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Publication numberUS2320670 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 1, 1943
Filing dateJul 12, 1939
Priority dateJul 12, 1939
Publication numberUS 2320670 A, US 2320670A, US-A-2320670, US2320670 A, US2320670A
InventorsDomer Scaramucci
Original AssigneeOil Equipment Engineering Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Well casing attachment
US 2320670 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Juhe1,1943. D. SCARAMUCCI 2,320,670

WELL CASING ATTACHMENT A Filed July 12, 1939 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 v 5 y g 12 12 3 Y June 1, 1943. D. sARAmucm 2,320,670

WELL CAS ING ATTACHMENT Filed July 12, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 i794 6 Y T 1.20

Patented June I, 1943 WELL CASING ATTACHMENT Domer Scaramucci, Oklahoma City, Okla., as-

signor to Oil Equipment Engineering-Corporat 7 tion, Oklahoma City, Okla., a corporation of Oklahoma Application July 12, 1939, Serial No. 284,084 9 Claims. (Cl. 166- 1) The present invention relates to a well casing attachment, and more particularly, to the type adapted for use in a rotary drillingoperation.

Hitherto, attachments of this nature have permitted the extrusion of cement from the bottom and the sealing of the foot of the well casing string against reverse flow, but they have failed uniformly to provide means for temporarily withdrawing whatever form of valve means was used for the scaling to a position which would give through access in a straight line and permit tools within the casing to be lowered below the casing into the well bore proper. I

Broadly stated, the purpose of this invention is to provide a casing attachment in the form of a bored shoe or collar provided with Valve means capable of lateral movement, so as to clear the bore for the flow of cement or the insertion of any instrumentality therethrough from the inside of the casing.

Although the prior devices for this purpose have provided ample passageway through the shoe, the valve structure itself has remained on the axis of the passageway and tended to obstruct fiuid flow, particularly when the slurry stiffened during a cementing operation. The attendant increase in friction at the valve increases the hydraulic pressure and requires more power to pump the slurry. It is not uncommon for gravel, sticks, and. other foreign matter to knock the valve downward and to obstruct the passageway during the circulating operation. In these instances, the reverse function of the valve in response to back pressure is also impaired.

There are constructions known to the art in which the lower portion of the passageway or outlet is of larger diameter than the overlying valve, so that the valve member can escape out into the well bore. Naturally, removal of the valve member permits unobstructed downfiow, but it also makes it impossible to effect a back or upflow seal.

With the present types of casing-floating equipment, it is impossible to communicate with the well bore below the casing shoe. That is to say, no means has existed whereby the operator could pass an instrument or tool through the float shoe to perform some special function. Therefore, an object of this invention is to provide a casing attachment which will not only guide, float, and act as a back pressure valve after cement slurry has been forced out into the well bore, but is also operable to permit certain improvements in the general practice of landing casing in a well.

A specific object resides in the provision of a tubular casing attachment with a ball valve which is laterally and vertically movable of a passageway in response to up or down fluid pressure, and which can be retained in a'pos ition clear of the passageway.

Additional objects will appear from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment and several modifications.

Reference is made to the drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of the attachment applied to the end of a well casing;

Fig. 2' is a transverse Isectionon the line 22 of Fig. 1;

v Fig. 3 is a vertical. sectiontaken along the line 33ofFig 1; I

Fig. 4 shows in vertical section a modified form of the attachment; l 5 1 Fig. 5 represents a transversesection on the line 5-5of Fig. 4;

Fig.6 is a vertical section taken along the line 66ofFig.i; V

Fig. 7 illustrates iri'vertical section and to a more reduced scale another modification of 'the attachment; f

Fig. 8 is a bottom plan View of the Fig. Tattac'hment; f I r a Fig. 9 shows in vertical section a further modification' of details of the attachment; and

Fig. 10 is a bottomplan view of the Fig. 9 modification. v f p In the drawings H) indicates ,a casing attachment in the form of a float or guide shoe which is adapted to be joined toa casing 12 (Fig; 1) by means of a threaded connectiori'ld. The attachmentcomprises a tubular member I |,1which may be of steel, frangible plug means comprising a Bakelite plug" l6 and an aluminum valve seat body [8, and a ball valve 23 ofjBakelite or other suitable material which will float into position.

