US 2318476 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
QCUR Las Hum i 1 r y z m w 4 M Vnrh T Nar? r [VMS A 3 Sheets-Sheet l J f /ez/ SPACE HEATER Filed Nov. 28, 1939 R. B. EVANS ET AL 126. STVES 6L FURNACES May 4, 1943.
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SPACE HEATER Filed Nov. 28, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VENTORS /46 'Robert B. Evans 56 T Eugene P. Farrell UUUI bil May 4, 1943.
R. B. EVANS ET AL SPACE HEATER Filed NOV. 28, 1939 gobert E 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 ugene F.
Geoge M. Sc'hueder A 0 EY lli) Patented May 4, 1943 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE SPACE HEATER Application November 28, 1939, Serial No. 306,534
This invention relates to certain improvements in space heaters or the like and has special reference to ucar-supported, air circulating unit heaters for rooms, small homes or the like which are direct fired or contain a high temperature air heating combustion unit burning oil, gas, or other fuels and which contain a fan or blower to force air through the air heating passageway and to forcibly discharge and direct it directly into the room in a substantially horizontal, low level discharge close to (approximately six inches) but safely above the room floor to prevent objectionable overheating thereof. Preferably, the fan or blower, the air openings and other parts (particularly the openable closure for the otherwise open top of the casing) are so arranged that the unit may be operated, if desired, by the conventional or natural upward thermal convection air flow.
In the co-pending application of Robert B. Evans and Eugene F. Farrell, Serial No. 232,502, filed September 30, 1938, we have disclosed and claimed a space heater including the features noted above and generally or broadly similar to this invention. The present application relates to the various improvements set forth herein and including the openable top closure in the form of a lid for the top of the upright casing, the means to hold it closed and to release it, the auxiliary closure for opening or venting the upper portion of the heater upon failure of the main lid, the retaining and release means for this auxiliary closure, the humidifier Water container, the manual fuel control, and other improved structural features.
As in the above co-pending application, the two illustrated embodiments of the present invention include an upright cabinet having upper and lower air openings and containing an upright combustion unit which preferably comprises a conventional pot type oil burner or the like housed in a drum with the extending air heating passages associated with this heating unit and communicating with the upper and lower openings.
Preferably, the interior of the casing is divided into two chambers by an upright partition or heat shield extending from front to back. One chamber carries the heat unit and the air heating passageway, While the other chamber contains the fuel tank, the fuel control valve, and the blower or fan discharging past the partition into the upper portion of the other chamber and the air heating passageway. Substantially the whole flat top of the cabinet or casing is open,
and this open top and the corresponding open upper end of the air heating passageway may be closed by a top closure unit which is biased toward open position and retained in closed position by the manually operable and temperature responsive latch unit which will permit this top to open to vent the trapped hot air upon failure of the blower unit to cause downward air iiow. The bottom of the air heating passageway is closed by a bottom plate for the casing which also mounts the combustion unit. The lower opening consists of a long narrow opening (or series of smaller openings formed by a grille) horizontally directed and extending across the front (and, if desired, across one end) of the casing close to but spaced a safe distance above the floor (in the neighborhood of six inches in the embodiments shown). Preferably, this opening (or these openings) are relatively restricted so that the issuing air is horizontally directed by the jet effect and so that the air heating passageway serves as a plenum chamber. Thus, with the top closure shut and the fan running, the high temperature air is discharged in a wide, thin, high velocity stream horizontally across and close to the oor and spaced just high enough above the oor to prevent burning or dangerous overheating thereof by the high temperature air.
For low fuel settings when the blower-forced circulation is not desired, or upon failure of the blower, the device may operate like a conventional air circulating space heater with the high temperature air rising freely through the large area open top.
In the present invention, the top and top closure units of the above mentioned application (i. e. their top grilles, the multiple shutter unit,
and the thermostatic latch means) are replaced by a single upwardly opening cover or lid for substantially the entire open top of the casing. 'lhis lid cooperates with the top of the above mentioned partition to close completely the upper end of the air heating passageway, or, if desired, relatively smaller or restricted openings may be provided through this portion of the lid to permit a slight upper air discharge along with the floor level air discharge. This lid is primarily a one-piece unit and replaces not only the shutter assembly but the top grille of the above mentioned previous applications. When closed, the lid is so designed that it forms a top for the cabinet which blends gracefully into its design. If it is desired to have the top relatively flat so that it could support cooking vessels or other objects which might be placed thereon and prevent its safety opening, it is desirable to provide an auxiliary or additional thermostatically operated opening means in the top of the cabinet which will only operate at a high temperature and upon a failure of the main lid to open. As shown, this single safety closure plate swings downwardly and inwardly by gravity and is positioned under a curved decorative grille along the front upper edge of the rectangular cabinet.
In the second embodiment of this invention, the space heater is simplifled by providing an upwardly curved, domed or rounded lid which will not readily support cooking vessels or other objects so that no auxiliary opening unit is necessary.
Other features and arrangements of this invention will be apparent from the detailed description and the drawings herein.
Accordingly, the objects of this invention are to provide an improved space heater of the type generally described above, and particularly to provide a simple, trouble free and attractive closure in the form of a lid covering the top of the casing which is rearwardly hinged and upwardly swingable so that when it is open for gravity air circulation it will direct forwardly the upwardly rising air; to provide an improved, simple, manually and thermostatically operable latch for such a lid; to provide an auxiliary or emergency top closure for use with such a lid and a temperature responsive latch therefor; to provide a flat cooking grille under the lid arranged so that it is entirely concealed when the lid is closed and so that it functions as a decorative inner grille when the lid is open; to provide an arrangement for improved blower-forced air circulation forwardly just above the floor level and with a limited discharge from the upper part of the heater casing; to provide an arrangement in which the humidifier water tank shields the inner oil tank from the direct heat of the combustion unit; and to provide additional vent openings (preferably in that portion of the lid over the oil tank chamber) to permit a cooling, chimneytype air circulation up through the oil tank chamber when the fan is off and before the lid opens, which vent openings also serve as an additional air intake for the fan when it is running.
