|Publication number||US2319236 A|
|Publication date||May 18, 1943|
|Filing date||Aug 22, 1940|
|Priority date||Aug 22, 1940|
|Publication number||US 2319236 A, US 2319236A, US-A-2319236, US2319236 A, US2319236A|
|Inventors||Isaacks James D, Ralph Jones|
|Original Assignee||Sperry Sun Well Surveying Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (21), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May E8, 19143 J.--D. lsAAcKs r-:rAL
DEFLECT'ING TooL Filed Aug. 22, 1940 Trop/vf y Y Pmnted May 1s, 1943 James D. Isaacks andltalph Jones, Houston, Tex.,
assignors to Sperry-Sun Well Surveying Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Dela-4 Vware lApplication August 22, 1940, Serial No. 353,604
The invention relates to an improvement inV tools used in the deecting of well bores.
In the of wells by the rotary method a drill bit is rotated by means of a string of pipe known as the drill stem, and as the bit penetrates the earth additional sections of pipe are added.
In many instances the rotating of the bit causes the well bore to veer o1! at an angle from the vertical and this is particularly true if too much of the weight of the drill stem is allowed to rest on the blt as it is drilling. In other instances boulders, ssures in the formation being drilled, and other factors contribute in making the Well bore crooked.
In the past when a well bore was to be straightened, the practice was to insert an inclined wedgelike member known as a whipstock. so that the drilling of the well could be continued when the bit moved along this inclined surface so as to correct the deflection if the well were crooked, or to deflect the well if it were desired to incline the well in some other direction. More recent de-` iiecting tools havebeen devised wherein an inclinable member acted as the drilling bit and could :be tilted so as to cause the well to be drilled in a different direction. Various methods of orienting both the whipstock and the deiiecting tools have been devised so that both the direction and the angle of deflection can be controlled.
In still other instances where some obstruction was present in the well bore it has been desirable to deflect the well at an angle with respect to its path so as to avoid such obstruction and the whipstock and deilecting tools have also been used for this purpose. Otherdeecting operations are employed when the well bore is to be directed in a pre-determined direction as in the instance where a number of wells are drilled from the same footing and fan out in the earth in dilierent directions.
The present invention contemplates a tool and the method of utilizing it, whereinv the drilling operation can be carried on with the same tool which is utilized in electing the deflection or in correctingan inclination as the case may be.
It is one of the objects of the invention to provide a device wherein the hydraulic pressure on the drilling mud circulated in the rotary method of drilling will be used to move the drill bit to its deflecting position.
Another object of the invention is to move a drill bit off center in the well bore by hydraulic pressure.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a drill bit assembly which can be deflected by hydraulic pressure -while it is suspended oif bottom. v
It is also an object of the invention to provide a mechanically operated deflecting member which can be controlled by the application of hydraulic removed from the well bore, but which can be moved to active position by the application of hydraulic pressure.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a telescopic joint in a drill bit assembly which will eiiect the actuation of a deecting member.
Another object of the invention is to provide a deflecting member whichcan be operated by hydraulic pressure applied to the drill bit.
Other and further objects of the invention will be readily apparent when the following description is considered in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view of'a drill collar to which the invention has been applied, and illustrating the deecting member in contracted position. l l
Fig. 2 is a side elevation taken at right angles to the section of Fig. 1. I
Fig. 3 is a transverse section taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a transverse section taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 illustrates the assembly in position in the well bore with the deflecting device in operating position and the drill bit about to penetrate the bottom of the well bore after having been deected and moved on' center.
In Fig. 5 the well bore 2 has been illustrated, which well bore is to be deilected from its path and this well bore may be a well bore which has been inclined and is to be straightened, or any other well bore the drilling of which is'to be continued at an angle withrespectto itself.
The well -bore 2 'may be of any desired size but it is intended that with the present invention the drill bit such as 3 -will be oflesser diameter than the bore which has been theretofore drilled. A common instance is that if the well bore 2 were of a standard'diameter, say 9% inch, then the drill bit such as 3 would probably be 5% inches so that the bit would have considerable clearance in the well bore which would permit its being moved 01Tv center as is illustrated in Fig. 5.