It will be observed in'Figs I and 3th'at the plug means formedby plugit andthe valve seat body l8 has a-continuous,longitudinal passageway 22 therethrough'. An enlarged portion tr recesls 24 intermediate the passageway 22 receives and guidesflthe'valve .ball' 20, which ball has a' diameter'greater than the'adjacent portionsof said passageway.

Preferably, the enlarged portion 24 is formed wholly in the upper end ofplug l6, ancllinclines downwardly therefrom to oneside of the passageway, as illustrated inFig. 1-; its size and disposition are suchthat'it canretain-the balllll'in a po ition lateral of the passageway axisane there by leave a clear longitudinal channel of conduit. The plug I6 is tapered at its lower end for guiding sageway 22 in the valve seat body I8 restricts the upper end of recess 24 and retains the ball valve therein. A circular seat in the lower face of body I8 complementally receives the ball 20 to check fluid fiow through the attachment I0 from below or outside of the casing I2.

Attention is directed also to the widely flared mouth 32 on the upper face of body I8. The mouth 32 serves to reduce friction when the cement slurry is flowing through the passageway 22, and to center whatever tool it is desired to extend through said passageway from within the casing I2.

To insure the ball 20 of the valve means floating into the closing position upon cessation of downward flow, means for causing it again to close the passageway to upward flow are provided. In Fig. 1 this means comprises a conduit or groove 34 formed in the plug means I6 and leading from the longitudinal passageway 22 to the lower portion of the recess 24 in such a manner that unbalanced fluid pressure below or external the plug means will urge the check ball .20 into engagement with seat 30. The conduit 34 may be of the same width as the passageway 22 above and below recess 24.

When the attachment I0 has served its final purpose as a guide, float, or back pressure valve after cementing, the plug means, I6; I8, may readily be removed by drilling. The aluminum valve seat body I8 fractures readily into small segments and is made of that or similar material because a more accurate valve seat 30 can be provided therein.

Figs. 4, 5, and 6 show a modified form of the invention which affords several special advantages now to be disclosed. For the most part this attachment I00 is similar to the form which has been described previously in detail, in that it comprises a steel casing shoe or tubular member IIO, a frangible plug I of Bakelite or the like, an abutting valve seat body I80 of readily shatterable metal, and a floating ball valve 20 disposed for cooperation with a passageway 220 in the plug means I60, I80. For the purpose of preventing any tendency of the ball valve 20 to balance itself in an unseated position which will obstruct passageway 220 a different enlarged portion or recess240 is provided. 7

Before specifying the characteristics of the rethis recess between plug I60 and the valve seat body I80 (Figs. 4, 6), and to threaded connection sageway. For retaining purposes, the recess 240.

is inclined downwardly with respect to the operative position of the attachment I00.

A pair of opposed grooves or conduits 340, 340, somewhat narrower than the portion of passageway 220 in plug I60, lead from said passageway to the enlarged portion or annular chamber 240. These conduits 340, 340 are arranged to expose the ball 20 to an upward hydraulic pressure tending to force it against the circular seat 300 in body I80. It will be appreciated that the convexity of the bottom of the recess 240, indicated generally as 342 in Fig. 4, makes it impossible for the ball 20 to remain balanced in an obstructing position. The flared construction of the opposite ends of annular recess 240 will permit fluid bypassing at the instant the ball valve 20 rides at the top of the grooves 340, 340.

Otherwise the operation of this modification is similar to that which has been described.

Figs. 7 and 8 illustrate a further modification in which an attachment IOI comprises a tubular shoe III, a plug IGI, and a valve seat body I8I. In this instance the valve seat body I8I is of lesser diameter than the plug I6I, into the top of which it is threaded in the assembly of the valve means constituted by the valve ball 20, the recess 24, the auxiliary conduit 34, and a slightly different passageway 22I. Ball 20 engages a circular seat 30I, similar to that which has. been described, when it is in a closed position. With this assembly, the valve means can be readily incorporated in the plug I6I before the latter is threaded at 26I onto the casingshoe I I I.