Other objects of this' invention will be apparent from the foregoing statement of the general features and advantages and from the following detailed description, drawings, and the claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the space heater with the lid closed, the arrows indicating generally the blower-forced air circulation for the several openings;
Fig. 2 is a perspective view similar to Fig. l except that the lid is open for upward or convection ow out of theopen top;
Fig. 3 is a view taken on a vertical section across the heater witl" the inside parts partly sectioned to show their construction;
Fig. 4 is a top plan view partly sectioned or with part of the lid and casing being broken away to show the interior arrangement;
Fig. 5 is a detail sectional view taken on the line 5--5 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 6 is a detail sectional view taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 5, but showing the lid in closed position;
Fig. 7 is a detail sectional view taken on the line 'I-'I of Fig. 5:
Fig. 8 is a detail sectional view taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 9 is a detail sectional view generally similar to Fig. 6 but showing a modification; and
Fig. 10 is like Fig. 9 except that the lid is in open position.
The space heater unit comprises the cabinet outer casing or shell indicated as a whole by the numeral l having a lower front grille 2 forming an opening or series of openings extending across the entire front of the heater. In this specific embodiment as manufactured, the bottom of this grille is about ve inches from the oor and the upright slots or stamped openings 5 of the grille are about 2% inches high. As shown, the grille extends across substantially the whole front of the heater so that its right-hand portion opens out from the lower portion of the air heating passage of the air heating chamber while its left-hand portion serves as an air inlet into the oil tank chamber on the other side of the parttion. As illustrated, this grille or series of openings is formed integrally with the walls of the casing I by the stamped or cut out portions 5 between the integral in-turned or U-shaped metal upright members 6 which occupy approximately $41 or of the area of the grille. As will be apparent, the integral U-section uprights of this grille make for a rigid casing wall and do not weaken it as would a large cut out opening to receive a separate grille member. As shown, the numerous relatively small openings 5 of the grille 2 are in the vertical wall of casing I so that they are horizontally directed.
The oil tank end of the heater unit has a similar grille 3, and the other or combustion unit end of the heater also has a similar grille l.
As illustrated, the casing or cabinet is preferably formed of a plurality of bolted-up sheet metal sections or stampings, which include the combustion unit end piece II, the oil tank end piece I2, the front I4, and the back I3. The end pieces Il and I2 are curved to form the rounded upright corners, and both of the end pieces and the front and back pieces are curved along their upper edges to form rounded upper corners to strengthen the cabinet and give it a more graceful appearance. These sections are joined by the integral in-turned flange I5 on section I2 and the matching in-turned integral flange I6 on the section I4 which are tightly secured together by bolts Il. The other joints are similarly connected. It will be apparent, however, to those skilled in the art that this casing may be formed in other ways if desired.
As shown, substantially the entire top of the cabinet is open at 20. This opening 20 communicates with the open upper end of the passageway or space on either side of the upright partition. A shown, the one-piece type cover generally indicated by 2| forms a top or lid for the top or uppermost portion of the cabinet and closes the entire opening 20 (except for the small openings in this lid 2| discussed below). The whole of this lid is formed by the one-piece stamping 22 except for the few fittings and attachmentsmentioned below. If desired, a grille 23 of relatively restricted openings may be formed in the lid of the combustion unit. This grille is formed by elongated punched or stamped-in openings 5 separated by U-shaped metal portions 6 of the lid itself similar to the construction of the integral front grille 2. These openings are relatively restricted and, in addition, they are baiiled or shielded by a spaced baille ,gli
plate 25, the bent up ends of which are spot welded or otherwise suitably secured to the piece 23. Thus, only a comparatively small amount oi air pressure in the air passage or space above the combustion unit will be forced out of the openings of this grille 23. Identical grille 24 is symmetrically positioned at the other end of the lid 2| so that it comes over the oil tank chamber on the other side of the partition: however, there is no baille plate in connection with grille 24 so that it has the effect of a larger opening. It has proven advantageous in providing an additional air supply for the fan |21 when it is running and provides a partial top vent to permit of an upward or chimney-type circulation through the oil tank chamber when the fan is not running and before the lid has opened in response to a higher temperature, thus aiding in keeping the oil tank and particularly the motor cooler during this period. In addition, this symmetrically opposed grille gives a balanced appearance to the top of the space heater.
As shown, the main lid piece or stamping 22 has a removable curved-over down-turned flange 231 along all four of its edges. Preferably the lid 2| is hinged at its rear so that it can be swung upwardly and stopped in an inclined position so that when open it will direct or deect the upwardly rising high temperature air forwardly into the room instead of permitting it to rise straight up. As shown, the lid 2| is hinged or pivoted on rod 26, the two ends of which are mounted in suitable openings in the downwardly-turned integral flanges 21 formed around the back and ends of the open top of the cabinet. Similarly, this rod 26 extends through suitable bearing openings in the end flanges 231 on the lid piece 2| and through a similar opening in member |38.
Thedownwardly extending integral flange 21 has an inwardly extending shelf portion 211 upon which the lower edge of the lid flange 231 rests when the lid is closed. This shelf portion 21 is not formed on the back section |3 and is cut away toward the rear of the end sections and |2 to permit free downward travel for those p0rtions of the lid flanges 231 which are in back of the pivot 26.
