the device, means for moving a web of backing material beneath said device in position to receive elements therefrom, and variablev means for regulating the speed of movement of said device with respect to the speed of movement-.of said web of backing material to cause said elements to be deposited on said backing material in alternatively spaced locations longitudinally thereof. A
2. Apparatus for use inA the manufacture of inlaid linoleum products, comprising a hopper for receiving a stack of design elements, a device movably mounted beneath said hopper 4in position to engage the lowermost element in the stack, means on said device for positioning elements with respect to said device and serving to remove the loWermOst element from thev stack on rotation of the device, means for moving a web of backing material beneath said device in position to receive elements therefrom, and means deposited on the backing will be brought into engagement with an element previously deposited thereon by said dewce.
3. Appaartus for use in the manufacture o f inlaid linoleum products comprising a bed, means for moving a web of backing material over said bed, a plurality of machines arranged in spaced relation longitudinally of said bed and each embodying means for receiving a stack of pre-cut and pre-arranged design elements, together with means for removing elements successively from said stacks and serving to deposit the same on said' backing, and means coordinating the operation'of said machines and the movement of said backing material to cause successive machines to deposit elements on longitudinally adjacent areas of said backing material.
4.- Apparatus for use in the manufacture of inlaid linoleum products, comprising a hopper for receivingV a stack of design elements, a drum rotatably mounted beneath the hopper in position to engage the lowermost'v element in the stack, a shoulder on Asaid vdrum movable into engagement; With the edge lof the loWermost element ofthe stack for removing one element'after another from thebottom of the Vstack on rotation of the drum, and means engageable by the' edges of thev elements. in said stack and movable out of engagement therewith upon downward movement of the elements'in said stack in response to removal of the'lowermost element from the stack.
5; Amethod of producing inlaid linoleum products which comprises the steps of, arranging a plurality of. design'elements in a stack and in a predetermined order, moving a web of backing material past said stack, removing elements successively from the bottom of the stack, applying the elements so removed to the web of backing material in spaced relation and in the order in which they are removed from the stack, and thereafter applying other design elements to the backing material to fill the spaces between' the elements rst deposited on the backing material.
6. A method of producing inlaid linoleum products which comprises the steps of, arranging a plurality of design elements in a stack and in a predetermined order, moving a web of back-ing material past said stack, removing elements successively from the bottom of the stack, and applying the same to the web of backing material in edge to edge contact and in the order in which they are removed from the stack.
7. Apparatus for' use in the manufacture of inlaid'lin'ole'um products, comprising means for receiving a series of design elements,` mechanism `for successively removing elements from said series, means for' moving a webof backing materialpast said mechanism in position torreceive elements therefrom in the order in which they are'removed from said series, and means for controlling the. relative speed of operation of said mechanism and said web moving means to produce alternative' arrangements of said elements on said backingmaterial.
8`. Apparatus fork use in the manufacture of inlaid linoleum products, comprising means for receiving a series of' design elements, a rotatable device mountedY below` said means and having a part movable therewithl for successively removing one element at a'time from said series, holding means for retaining said elements in engagement with said device during a portion of each rotation thereof, means for moving a web of backing material beneath saidrotatable device in position to receive elements therefrom in the order in which they are removed from said series, and guide meansr located adjacent said holding means and near the lower portionof said rotatable device forb guiding said elements into position on said We 9. Apparatus` for use in the manufacture of inlaid linoleum products, comprising a hopper for receiving a plurality of stacks of design elements, a drum rotatably mounted beneath said hopper in position to engage the lowermost element' in each of said stacks, said drum having shoulders formed thereon in circumferentially displaced relation whereby'each shoulder will remove the lowermost element from one of said stacks at a predetermined period in the rotation of `said drum, means for moving a web of backing material beneath said drum in position to lreceive elements therefrom, and means coordinating the movement of said drum and backing material to cause the drum to travel at the same speed as the backing when the design elements are being deposited on the backing whereby the design elements from different stacks are located in displaced relation on said backing corresponding to the positions of the shoulders on said drum.