The additional embodiment of Figs. 9 and 10 agrees in a majority of details-with the casing attachment shown in Figs. 7 and 8. Corresponding items have been given the same reference numerals. In one very important essential it is different, namely, the manner in whichplug means I62 is united with casing shoe II2. The

outside diameters of this shoe or tubular member I I2 and the portion of plug I62 extending below it are approximately the same, but the portion of said plug- I62 within tubular member I I2 is made substantially smaller than the inside diameter of said tubular member II2 for the following purpose. V q

The upper end of plug I02 is placed Within the shoe II2 so that its circumferential shoulder I64 opposes bottom edge or end II4 of the tubular shoe II2 in spaced relation. While the shoeI I2 and plug I62 are maintained in the separated condition just indicated, a lining no of rubber in plastic condition is forced between and into recesses orannular grooves H6 and H8 formed ll'lSldB the shoe II2 and opposed grooves I66gand I68 respectively, in the outer surface of the plug I62. In this manner, the resilient lining I10 is arranged to insulate the frangible plug means from direct contact with the shoe. When the lining I10 has been vulcanizedor caused to set in any other suitable way, it will securely unitethe members in question and provide a cushion be tween plug shoulder I64 and the lower end II4 of shoe II2, and also between the inside'offsaid shoe II2 and the adjacent surface of plug I62. Obviously, other plastics having the desired char acteri'stics may be utilized in place of rubber.'

Those familiar with the art to whichthis inivention pertains" will realizethat a resilient, rubber lining of the thickness shown will -act as a shock, absorber, and thus cushion the plug.

against breakage when it encounters. obstruction in the well during the casing landing operationpg,

ejse e'ro ly vulcanizing or cementing the rubber lining to the shoe I I2 and plug I62, a positive fluid seal is obtained which is eiiective under high pressure. A seal of this efliciency is not attainable with a threaded plug or a cast cement plug. In the case of the latter, there is invariably considerable shrinkage in setting. Where the optimum seal is desiercl, a hard rubber compound should be employed.

Except where otherwise specified; the various elements of the modified forms of the invention have the same physical and functional attributes which have been ascribed to them in the more elaborate description of the embodiment of Fig. 1.

This invention which has been described is broadly novel in its conception of a valve means which is temporarily displaceable laterally of a continuous linear passageway extending through a casing attachment of the type specified. Before the present invention, no means existed for so displacing a valve member or for retaining it temporarily to one side of the passageway.

By using suitable apparatus in conjunction with this attachment, it is possible to work through the attachment. As examples: reverse flow may be established without removing the valve means, a jetting action may be obtained for cleaning obstructions during casing landing, placing cement slurry in the well bore far below the casing shoe and logging electrically below the shoe so that the casing string may be positioned at the proper depth.

While the preferred form and several modifications of this invention have been fully disclosed, it is to be understood that various changes may be made and sub-combinations utilized without departing from the invention as claimed.

What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

l. A casing attachment which comprises a tubular member adapted to be joined to a casing; frangible plug means in the tubular member, said plug means having a passageway therethrough with an enlarged portion intermediate its ends; valve means in the form of a floating ball within the enlarged portion of said plug passageway and having a diameter greater than the portions of the passageway adjacent the enlarged portion; and means for guiding the ball out of the passageway and retaining it laterally thereof when fluid is flowing through said passageway from above.

2. casing attachment which comprises a tubular member adapted to be joined to a casing; plug means in the tubular member, said plug means having a passageway therethrough with an enlarged portion intermediate its ends; a floating ball check valve within the enlarged portion of said passageway, said ball having a diameter greater than the portions of the passageway adjacent said enlarged portion; and a downwardly inclined recess in the plug means leading from said enlarged portion for guiding the ball out of the passageway and retaining it in that position when fluid is flowing therethrough from above.

3. A casing attachment which comprises a tubular member adapted to be joined to a casing; frangible plug means in the tubular member, said plug means having a passageway therethrough with an intermediate enlarged portion, and said plug means including a valve seat body threaded to the inside of the casing and having a widely flared mouth on its upper side; valve means in the form of a floating ball within the enlarged portion of said plug passageway and having a diameter greater than the portions of the passageway adjacent the enlarged portion; means for guidingthe ball out of the passageway and retaining it laterally thereof when fluid is flowing through said passageway from above.

4. A casing attachment which comprises a tubular member adapted to be joined to a casing; plug means in the tubular member, said plug means having a passageway therethrough and an enlarged portion intermediate its' en'cls; afloating ball check valve within the enlarged portion of said passageway, said ball having a diameter greater than the portions of the passageway adjacent said enlarged portion; and a downwardly inclined recess in the plug means leading from said enlarged portion for guiding the'ball out of the passageway and retaining it in that position when fluid is flowing therethrough from above, said plug means comprising an aluminum'valve seat body connected to the inside of the tubular member and a Bakelite plug also connected to the inside of the casing and engaging the valve seat body.