The central lower front portion of the casing I has a suitable opening 281 for the conventional hinged or removable door 28 having a handle 29. The lower portion of the oil tank end of the cabinet has a suitable opening 3| receiving a removable plate or door 3|) to permit access to the oat valve and fuel control unit 55. This plate 30 has a suitable handle 34 and is held in place in corresponding opening 3| by upper spring clip 32 and a suitable lower spring clip 33. The upper edge of the opening 3| has an integral-bent shoulder 34 upon which the plate 30 is seated, and the turned-over edge of which engages a spring clip 32. As illustrated, the integral grille 3 is formed in the lower portion of this plate 30.
The upper portion of the oil tank end of the cabinet has a similar door or removable plate 35 held in corresponding opening 35 by the topsecuring clip 38 and the bottom integral-hinged tangs 39 projecting through suitable openings in the wall of the casing so that this plate may be swung downwardly when opened by the handle 31 to give access to the motor fan unit |25 and particularly to permit filling of the oil tank 66 by pulling the slide drawer type oil ller out this opening. Also, the oil tank level gauge 661.
eiCll i ff?" maybe inspected by'opening this door. This door plate has an integral grille 351 serving an additional air inlet for the fan when it isA running and aiding in keeping the oil tank cool. The end wall |2 has another integral grille 391 formed like grille 2 just below the top of the oil tank to serve as an additional air inlet means and to aid in keeping the oil tank cool.
Angle straps are spot welded to the bottom of the shell at its rounded corners, and suitable removable bolts 4| secure the stamped one-piece sheet metal feet 42 to the bottom of the casing through suitable holes in the one-piece stamped bottom or base plate 44 which extends into the rounded corners and closes the entire bottom of the casing except for the openings under the oil tank and combustion tank. 'I'his one-piece base plate 44 may be stiened by a suitable pattern of embossed ribs and has an up-turned ange 45 extending around all four sides but cut away at the rounded corners for easy manufacture and to allow for the angle 4|I. Bottom plate 44 is suitably secured to the bottom of the casing walls by this ange 45. Plate 44 has a downwardly-embossed or downwardly-extending rib 41 to form a depression to position and serve as an accurate seat for the lower edge of the combustion drum walls. Centrally of this rib there is a combustion air opening 46 having downwardly-tumed integral tangs 48 with reduced bent-over ends 50 extending through suitable slots in and holding the spaced and slightly larger bale plate 5|. The lefthand portion of the bottom plate 44 has a large cut out opening 52 which is slightly larger in area than the bottom of the oil tank to provide a free, unhampered flow of air in at the bottom of the casing to provide a cooling chimney flow up around the valve unit 55, the oil tank 69, and the electric motor |26 during gravity circulation, and to provide an air inlet for the fan |21 during blower operation. As shown, a similar up-turned flange 45 bounds the right-hand edge of this opening.
A conventional float level control and adjustable fuel flow control unit 55 is mounted on a cross strap 56 which is suitably secured to the base plate 44. The rotatable control valve portion 58 of this unit is manually adjusted by a rotatable rod 59 having a loose connection with the fork in the upper end of 58 to take care of the angularity shown. The oil tank 6|) having a suitable float oil level indicator 601 is removably mounted on the inner side of the partition 66 and, as shown, is spaced from this partition to form an air space or upwardly-extending air passage or chimney 6|. In addition, this tank is spaced from the end Wall of the cabinet to provide a similar air space or chimney 62 so that cooling air may freely ow up around all fourl sides of this tank. Suitable pipes connect the oil tank to the control unit 55 and the unit 55 to the pot type burner in the drum |61. The upright partition or heat shield or baille 66 extends from front to back of the casing and from its bottom plate up nearly to the lid 2|. This plate'has a circular cut out opening slightly larger in diameter than fan |21 which is bounded by in-turned stiening tlange 66. As shown, the
upright edges of the plate 66 have integral anges 69 turned in towards the oil tank to engage the front and back walls of the casing As shown. these anges are cut away close to the bottom. Partition plate 66 may be stiil'ened by a suitable pattern embossed corrugation 1n. Plate 66 has spaced integral bulged or stamped-out portions 12 having keyhole slots to removably receive an enlarged or button head upon the member 13 fixed to the oil tank 60. An angle bracket 14 fixed on the lower end of the oil tank rests against plate 66. A nat upright and open topped humidier water tank 16 is removably mounted on and spaced from the other side of the partition 66 like oil tank 60 by spaced buttons 11 removably received in keyhole slots formed in the pressed out portion 18 and with the brackets 19 on its lower end resting against wall 66.
The swing-up and slide-out drawer-type oil ller unit 80 comprises a one-piece stamping drawer or pan portion 8| having integral outturned side flanges 8|1 which are freely slidably received in guide grooves formed beneath the upwardly swingable hinged cover plate 85 and its lower and side grooves forming member 89. Cover plate 85 has integral downwardly and inwardly-turned hinge forming tangs 86 received in suitable openings in the oil tank top 81. The inner end of member 8| is closed by the channel member 83 having a lower oil filling' opening 84, and the other end of drawer member 8| has an integral upwardly and outwardly-turned central handle member 82 which projects up through a suitable opening in the end of the cover plate 85 so that the user may open the door 35 and, by taking hold of the handle 82, raise the hinged cover plate 85 together with the drawer 8| and pull the drawer out through the opening 3| to readily receive the oil without dangerous spilling. However, it will be understood that other or conventional forms of oil filling arrangements may be employed in this organization.
'Ihe upper end of the slightly sloped control rod 59 extends over to the upper middle portion of the end wall I2 and through the bottom wall of an integral stamped in recess or depression 9| so that the conventional control knob 90 is recessed below the surface of the end wall I2. As will be apparent, this arrangement eliminates the necessity for any universal joints in the control line 59 and permits a nearly straight up connection which does not require a gearing or other type of motion transmitting unit at its upper end.
Partition plate 66 is removably mounted in the casing by spot welded spring clips 94 engaging down on the up-turned flange 45 at the edge of opening 52 and is also held by clips or retainer members 95 which, as shown, are spot welded onto the front and back walls of casing I and project through suitable openings or slots in plate 66 to engage its ange 69.