The drill bit 3 is shown'as having been attached to a drill collar 4 which is in turn connected to the tool joint 5 of the drill stem 5. The -principa1 part of the invention lies in the construction of the drill collar 4 which may be made up in the form of a sub to be placed adjacent the bit 3 as illustrated, or above the conventional types of drill collar which are ordinarily used, it being understood that the drill collar usually employed is a rigid, heavy section of pipe to lend stability to the drilling operation and avoid sharp deilections if the bit should encounter obstructions. The present collar is of a particular construction, however, in that it embodies an outer collar IIJ which has the shank II of the drill bit threaded into the lower end. This barrel has a passage I2 therethrough which is restricted adjacent its lower end I3 where the passage discharges into the lower part. The outer collar I0 may be of any desired length and has a reduced upper end I4 thereon which has a nipple l5 threaded thereto. The outer barrel I is provided with a pair of elongated slots I1 in opposite sides thereof, as will be best seen in Fig. 4.
The nipple I has a longitudinal groove I8 therein which joins a recess I9 at its upper end. This recess carries a cross-pin 2| to which the upper end of a spring 22 is affixed. This spring 22 is a relatively long, flat bow spring which is shown at a somewhat larger scale in Figs. 1 and 2. In view of the fact that the upper end is aixed to the nipple I5, it seems obvious that the spring will be caused to move with the outer barrel IU and the drill bit 3.
The outer collar of the drill bit assembly are connected to and carried by an inner barrel 25 whose upper end is threaded at 26 into the tool joint 5. This inner barrel 25 is of the size to t snugly into the passage I2 and has its lower end 21 projecting downwardly inside of the collar III to almost the bottom of the passage I2 where it is reduced at I3. In this manner a sliding telescope connection is provided between the collar III and the barrel 25.
In order to limit the sliding movement of the collar and barrel, a pair oi spaced lugs 30 project from the barrel 25 into the slots I1 as best seen in Fig. 4. One of these lugs has a recess 3i therein which carries a cross-pin 32 similar to the pin 2|, and to which the lower end of the bow spring 22 is afilxed.
From the foregoing, it seems obvious that there can be relative vertical sliding movement bctween the barrel and collar, and the spring 22 is of such size and strength that it will normally support the weight of the drill bit 3 and the collar l0 while remaining in contracted position as seen in Fig. 1, so that it substantially lies in the groove I8. The normal weight of the bit and collar will not cause the spring to move to expanded position so that when the assembly is lowered into the ywell bore it will be in the position shown in Figs. 1 and 2 with the spring contracted. This spring, however, is of such strength that it may be expanded by an additional pressure which tends to move the drill bit and collar III downwardly relative to the barrel 25. It seems obvious that the pin32, being rigidly amxed through the barrel 25 to the drill stem B, can be held stationary as seen in Fig. 1.
When it is desired to expand the bow spring 22 which is the deilecting member of the tool, it is only necessary to apply pump pressure to the stream of liquid, usually drilling mud, which is being circulated downwardly through the passage 35 in the drill stem into the passage 35 in the inner barrel and thence through the passage I3 in lthe bottoml of the collar.
The assembly may be so constructed that the passage 40 in the drill bit leading to the ports 4I where it discharges from the drill bit, may be of any desired size which is less than the area of the passage 35 or 35, or even I3. In this manner when the pressure is increased on the drilling mud there will be a tendency to force the drill bit down relative to the drill stem which will be held suspended. This tendency will cause a sliding movement of the outer collar of the inner barrel. This sliding movement moves the pin 2I toward the pin 32 causing the bow spring and deilecting member to expand as seen in Fig. 5. When the spring thus expands, the drill bit 3 will be held just oil bottom in the well bore so that as the spring 22 engages the side of the well bore 2, the bit will be moved to an off center position. The bit will thus be positioned at one side of the well bore as seen at the bottom of Fig. 5, and while the pressure is still applied the entire assembly can be lowered so' that the bit will engage the bottom 3B of the well bore. Sufilcient weight can now be placed on the drill stem to force the bit into the earth formation as it is rotated. This weight may be sufficient to cause the outer barrel 25 to again telescope into the collar I0 and in this manner contract the spring 22 so as to return it to the position of Fig. 1 irrespective of the fact that the pressure is still applied through the drill stem.
