US 2319736 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 18, 1943 A. JARMOLOWSKY 2,319,736
FLUORESCENT LAMP Filed July 2, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet l wrmssszs INVENTOR WM lbraham JCLTMOZOWs/f V' Y ATTORNEYS May 18, 1943 A. JARMOLOWSKY FLUORESCENT LAMP Filed July 2, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 lllllll I I BY 772, 7W
. ATTORNEYS Patented May UNTEE ATES rel cs (llaims.
This invention relates to lamps including a plurality of illuminating or lighting elements, such as mercury vapor and fluorescent lighting elements of any color as well as white An object of the invention is the provision of a lamp of the indicated character in which the lighting elements are arranged so as to emit a maximum of light over a maximum area.
A further object in connection with a lamp of the indicated character is the provision of means whereby the amount oi light may be varied by simple manipulations to light any one lightin element, or any combination of the elements, or all of said elements simultaneously.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a hanging lamp which utilizes fluorescent tubes arranged at an angle with respect to a vertical plane in order to emit the light dowewardly and cutwardlyover a wide With the foregoing and other objects in view, the invention resides ii the structural and functional features set forth following speciflcatlon, defined as to scope in the appended claims, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and it is to be understood that the right is reserved to embodiments other than those described and illustrated within the general meaning as expressed in the claims.
In the drawings- Fig. 1 is a side vi w of a lamp embodying the features of the invention;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view oi the lamp;
Fig. 3 is a collective view partly in elevation and partly in section of a fluorescent tube and electrical sockets for the electrodes respectively of the tube and showing portions of the lamp fixture and a portion of the tube being broken away;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a top plan View or" the starter, sclector-switch and control switch assembly detached;
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on the line 5-6 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is a sectional view taken on the line 7-1 of Fis. 6;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary side view and part section of the upper end of the assembly shown in Figs. 5 and 6;
Fig 9 is a top plan View of the control switch for turning the current oil and on;
10 is a wiring diagram illustrating the electrical connections of the main elements of the lamp.
Referring now more particularly to the drawlugs, it will be apps-rent that the lamp includes a hanging type of fixture ill. This fixture consists of a flanged ring ii, an upper casing !2, a lower casing i3, and tubular rods H. Depending from the casing 12 is a tubular fitting 15 having a ball l6 and a receptor ill. The casing I3 has a cap IS. The rods it, three in number, or any other suitable number, have the opposite ends thereof rigidly connected with the ball I to open into the interior of the fitting 15, and their lower ends rigidly connected with the cap 18 and opening into the interior of the casing l3. Each rod I4 is bent into an angular formation and is connected with the ring H by lugs 19.
The lamp also includes a plurality of lighting or illuminating elements 20. These elements 20 consist of fluorescent tubes in the present instance. which may be of any desired color as well as white. If desired, any other closely analogous lighting elements may be used, such as those utilizing a mercury vapor or gas providing the path for the electric current. Any suitable number of lighting elements may be used, and in the present instance four are arranged on the fixture l6, three being arranged between the ring H and the cap l8 and the fourth being arranged between the receptor l1 and the cap 18. Each of the elements or tubes 2H has a terminal 2| on each end and a terminal 22 on each end connected with the usual heating electrode and constituting thermionic means to render the mercury therein conductive. The terminals 2! and 22 on the lower end of each of the tubes 20 are received in fixed sockets 23 and 24, respectively, on the cap I8. Each of the sockets 23 and 24 is insulated from the cap I8 by a suitable insulator 25 engaged with the socket and cap l8, as shown most clearly in Fig. 3. The terminals 2i and 22 on the other or upper end of each of the tubes 29 are received, respectively, by resiliently mounted sockets 26 and 27. Three pairs of sockets 28 and 2'! are arranged on the ring H, and the fourth pair of sockets 26 and 21 is arranged on the receptor l1. Each of the sockets 25 and 21 is slidably mounted in a bearing 28 positioned in and extending through an insulator 29. The insulators 29 of the three pairs of sockets 26 and 21 are carried by a metal connector 30 of U-shape secured to the ring H. The remaining pair of sockets 28 and 21 is suitably insulated from the receptor ll. Each of the sockets 26 and 21 is under the influence of a compression spring 3|, which surrounds the socket and has one end thereof bearing against the sockets.
In accordance with the invention, three of the lighting elements or tubes 26, by reason of the arrangement of the several pairs of sockets, are disposed at an angle, which is less than a right angle, with respect to a vertical plane, or in.
other words, each of the tubes or elements 20 is disposed so as to extend at an upward and an outward angle. This manner of arranging the tubes or elements 26 makes it possible to obtain a maximum of light over a maximum area. The fourth tube or element 26 is disposed centrally and vertically of the fixture l6 and the aforesaid three tubes or elements are arranged about the central tube or element, as shown most clearly in Figs. 1 and 2.