The whole air heating unit is spaced inwardly from the front and back walls of the casing, one end wall, and the partition 66 to form a heating unit chamber or an upwardly-extending air-heating chamber |001. The upright combustion drum IOI has a closed top |03 and a conventional flue or stack connection Jn its upper back portion extending through 1. suitable opening |08 in the shield |01 and a. suitable opening (not shown) in the back of the casing. A spaced radiation shield or shroud surrounds drum |0| nearly to its bottom and provides an inner air heating passageway |0|1 These two air-heating passageways |001 and |0I1 may be considered generally as one upwardly-extending air-heating passageway |23.
A conventional pot-type burner ||I is suitably mounted in the lower portion of the drum |0I. This drum isheld down in the groove 41 by suitable removable holding means such as the hook or bolt unit 6 extending up through the part of the drum. The drum has a conventional hinged door I I9 with a corresponding opening |20 formed in the shield |01. 'I'his shield |01 is mounted on the drum I0| by welded-on angle straps having reduced ends |22 passing through suitable openings or slots in the shield |01 and then slightly twisted. The motor fan unit |26 comprises a conventional electric motor |26 (energized through the wiring), a back-mounted switch box |261, and a. single, wide blade, quiet type fan |21 mounted directly on the motor shaft. The motor |26 is removably and resiliently mounted on the down-turned cross channel |28 which, in turn, rests on and is bolted to the angle straps |29 spot welded or otherwise secured to the front and back walls of the casing. The motor is hung from member |28 by springs |30 and is connected to these springs by a removable clamp band, as shown. Springs |30 are designed to prevent the vibration from the motor fan unit being transmitted to the casing. The motor support channel |28 also serves to brace the front and back walls of the casing in addition to the removable partition plate 66.
An open grille unit is positioned conveniently beneath the lid 2| and extends across from end to end o1' the open top of the heating unit chamber. When the lid is open, this unit serves as a decorative grille and also may be used for cooking or warming. As shown, the end rod portions of this grille |35 extend through suitable holes in and are supported by angle |42 and the channel I4I.
As shown in Figs. 3, 5 and 6, an extension plate |36 is mounted on the upper end of partition plate 66 between it and the channel |4|. This plate |36 extends up to meet the innerside of the lid portion 22 and also extends from the very back or into the curved portion of the casing forward to engage and form a seal with the later-described fixed plate |10. This extension portion |36 of partition 66 is useful in completely closing off the oil tank chamber from the heating chamber, and it prevents any recirculation of a swirling ow of air from the fan back into the oil tank chamber. As shown, plate |36 has a more or less semi-circular cut out portion |31 to pass the pivot rod 26 and the rearward anges 231 on the lid 2|. The opening formed by this cut out portion |31 is sealed when the lid is closed by a plate |38 which is spot welded or otherwise suitably secured on the lid portion 22 by an upper integral ange. This plate |38 also serves as an additional mounting or support for the rod 26.
'Ihe downwardly and rearwardly-extending, roughly triangular-shaped plate |39 is spot welded to the end of flange or lip 231 of the lid. The forward edge of the member |39 cooperates with the stop member |40 which is formed of strap metal suitably bolted to the ange I6 or otherwise secured to the casing and has a turnedback end portion |44 to form two legs to receive the member |39 between them so that the forward edge of the member |39 will abut against the closed end portion between these two legs. In addition, member |39 serves as a connecting means or lever arm for the coil spring |43 which biases the lid 2| towards open position. As shown in Figs. 3 and 4, the fixed end of spring |43 has its hook secured in a suitable hole in the inwardly extending or depressed portion 9| so that no additional bracket or the like is necessary.
The manually operable and temperature responsive latch mechanism for holding the biased lid in closed position until it is desired to release it manually or until the temperature has risen to a predetermined point upon failure of operation of the blower, comprises the bell crank lever |45 pivoted intermediate its length on the pin |451 which is suitably secured and which passes through suitable spacers and is mounted in the upwardly opening channel |4|, plate |88, and partition 88-all as shown in Fig. 6. The upper end of bell crank lever |45 has a forwardly-opening notch |41, and its lower end is formed with a portion bent at right angles to the rest of the lever. This portion has a slot |45 to loosely and slidably receive the free end of the cantilever-supported bimetallic leaf spring |48, the other end of which is bolted on spacers secured to the bottom of channel |4I, as shown. 'Ihe bimetallic spring |48 is arranged so that its free end bends downwardly upon an increase in temperature. The notch |41 is designed to engage the freely rotatable friction-reducing roller |49 which is mounted on a suitable pin in the U-shaped bracket member |50 which is spot welded to the forward portion of the lid member 22. As shown, the upper forward end of the bell crank lever |45 is cut on on a slant to form a sloped camming portion so that when the temperature of the upper portion of the heater unit, and consequently the bimetallic spring, is low and this spring is urging the forward or upper arm of the bell crank lever |45 forwardly, the lid may be manually pushed down and retained closed since the roller |49 will engage this camming portion and push the upper end of the lever slightly rearwardly so that the spring |48 will be slightly sprung to permit the roller |49 to seat in the notch |41 and hold the lid closed. The mechanism and the spring |48 are calibrated so that the spring will exert a sufllcient force through the lever |45 to release the latch and permit the lid to rise at a predetermined temperature safely below a temperature which would injure the electric motor |28 or the finish of the heater unit. Thus, if the unit has been set for blower operation with the lid closed and the burner turned up to high re, the lid will be automatically opened at this predetermined temperature upon failure of the blower, if the oper-I ator forgets to turn on the blower, or if the fan motor electric cord is pulled out of the wall socket or the like.