On the other hand, however, the pressure applied to the drilling mud may be an excessive pressure greater than that ordinarily used during the drilling operation, and after the drill bit has been landed in a deflecting position, the pres- Sure may be reduced, allowing the spring to contract as the drill stem is lowered. In either event, it should be particularly noted that as the drilling is started and the bit assembly rotated by the drill stem. that the spring 22 is contracted so that it does not scrape around on the wall of the well bore but returns to an inoperative position where it does not interfere in any manner with the drilling o! the well bore.
It may be that the entire lower portion of the drill stem will be iiexed by the deiiecting member 22, or it may be that it is merely moved oil to one side by the deilecting member, depending upon the circumstances in the particular well.
It seems obvious that the upper end 45 of the nipple I5 on the collar I0 may abut the tool joint 5, as seen in Fig. 1, to limit the sliding movement, or the lower ends 48 of the lugs lll may abut the lower end of 41 of the slots I1.
'I'he downward sliding movement of the collar I0 relative to the barrel 25 will be limited when the upper end 48 of the lugs Ill abut the upper end 49 of the slots I'I as seen in Fig. 5. With this construction the sliding movement is limited in each direction but the spring 22 is normally of a strength to hold the parts in a.te1escoped or collapsed position as seen in Fig. l.
In operation the assembly will be arranged as seen in Figs. l and 2 and lowered into the well bore. If the well is to be deflected in any desired direction of the compass, the drill stem can be oriented so that the spring 22, or deilecting member, will be on the opposite side from the direction from which the bit is to be deflected. Various methods of orienting a drill stem in the well bore are well known. It is to be understood that the device may be used without orientation, however.
if it is merely desired te deseen the wen irrespective of direction. When the bit is lowered to a position closely adjacent the bottom of the well bore the pump pressure can be either initially ap-` plied or increased as the case may be, so as to force the drill bit andthe drill collar downwardly relative to the barrel 25 to expand the deecting member 22.
Thus the bowing of the spring causes the suspended drill bit to move to an o center or deecting position and the bit can now be lowered against the bottom of the hole to assume the position as seen in Fig. 5. The rotation oi' the bit may now be started and as the Weight is applied to the drill stem the spring will be collapsed as the barrel 25 slides down into the collar I0, or as pointed out heretofore, the pressure may be reduced to allow the spring to collapse. In either event, however, the bit Vhaving been moved to an off center position, the drilling may now begin and the well bore continued in a deflecting posi tion by virtue' of the drill stem being inclined and the fact that the bit has been positioned oi center. e
Broadly the invention contemplates a method or apparatus for deflecting bores which operates 1. A deilecting drill bit assembly including a drill stem, a barrel thereon, a collar over said barrel and slidably mounted thereon, intextting lugs and slots on said collar and barrel, a bow spring arranged longitudinally of the assembly and having one end aixed to said collar and one end to one of said lugs on saidbarrel so that when said barrel and collar are contracted the spring will be contracted, a, drill bit on said sleeve, said barrel and collar having a continuous passage therethru, ar plurality of discharge ports in said bit Whose total area is less than that of said passage to form a restriction for a flow of liquid through the assembly so that the pressure on the liquid will exert a down thrust on said bit and collar to expand said spring and move the assembly oi center of the bore While the bit is suspended oir bottom.
2. In a deilecting tool for well bore a pair of relatively movable parts, a bow spring normally the well bore to move the tool to deflecting position. Y
3. In a deecting tool for Well bore a pair of relatively movable parts, a 'bow spring normally holding said parts retracted, means to apply liquid pressure to the tool to extend said parts and bow said spring so as to contact the wall of the well bore to move the tool to deecting position, and interengaging shoulders on said parts to transmit the weight of the upper part to the lower part to overcome the force of said means and retract said spring when the lower part contacts the well bottom.