In order to control the flow of electric current to optionally light any one of the tubes 20, or any combination of the tubes, or all of the tubes simultaneously, there is provided an assembly of constituents arranged within the casing 13 and other constituents being arranged within the casing I2. In the casing l3 there is arranged a selector-switch 34 and a control switch 35. The switch 33 includes a fixed insulator base section 36 and a movable insulator base section 31. The base section 36 is circular and of hollow construction with a head end 38 and an enlarged circular portion 39. The base section 31 is circular and also of hollow construction with a transverse partition 60. The section 31 is of a size to be loosely received within the section 36.
The section 36 carries pairs of spring-pressedcontacts 61, and the section 31 carries a fixed single pair of contacts 42. The contacts 41 of each pair are arranged radially and diametrically opposite each other. The contacts 42 are arranged on the section 31 radially and diametrically opposite each other so as to cooperate with the pairs of contacts 4L There is a pair of contacts 6! for each lighting tube or element 20. The control switch 35 consists of a bridge piece 63 fixedly mounted on the upper end of the base section 31 transversely thereof. The bridge piece 43 has notches 33 therein diametrically opposite each other to provide sector-shape portions 45. An arbor 66 consisting of a screw bolt with a nut, is positioned axially on the end 38 of the base section 36 and extends therethrough and also extends through a hole in the bridge piece A coil spring 61 surrounds the arbor 46 with one end in contact with the head 61 of the arbor and its other end in contact with the bridge piece 13. Thus the base section 31 is mounted for rotatory movement, as well as axial movement, with respect to the base section 36' for a purpose to appear. base section 36 carries contact members 49 and 56. respectively, which cooperate with the bridge piece 33 and are in contact therewith to permit electric current from the supply source to flow, and are out of contact with the bridge piece 43 when the notches M are adjacent the contact members 49 and 50, respectively, or when the base section 31 is drawn downwardly to move the bridge piece 63 out of contact with the members The head end 33 of the- 49 and 56 to turn of! the electric current. A U-shape member 51 is secured, as at 52, to the base section 31 and a button 53 is in threading engagement with the lower end of the member 5|, as at 54. A set screw 55 carried by the button and driven into the member 5! holds the button against turning movement with respect thereto. By removing the screw 55, the button 53 may be detached from the member 5|. The button 53 as applied tothe member 51 constitutes means for manipulating the base section 31 in order to operate both switches 34 and 35. The button 63 serves not only for turning the base section 31, which carries the bridge piece 43, but also serves for pulling the base section 31 and the bridge piece 43 carried thereby downwardly against the action of the spring 51, which has a normal tendency to urge the base section 31 and parts connected therewith upwardly.
A starter 56 is used for vaporizing the mercury in each of the tubes 20. ranged between the legs of the U-shape member 5| and the terminals 51 and 58 of the starter are received in keyhole slots 59 in the partition 40. Spring connectors 66 are fastened to the contacts 62, respectively, and engage the terminals 51 and 56, respectively, in order to maintain a constant electrical connection between the starter 56 and the contacts 62 of the switch 3!, as shown most clearly in Fig. 6. The movablebase section 31 carries a radially disposed pin 6! which is engageable with the stop shoulders 62 and 63, respectively, provided by reason of the cutaway 66 in the base section 36. The pin BI and shoulders 62 and 63 constitute means for limiting the rotatory movement of the base section 31 ninety degrees or one-fourth of a revolution about the arbor 43. By providing the key hole slots 59, the starter 56 may be readily detached from the base section 31. The parts of the switches 34 and 35 and the starter 56 as a unit may be conveniently arranged within the casing I3, with the button 53 conveniently ac cesslble for the purpose of operating the switches 34 and 35 not only to turn the electric current on and off, hut also to optionally light any one of the lighting elements or tubes 20, or any combination of said tubes, or all of said tubes simultaneously. In conjunction with the starter 56, use is made of reactors 65, there being four, one for each of the lighting elements or tubes 20. These reactors 65 are conveniently arranged in the upper casing I2 of the fixture ill.