10. Apparatus for use in the manufacture of inlaid linoleum products, comprising a hopper adapted for receiving two stacks of design elements, a drum rotatable beneath said hopper, means on said drum for alternately removing the lowermost element from one of said stacks and then from theother, mean-s for locating the elements so removed in predetermined spaced positions longitudinally of a web of backing material to produce a checkerboard arrangement, and means for inserting other design elements in the spaces between those first located on said web.
11. A method of producing inlaid linoleum products which embody a predetermined design comprising the steps of arranging a series of design elements formed of uncured linoleum in a stack and in a predetermined order corresponding to the design to be produced, moving a web of backing material beneath said stack of elements, removing elements successively from the bottom of said stack and depositing said elements on the upper surface of said web of backing material and in predetermined positions thereon.
12. A method of producing inlaid linoleum products which comprises the steps of arranging a plurality of series of design elements formed of uncured linoleum in different stacks, rsuccessively removing the lowermost element from one stack and then from another stack, depositing sai-d elements successively on the face of a web of backing material in a checkerboard arrangement, thereafter depositing other design elements in the unfilled areas between those design elements first deposited on said web and subjecting said design elements to heat and pressure to bond the elements to said web of backing material and to each other.
13. A method of producing inlaid linoleum products having a predetermined design which comprises the steps of forming uncured linoleum into design elements corresponding to different portions of the design to be produced, arranging said design elements in a series and in a predetermined order corresponding to the design to be produced, removing the elements successively from said series and applying the same to a layer of backing material in predetermined positions thereon and in the order in which they are removed from said series, and thereafter pressing the elements into engagement with said backing material to secure the elements thereto.
14. Apparatus for use in the manufacture of inlaid linoleum products comprising a bed, means for moving a web of backing material over said bed, mechanism located adjacent said bed including a device for receiving a pre-arranged series of design elements, means for successively transferring said design elements one at a time from said device to said web in order of arrangement thereof in said device, means coordinating the operation of said element transferring and web moving means to deposit said elements on said backing material in longitudinally spaced relation, and other mechanism for depositing other design elements on said backing material in the spaces between those elements previously deposited thereon.
15. A method of producing linoleum products which embody a predetermined design, comprising the steps of forming uncured linoleum into design elements corresponding to different portions of the design to be produced, arranging said elements in a series and in an order corresponding to successive aligned portions of the design, moving a Web of backing material past said series of elements, successively removing said elements from said series and depositing them on the backing material in a row extending longitudinally of said web, and thereafter subjecting said elements and backing material to heat and pressure to bond the elements to the backing material.
16. A method of producing linoleum products which embody a predetermineddesign, comprising the steps of forming uncured linoleum into design elements corresponding to different portions of the design to be produced, arranging said elements in a series and in such an order that adjacent elements in the series correspond to spaced portions of said design, successively removing said elements from said series and depositing them in spaced relation on a web of backing material, lling the intervening spaces between the elements so deposited with other design elements, and subjecting the assembled elements and backing to heat and pressure to bond said elements to each other and to the backing material.
17. A method of producing linoleum products which embody a predetermined design, which comprises the steps of forming uncured linoleum into design elements corresponding to different portions of the design to be produced, arranging said elements in a series and in such an order that adjacent elements in the series corresponding to adjacent portions of the design, successively removing said elements from said series and depositing them on adjacent areas of a web of backing material, and subjecting the assembled elements and backing material to heat and pressure to bond said elements tokeach other and to said backing material.
18. A method of producing linoleum products which embody' a predetermined design comprising the steps of forming uncured linoleum into design elements corresponding to diiferent portions of the design to be produced, arranging said elements in predetermined assembled relation, moving a web of backing material past the assembled elements, removing elements from said assemblage and depositing them on the backing material in a plurality of rows extending longitudinally of said web, and securing said elements to the backing material.
19. A method of producing linoleum products which embody a design that is repeated at predetermined intervals throughout the length of the material, which comprises the steps of forming `units corresponding in length to the Width of the material and corresponding in width to the repetitions in the design to be produced, arranging said units in a stack, successively removing units from said stack, depositing the units on said backing material with the long edges thereof in contact and extending in a direction normal to the path of movement of said web, and securing said units to said backing material.
FRED W. GANS.