The friction-reducing roller |49 is important since it permits a simple, cheap; and relatively weak bimetallic spring to release the lid 2| which is rather powerfully biased toward open position. Similarly, the slidable connection of the end of the spring |48 in the slot 48 aids in permitting the use of a simple leaf spring blmetallic element.
The rotatable control rod |52 is mounted in suitable holes |53 in the end wall of the casing i and in :artition 88. Its outer end carries a suitable manually operable knob |58, and its inner end has a bent-over portion |54 positioned so t'hat when it is swung downwardly it will exert a camming action and downward push on the bimetallic leaf spring |48 to open the latch and release the lid. It will be apparent that this freely rotatable control rod |52 will not interfere with the operation of the bimetallic spring |48 at any other time. 'I'he forward upper edge or corner of the casing is open and is covered by a curved or rounded grille |51 formed of Cil spaced upright bars supported at their upper ends by a suitable retaining angle |59. However, it
will be apparent that this grille |51 may, if de-Vv sired, be formed as an integral part of the cabinet front piece |4 by the use of stamped-in openings, as disclosed in connection with grille 2 but curved like the grille |51. Beneath this grille |51 there is an upwardly and rearwardly-iriclined one-piece shutter or closure plate |59 which extends across the whole front of the heating unit chamber nearly over to the partition 88 in one direction, and up to a suitably mounted end-closing plate |591. Plate |591 is used so that it is not necessary for the shutter |59 to extend into the curved portion or casing top end. This shutter plate |59 is pivoted or hinged at its bottom and is held by a temperature-responsive latch calibrated to release it and permit it to drop freely by gravity at a slightly higher temperature than the temperature for which the main lid is set. Thus, if the main lid fails to open for any reason, this emergency closure |59 will open and vent the upper part of the air heating passage sumciently to prevent injury to the casing nish, the electric motor, etc.
Angle brackets are spot welded on the inner lower edge of the plate |59, and the free ends of these brackets |80 are pivoted by suitable bolts |8| to angle brackets |82 spot welded on the front wall of the heater section |4. This shutter |59 may be raised after it is dropped by opening the main lid and reaching in through the opening 20. It is retained in its upper closed position by a bimetallic spring and latch unit |88 which is arranged to move away from plate |59 upon an increase in temperature to disengage its bent portion |84 from a projection which is engaged in a suitable slot or opening |85 connected into the flange |68 on the end of plate 59.. The other end of this cantilever-mounted leaf spring |89 is secured to journal |4| by a screw or bolt |81. The balance of the space under the grille |51 is closed or substantially closed by a similar but fixed inclined plate |10, the end flange of which |12 is cut away as shown at |13 to permit free movement of the projecting spring portion |84. As will be apparent, the extension |38 cooperates with a portion of fixed plate |10 which extends beyond it, and with the movable shutter |59 to substantially close this portion of the top of the casing or the upper end of the air heating passageway. In the embodiment illustrated, plate |59 has a limited number of relatively small openings |88, and fixed plate |10 has similar openings |18. These openings |88 and |18 are formed like the openings 5 of grille 2 and serve, during blower operation to discharge a limited amount of air forwardly and slightly upwardly in addition to the limited upward flow through the grille 23. The openings |18 give a symmetrical or balanced appearance to the whole unit and serve, like grille 24, to vent the top of the oil tank chamber or as an additional air inlet for the fan when it is running.
Thus these two sets of upper openings (i. `e. grille 23 and openings |88) give an upwardly and forwardly-inclined flow in addition to the horizontally directed forward and end floor level flow from the bottom grilles 2 and 4. 'Thus this heater 1las what may be termed an all directional" In the modification show'n in Figs. 9 and 10, the organization is the same except that the nat top lid of Figs. 1-8 is replaced by a rounded or domed lid 2| a which ls formed of a single piece 22a. This piece 22a. may, if desired, be curved from end to end as well as from front to back and is preferably perforated so that it completely closes the top of the upwardly-extending airheating passageway. The curvature of this lid will give a more graceful design to the unit as a whole and obviates any necessity for an auxiliary or emergency top-venting closure such as |59 since cooking vessels or the like cannot readily be placed upon curved lid 2|a, and this is the primary reason for failure of the opening of this main lid. If desired, the upper portion of the front wall section |4a may be formed of integral curved portion |51a in lieu of the grille member |51. Suitable integral openings may be formed in member |51a, and its upper edge is formed with a downwardly-projecting flange or shelf 21a which, with similar shelves at the ends of the casing, supports the open cooking grille |35a which, in this embodiment, may conveniently be mounted closer to the top of the casing.
Operation The conventional pot-type burner may be lighted through the door 28, the opening |20, and the door I9. The oil flow from the tank 60, and accordingly the height of the flame, may be regulated by the combined constant level float and control valve unit 55 by means of the one-piece upright control rod 59 which has, at its upper end, the handle 90 contained in the integral recess 9|.
This heater operates by natural gravity or upward circulation when the blower unit |25 is not turned on or upon its failure to operate due to the cord |261 being pulled out of the wall plug, a breakdown, or other reasons. It will be understood that this heater unit may be made without a blower unit if it is desired to use it only with gravity circulation. In this case, the lid will be closed during non use and present a better appearance and prevent the accumulation of dust or the like inside. It will also be apparent that this unit may be operated with the fan unit |25 running and with the lid 2| open. Although this type of operation is not intended, no harm will result since there will be an upward or gravity circulation and the fan will have relatively little effect except to force the upper air discharge somewhat over to the right.