Referring now to Fig. 10, for the electrical connections between the various parts it will be seen that a feed Wire 66 from a suitable source of electrical energy is connected by a lead 61 with one terminal of each of the reactors 65, and the other terminal of the reactor is connected by a lead 63 with the socket 21 of each pair of the resilient sockets. A wire 69 connects each lead 68 with the socket 23 of each pair of the fixed sockets. The socket 26 of each pair of the resilient sockets is connected by a wire 10 with one of the contacts 6| of each pair. The socket 213 of each pair of the fixed sockets iselectrically connected by a lead 1! with a common return 12. A lead 13 is electrically connected with the common return 12 and the remaining contact 41 of each pair. The switch 35 is electrically connected in the common return 12. Certain of the lead wires from parts within the casing l3 lead upwardly through the rods Hi to the reactors, in
the casing 12.
To light any one of the lighting elements or This starter 56 is artubes 2!}, the button is turned to bring the bridge piece 53 to a position in which the sectorshape portions 45 will bridge the contacts 49 and EU. The button 53 is turned to cause the contacts it! to engage the particular pair of contacts t 8, respectively. This allows current to flow from the feed wire 68, through the particular reactor 65 from its lead 6 thence to lead 68 from the reactor to the wire 59, related socket 213, terminals 24, lead 70, contact ll, contact 42, terminal 5! of the starter 56, terminal 58, the other contact 42, remaining contact ll of the pair engaged. lead it to the common return it, and from the common return 72 to the lead ii, socket 24, terminals 22, socket 21, lead 68, and to the reactor 65. After the lighting element 2'3 has been heated and the mercury therein generated into gas, the circuit through the terminals 2i is broken and current flows through the path formed by the vapor within the element to light the same.
By pulling down on the button 53, the switch 35 will be opened, thereby turning off the current from the source of supply, and in a further manipulation the button 53 may be turned to skip one or more of the tubes 26 without heating the same in selecting a particular tube, or a plurality of tubes, for starting and lighting the same. After the particu ar tube or tubes have been selected by turning the button 53 to engage the related pair of contacts 4! with the contacts 42, the button 53 is released to permit the spring ii to return the bridge piece into engagement with the contacts 42? and M to supply the current which creates the electrical discharge that results in light in each tube. The button 53 may be manipulated to light any one or" the tubes 2t, or any combination of the tubes by skipping some of them, or all of the tubes. All of the tubes may be maintained lighted simultaneously after they have first been started or rendered conductive one after the other.
In order to facilitate the lighting of the elements 20 as may be desired, indicating means is provided and the same is embodied by the button 53 and the casing i3. This indicating means is generally designated by the numeral '54. The button 53 may be rotated so that the notches 44 will be adjacent the contacts 49 and 50, in which case the main circuit which supplies the electric current will be opened. The turnlng movement to open the switch 35, as explained, is limited by reason of the fact that the pin 5! engages either the shoulder 82 or the shoulder 63. The contacts 42 may be engaged successively with the pairs of contacts H, respectively, while the sector-shape portions 45 of the bridge piece 43 remains in contact with the contacts 49 and 50.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that there has been described a lighting device embodying novel features by which the objects of the invention may be readily attained.
1. A lighting device including a main circuit for supplying electric current, fluorescent lighting tubes electrically connected in parallel in said circuit, each of said tubes having thermionic electrode means, a starter, and means operable to establish electrical connection between said means of any one of said tubes and the starter while retaining said main circuit open to render the same conductive and to subsequently close said main circuit for the purpose of lighting the selected tube.
2. In a lighting device, fluorescent lamps, a starter, a source or electrical energy, a multiple switch electrically connected with said lamps, starter and source of electrical energy, said switch including a single manipulator operable to close a circuit through any of the lamps to start the same and also operable to maintain a circuit through any of the lamps previously started, and means to retain the manipulator in circuit closing position to maintain the illumination of any of the lamps previously started, and said manipulator being movable to a position to open all of said circuits to turn off any of said lamps.
3. In a lighting device as set forth in claim 2, wherein said switch includes a fixed base, an arbor on said base and on which said manipulator is turnable and axially movable with respect to said base, and cooperative contacts on said base and manipulator.
4. In a lighting device as set forth in claim 2 wherein said starter is arranged within said switch.
5. In a lamp, a plurality of fluorescent tubes, a switch comprising a fixed cylindrical insulator base, a hollow member having turning and axial movement with respect to said base, pairs of contacts on said base electrically connected with said tubes respectively, the contacts of each pair being arranged radially with respect to the axis of said base, a pair of bridge contacts on said hollow member adapted to coact with the aforesaid pairs of contacts; a starter carried by said hollow member and being electrically connected with said bridge contacts, and a control switch operated by virtue of the movement of the hollow member, the provision and arrangement being such that by manipulating said hollow member said tubes may be selectively and initially heated one at a time to render the same conductive and to subsequently supply current to the tube or tubes previously rendered conductive to maintain the illumination thereof.