4. In a deflecting tool for well bore a pair of relatively movable parts, a bow spring normally holding said parts retracted and means to apply pressure to the tool to extend said parts and bow said spring so as to contact the Wall of the well bore to move the tool to deilecting position.
5. Directional drilling apparatus for use in combination with a hollow drill stem comprising a member arranged to be' secured to a lower portion. of a drill stem, a second member slidable relatively to said first-mentioned member, wall-engaging means secured to said members and arranged to be projected against the wall of a bore holelwhen said members occupy one relative position and arranged to occupy a retracted position when saidmembers occupy another relative position, and means restricting ilow of liquid through the drill stem to effect relative movements of said members depending upon rate of liquid ilow through the drill stem.
6. Directional drilling apparatus for use in combination with a hollow drill stem comprising a member arranged to be secured to a lower portion of a drill stem, a second member slidable relatively to said first-mentioned member, a spring element secured to said members and normally occupying a retracted position and serving to maintain said members in one relative position, and means restricting tlow of liquid through the drill stem to eilect relative movements of said members to another relative position depending upon rate of liquid flow through the drill stem, said spring element being projected against the Wall of a bore hole when the members are in the last-mentioned position.
f 7. Directional drilling apparatus for use in combination with a hollow drill stem comprising a pair of relatively slidable members forming an expansible chamber having a restricted outlet and arranged to communicate with the passage through a drill stem, and wall engaging means secured to said members and arranged to be projected against the walls of a bore hole when said y members occupy one relative position and arranged to occupy a retracted position when said members occupy another relative position, said members moving between said relative positions depending upon liquid pressure in the chamber provided thereby.
8. Directional drilling apparatus for use in combination with a hollow drill stem comprising an expansible chamber securable to a drill stem in communication with the liquid passage therethrough, and wall engaging means connected to said chamber to be projected against the walls of a bore hole and withdrawn therefrom as said chamber responds to variations in pressure of liquid passing through said drill stem.l
9.- A dei'lecting drill lcollar and bit assembly wherein the bit is to be moved olf center of the well bore in the direction of deflection while suspended off bottom of the well bore comprising a rigid drill stem, a drill collar thereon, a bit on said collar, inner and outer parts forming said collar which parts are telescopically arranged, and bow spring means normally supporting the lower part on the upper part in retracted position, and a restriction for the ow of liquid through said lower part so that liquid under pressure tends to extend said parts, bow said spring means, and move the assembly laterally in the well bore.
10. A deilecting drill bit and drill stem assembly of less diameter than the Well bore which is to be deilected thereby, including an extensible connection between the bit and stem, a wall engaging means connected to said extensible connection, means normally holding said connection retracted, said means providing a chamber extensible in response to liquid pressure applied thereto so as to project said wall engaging means laterally to engage the side of the well bore to move the bit in the bore to a deflecting position.
11. A deilecting drill bit and drill stem assembly oflessdiameterthanthevellborewhichisto enlacethesideoithewellboretomovethebit bedeiiectedtherebyincludinganextensibleeonintheboretoadeiiectingpositionsaidconneenection between the bit and stem. a wall enlllinl tion being collapsed by e pressure forcing said bit means connected to said extensible connection. against the bottom oi' the bore to return seid wall means normally holding said connection retract- 5 engaging means to an inoperative position as the ed. said means providing a chamber extensible in deflected drilling proceeds.
response to liquid pressure applied thereto so as JAMES D. ISAACKS. to project said wall enming means laterally to RAIPH JONES.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2643859 *||Nov 12, 1949||Jun 30, 1953||Eastman Brown Guy||Deflecting tool|
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|US2745634 *||Dec 30, 1952||May 15, 1956||Zublin John A||Apparatus for drilling wells with oriented curved bores of large radii|
|US2841226 *||Nov 24, 1953||Jul 1, 1958||Baker Oil Tools Inc||Well bore conduit centering apparatus|
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|US20030121702 *||Dec 13, 2002||Jul 3, 2003||Geoff Downton||Hybrid Rotary Steerable System|
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|International Classification||E21B7/04, E21B7/08, E21B7/06|