During this gravity circulation, cooler air from adjacent the floor will enter the right end opening 4 and the front opening V2, rise into the upwardly-extending air-heating passageway |23, and go out through the large area open top 20 to the right of the partition 66 and its top extension plate |36. In addition, there will be an additional gravity r chimney-type circulation of air up through the oil tank chamber on the other side of the partition 66. Cool air will enter this chamber or upwardly-extending passageway principally through the large area bottom opening 52 and also through the opening and the lefthand end of the front opening 2. This cooler air will rise up around the constant level and valve unit 55 and up around all sides of the oil tank 60 and around the electric motor |26 to keep these units cool and prevent undue vaporization of the oil. Additional oil-tank-cooling air is admitted through the opening 391. Air may also enter through the opening 351. The air from this oil tank chamber or passageway will rise freely through the left-hand portion of the top opening 20, although some of it may be sucked through the fan opening into the higher velocity stream in the combustion unit passageway.
As indicated in Figs. 2, 5 and 10, the upwardlyrising heated air from the combustion unit passageway (and, to a certain extent, the lesser current of heated air from the oil tank passageway) will be directed forwardly into the room by the lid 2| which is upwardly inclined when it is in its open position and thus prevents the heated air from rising straight up toward the ceiling and gives a more desirable circulation. The inner metal surface of the upwardly and forwardly tilted open lid (see Figs. 5 and l0) will also reflect the upwardly directed radiant heat from the combustion drum IDI and its top |03 forwardly and downwardly into the room. As will be readily apparent, the angle at which this radiant heat is directed by reflection will depend on the angle of opening of the lid 2| or 2|A. It will also be apparent that since the combustion drum, and particularly its rather large area flat top, will normally operate at a rather high temperature of the exposed metal surfaces of the drum and its top, there will be an appreciable amount of upwardly-directed radiant heat which will necessarily or inherently be reflected forwardly into the room from the inclined inner surface of the metal lid 2|, the amount of heat energy being reected depending, of course, on the nature of the inner surface of lid 2|. It will be apparent that the lid -may be arranged to be straight up in its open position to omit these features if desired.
For fan-forced operation, the lid 2| is closed by pushing it down so that the roller |49 acts on the upper sloped or camming portion of the bell crank lever |45 to deflect the bimetallic spring |48 and permit the roller |49 to enter the retaining notch |41 so that this mechanism .then acts as a latch to hold the lid in closed position. The blower is turned on by the switch on the back of the heater in the line |261. Preferably, although not necessarily, the blower operation is used for the higher fuel settings since the blower will give a greater air flow through the air heating passageway than is possible with gravity circulation, to thus increase the heat transfer capacity of the heater and permit a greater B. t. u. output without too high temperatures in the combustion unit or its casing and associated parts.
During blower operation, the normal upward or chimney circulation in the oil tank passageway is assisted or accelerated by the suction of the fan |21. Additional air is supplied to the fan by the opening 351, by the opening or openings 24 in the left-hand end of the lid, and the openings |18 in the fixed inclined plate |10. The fan forces this relatively low temperature air into the combustion unit chamber or air heating passageway |23. With the lid closed, the discharge openings fror` this chamber are relatively restricted so that it forms a plenum chamber in which the fan builds up a slight pressure. The major part of the discharge takes place through that portion of the lower front opening 2 which opens into the passageway |23 and through the end opening 4. Since these openings 2 and 4 are relatively restricted and are horizontally directed, and due to their spacing close to but just above the floor, they cooperate with the plenum chamber to direct the high temperature air substantially horizontally by a jet or nozzle effect. This effect is increased by the use of a plurality -U L. k),
of smaller openings to form each of the grille openings 2 and 4. Thus the high temperature air is discharged in a substantially horizontal stream across and close to the floor but just high enough above the oor (approximately six inches) to prevent dangerous or objectionable overheating of the oor close in front of the heater.
In addition, a limited amount of air is discharged through the forwardly and upwardlyrestricted openings |68 in the movable shutter or plate |59 behind the grille |51 and through the opening 23 in the right-hand portion of the lid 2|, which opening is additionally restricted by the plate 25. It is noted that this baiiie plate 25 is open at its right and lefthand ends so that it can be readily cleaned.
As shown in the alternative embodiment of Figs. 9 and 10, the lid 2|a may be made imperfcrate and the top entirely closed so that all of the discharge takes place through the lower openings.
The plate humidii'ler tank 16, which is substantially co-extensive in area with the oil tank 60, shields the oil tank from direct heat from the combustion unit and reduces unwanted oil vaporization. Note that the space between the humidier tank 16 and the partition 66 on which it is mounted, provides an additional air-insulated space and an upwardly-extending passage through which the air may freely rise. It will be apparent that this humidifier tank will not only discharge water vapor into the heated air but will act as a heat shield for the oil tank during both blower operation and gravity circulation operation.
If the temperature in the upper part of the cabinet becomes too high so that it would injure the finish of the cabinet or possibly the electric motor |26, the upwardly-biased lid 2| is automatically opened by the temperature-responsive latch mechanism which is, in effect, actuated in response to operation or non-operation of the fan. Such an excess rise in temperature will be caused if the fan fails or is turned off at a high fuel setting with the lid closed. This excessive or high temperature will cause the bimetallic spring |48 to bend downwardly and thus release the easily operated latch roller |49 from the retaining notch |41 to permit the lid to fly open and vent the upper part of the casing through the large area opening 20. As indicated by the arrow in Fig. 3, the temperature-responsive element |48 is positioned in a part of the blast from the fan |21 so that it is kept relatively cool whenever the blower is running even though the temperatures in the rest of the upper part of the airheating passageway may be rather high. When the blower goes oif, the temperature of the bimetallic element |48 is rapidly and materially increased so that it has a denite powerful action which permits the use of a simple and cheap temperature-responsive mechanism and eliminates the need for any relays or the like. It will be apparent that the latch mechanism may be operated to release the lid at any time by the camming action of the bent-over end |54 on the rotatable rod |52. This handle-controlling unit will not interfere with operation of the bimetallic element |48 at other times since the rod |52 is freely rotatable. To accentuate the action of the fan blast upon the bimetallic element |48, the fan may be positioned so that its blades project slightly through the opening in the partition plate 66, although this is not essential since some of the discharge from a propeller-type fan of this type is somewhat radially directed from the edges so that it would strike the bimetallic element |48 even though the fan did not project through this opening in partition 66.
As an additional safeguard against failure of the lid 2| to open, which would generally be caused by a cooking vessel or other object being placed thereon, the auxiliary or emergency topclosure plate 59 (which is gravity biased to drop down into open position) is released by the temperature responsive bimetallic latch element |63. Since comparatively little force is required to hold plate |59 in closed position, it is not essential that this bimetallic element |63 be positioned in the fan blast. As will be apparent, the emergency closure plate |59 can be manually returned to closed position by rst opening the lid 2| and reaching down through the opening 20 to lift plate |59 to its upper position where it will be held by the latch elements |64 or |65.
In the modification shown in Figs. 9 and 10, the curved or domed top lid 2|a substantially prevents the placing of ordinary at bottomed objects on the lid and thus eliminates the necessity for an auxiliary top-closure plate.
It is to be understood that the specific embodiments of the invention described herein are to be taken as preferred examples of the same and that various modifications and changes in the size, shape, arrangement and uses of the several parts, features and sub-combinations may be resorted to without departing from the teaching or the spirit and substance of the present invention, the scope of which is commensurate with the appended claims.
1. An air circulating space heater for rooms or the like comprising a floor-supported, upright casing enclosing an air heating combustion drum and having a lower air intake opening and a heated air discharging upper opening, blower means discharging into said casing, an upwardly swingable member forming a closure for said upper opening and a cover forming the top of said casing and permitting access to the space therebelow, and temperature responsive means to open said member to an inclined position to direct heat forwardly.
2. An air circulating space heater for rooms or the like comprising a floor supported, upright casing enclosing an air heating combustion means and having a lower air intake opening and a heated air discharging upper opening, blower means discharging into said casing, an upwardly swingable cover forming a closure for said upper opening and a top cover for the top of said casing and permitting access to the space therebelow, and temperature responsive means to open said cover positioned in the blast of said blower means, said cover directing heat forwardly when in its open position.
3. An air circulating space heater for rooms or the like comprising a floor-supported, upright casing. an upright partition dividing said casing into a rst chamber and a second chamber, said iirst chamber having an air inlet opening, a fan in said first chamber discharging into said second chamber, said second chamber containing a combustion air heating unit, said casing having a lower air opening for said second chamber and an open top, and a swingable lid for said casing top arranged, when closed, to cooperate with the top of said partition to substantially close the top of said second chamber so that heated air is forced out of said lower opening by said fan means and, when open, to permit the heated air to rise up out of said open top.
4. The organization set forth in claim 3 in which said lid also covers the upper end of said rst chamber and has an opening therethrough to provide an air inlet for said fan means and an air discharge when said fan means is not operative.
5. The organization set forth in claim 3 in which a spring biasing said lid toward open position is located in said first chamber removed from the heat from said combustion unit.
6. An air circulating space heater comprising an upright casing enclosing an air heating combustion unit and having a lower air intake opening and a heated air discharging upper opening, a cover forming an openable closure for said upper opening and also forming an unobstructed top for said casing and permitting access to the space therebelow, means biasing said cover toward its open position, and temperature responsive latch means to hold said cover closed and to release it at a predetermined temperature.
'7. A space heater comprising a casing enclosing an upwardly extending, air heating passageway having a lower opening and an upper opening, blower means having an air inlet and discharging into said passageway to cause downward air i'low therethrough, a swingable lid for the top of said casing to selectively substantially close or open said upper opening for downward flow out through said lower opening or for upward thermal convection iiow out through said upper opening respectively, and means responsive to non-operation of said blower means to open said lid to an inclined heat-directing position.
8. A unit space heater circulating heated air by natural, upward, thermal convection or by downward, blower-induced, contra thermal flow and having an upright combustion heating unit and an upright, floor-supported, open top cabinet enclosing and laterally spaced from said upright combustion heating unit to provide an upwardly extending air heating passage opening through said cabinet for entry of air to be discharged through said open top by said natural thermal convection, means to cause said downward contra thermal ow out said lower opening including a blower having air inlet means and discharging into said passage and an upwardly opening hinged lid covering the open top of said cabinet when closed, means to open said lid automatically upon stopping of said blower causing an excessive rise in temperature in the upper part of said cabinet, an auxiliary upper opening in said cabinet for said air heating passage, means normally closing said auxiliary opening, and means to open automatically said normally closed means upon a stopping of said blower causing an excessive rise in temperature in the upper part of said cabinet and upon failure of opening of said hinged lid.
9. A unit space heater for rooms or the like comprising an upright, Hoor-supported casing having an open top and a relatively restricted, horizontally directed opening close to but spaced safely above the room floor, said casing containing a combustion heating unit having a stack and a contiguous upwardly extending passageway communicating with said openings for heating air to a high temperature, fan means having an air inlet and discharging into the upper portion of said passageway, an openable lid covering and substantially closing said open top to form a plenum chamber in said casing from which high temperature air is discharged and directed by said 4relatively restricted opening in a fan forced', horizontal stream across and close to the room oor but slightly above said floor to avoid overheating thereof, and means to hold said lid open to permit said high temperature air to rise out of said open top by gravity circulation and to reflect forwardly radiant heat from the high temperature combustion heating unit.
10. A floor-supported space heater having an upright casing, a combustion heating unit therein hav-ing a stack, an upwardly extending air heating passageway Contiguous to and associated with said heating unit, a high temperature air discharging lower opening communicating with said passageway, blower means discharging into the upper portion of said passageway, the upper part of said casing having a main opening and an auxiliary opening communicating with the upper portion of said passageway, a downwardly movable and normally downwardly biased member, means to hold said member substantially closing said auxiliary opening, and means to release said member upon a failure of said blower means.
11. A unit space heater for rooms or the like comprising an upright, floor-supported casing having relatively restrictedl laterally directed lower openings and relatively restricted upper openings, a combustion heating unit in said casing, a stack connection for said combustion unit, an upwardly extending air heating passageway associated with said combustion unit and communicating with said openings, blower means discharging into said passageway forcing the discharge of high temperature air from both said upper and said lower openings directly into the room, and safety means to vent the upper portion of said passageway upon failure of said blower means.
12. An air circulating space heater for rooms or the like comprising a floor-supported, upright casing enclosing combustion air heating means having a stack, said casing having a lower air intake opening and a heated air discharging upper opening, an openable member normally substantially closing said upper opening and biased toward open position, and temperature responsive latch means to normally hold said member in closed position and to release it at a predetermined high temperature in said casing comprising a bimetallic leaf spring directly engaging said member.
13. An air circulating space heater for rooms or the like comprising a floor-supported, upright casing enclosing combustion air heating means having a stack, said casing having a. lower air intake opening and an open top for discharging hot air, an upwardly swingable lid for the open top of said casing serving to substantially prevent the upward passage of hot air when closed, i. eans to open said lid and to hold it open, and a horizontal grille member across said open top under said lid to hold cooking vessels or the like when said lid is open.
14. An air circulating space heater for rooms or the like comprising an air heating unit, a floor-supported, upright casing having an upper opening and a lower opening and enclosing said air heating unit and associated means forming an upwardly extending air heating passageway communicating with said openings, means to circulate air through said passage and out said lower opening, an upwardly swingable lid subasia-47e stantially closing said upper opening and the top of said casing when in its lower closed position, a stop member on said lid to limit opening movement thereof, a spring having one end fixed with respect to said casing and the other end secured to said stop member to bias said lid toward open position, and means to hold said lid in closed position and to release it upon an excess temperature.
15. AnA air circulating space heater comprising an upright, rectangular, sheet metal casing having a front and spacedly enclosing an air heating combustion drum to form an upright air heating passageway having a lower air intake opening and a heated air discharging upper opening, an upwardly-swingable, rearwardly hinged, openable safety closure for said upper opening being smoothly rounded or curved from front to back to form a cover or top for said casing which will not readily support cooking vessels or the like, which would prevent opening of said safety closure, means to circulate air through said passageway and into the room to be heated while said closure cover is closed, and means to automatically open said cover upon an excess temperature in said casing to prevent injury thereto.
16. An air circulating space heater for rooms or the like comprising an upright, oor-supported cabinet, a high temperature combustionheating drum having a hot top adjacent the top of said cabinet and a contiguous, upwardlyextending, air heating passageway, both in said cabinet, said cabinet and passageway having a lower air opening and an air discharging open top, blower means having an air inlet and discharging into said passageway to force air to circulate past said drum, a rearwardly hinged lid on said cabinet top opening upwardly to an inclined position to direct forwardly the upwardly rising heated air and to reflect forwardly the radiant heat from said high temperature combustion drum, means to hold said lid in its said open inclined position, said blower means forcing heated air out of said lower opening when said lid is closed, to substantially prevent upward convection flow of the heated air.
17. A floor-supported space heater having an upright casing containing a combustion heating unit, an associated upwardly-extending, air heating passageway open at top and bottom, and means to cause air to flow downwardly therethrough including a blower having air inlet means, said blower discharging laterally into the upper portion of said passageway and being positioned in said casing to one side of and out of the hot air rising up said passageway when its top cover is open, and a hinged, upwardly opening, imperforate cover for the top of said casing entirely closing the upper portion of said passage, and means to open said cover to permit now of hot air up said passageway and to direct heat forwa ily.
18. A floor-supported space heater having an upright casing containing a combustion heating unit and an associated upwardly-extending airheating passage open at top and bottom, blower means having an air inlet to cause air to flow downwardly therethrough, said blower means being positioned out of and to one side of said passage and discharging laterally into the upper portion of said passage, a movable closure for the upper end of said passage also serving as a top for said casing, and means to hold said closure in inclined open position to permit upward thermal air flow through said passage unobstructed by said blower means and to direct the heat forwardly.
19. A unit space heater circulating heated air by natural, upward, thermal convection or by downward, blower-induced, contra thermal ilow and having an upright combustion heating unit and an upright, floor-supported, open top cabinet enclosing and laterally spaced from said upright combustion heating unit to provide an upwardly-extending air-heating passage and having an opening through said cabinet for entry of air to be heated and discharged through said open top by said natural thermal convection, means to cause said downward contra thermal flow out said lower opening comprising air inlet means and a blower unit including a directcoupled electric motor and discharging into said passage but located out of and to one side of said passage to prevent overheating of said electric motor and obstruction of the flow of upwardly rising air, and an upwardly-opening hinged lid covering the open top of said cabinet when closed, and means to hold said lid open in inclined position to permit said upward convection flow and to forwardly direct the flow and the radiant heat.
20. A unit space heater for rooms or the like comprising an upright, floor-supported casing having a top opening and a relatively restricted, laterally directed lower opening, said casing containing a combustion heating unit having a stack and a contiguous upwardly-extending air-heating passageway communicating with said openings, fan means discharging into said passageway, a hinged metal lid openable to an inclined position for the top of said casing and substantially closing its top opening so that when said lid is closed, said passageway and casing form a plenum chamber from which the heated air under a slight pressure is discharged through said lower opening, and when said lid is open th heated air rises up through said top opening by gravity circulation and radiant heat is reflected forwardly. and means to automatically open said lid upon non-operation of said fan means.
ROBERT B. EVANS. EUGENE F. FARRELL GEORGE M. SCHUEDER.