5. A casing attachment which comprises tubular means adapted to be joined to a casing; plug means in the tubular means, said plug means having a continuous, longitudinal passageway therethrough, which passageway is provided with an enlarged portion intermediate its ends; and valve means in the form of a floating ball within the enlarged portion of said passageway and having a diameter greater than the portions of the passageway adjacent the enlarged portion, said plug means having also an annular recess extending downwardly from the enlarged portion of the passageway for guiding the ball out of the passageway and retaining it in such a position while fluid is flowing therethrough from above, and said plug means also including a conduit leading from the longitudinal passageway to the recess for forcing the ball upwardly to close the passageway when fluid tends to flow from below.

6. A casing attachment which comprises tubular means adapted to be joined to a casing; plug means secured within the tubular means by threaded connection, said plug means having a continuous, longitudinal passageway therethrough and connected with an intermediate annular chamber of greater cross section than the adjacent portions of the passageway; valve means in the form of a floating ball within the chamber of said passageway, said intermediate annual chamber being inclined downwardly for guiding the ball out of the passageway and retaining it in such a position while fluid is flowing therethrough from above, and said plug means also including opposed grooves leading from the longitudinal passageway to the bottom of the annular chamber for forcing the ball upwardly to close the passageway when fluid tends to flow from below.

7. A casing attachment which comprises a tubular member adapted to be joined to a casing; frangible plug means extending continuously in the tubular member, said plug means having a passageway therethrough; a valve seat body secured to the upper end of the plug means and arranged to form a part of the passageway; flow-responsive valve means associated with said passageway and arranged to permit fluid to flow therethrough from above; and means formed in the plug means for retaining the valve means and V out of the passageway when fluid is flowing therethrough from above.-

8. Apparatus for floating well casing or the like, comprising, in combination, a tubular member adapted to be joined to the casing or the like as a continuation thereof; plug means in the tubular member, said plug means having a passageway therethrough with an enlarged portion intermediate its extremities; ball valve means within the said enlarged. portion and having a diameter greater than the portions of the passageway adjacent the said enlarged portion; means associated with the plug means for guiding the ball check valve means transversely of the passageway and retaining it in a position out of the passageway! and iihus permitting free downward fluid flow through said passageway; and means also formed in the plug means for seating the ball valve means positively in a position to prevent upward fluid flow through said passageway.

9. Apparatus for floating well casing or the like, comprising, in combination, a tubular member adapted to be joined to the casing or the like as a continuation thereof; frangible plug means in the tubular member, said plug means having a substantially straight passageway therethrough with an enlarged portion intermediate its extremities; a floating ball check valve within said enlarged portion and having a diameter greater than the portions of the passageway adjacent said enlarged portion; downwardly inclined guide means formed in the plug means and constructed and arranged for directing the ball check valve transversely of the passageway and retaining it in a position permitting substantially unobstructed downward fluid flow throughout said passageway; and means for seating the ball check valve to close the upper end of the passageway adjacent the enlarged portion in response to upward flow.

' DOMER SCARAMUCCI.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2458278 *May 25, 1944Jan 4, 1949Larkin Packer CompanyCementing equipment
US2555627 *Dec 22, 1945Jun 5, 1951Baker Oil Tools IncBridge plug
US2907392 *Oct 7, 1954Oct 6, 1959Phillips Petroleum CoCasing cementing back pressure valve and its operation
US3032115 *Aug 2, 1960May 1, 1962Smith Robbie JWell cavity plug forming device
US3216499 *Jul 1, 1963Nov 9, 1965Pan American Petroleum CorpFusible bottom-hole igniter
US4049015 *Feb 2, 1976Sep 20, 1977Brown Oil Tools, Inc.Check valve assembly
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US8360174Jan 30, 2009Jan 29, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationLead the bit rotary steerable tool
US8365820Oct 29, 2010Feb 5, 2013Hall David RSystem for a downhole string with a downhole valve
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US8365842Oct 29, 2009Feb 5, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationRatchet mechanism in a fluid actuated device
US8365843Feb 24, 2009Feb 5, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationDownhole tool actuation
US8371400Feb 24, 2009Feb 12, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationDownhole tool actuation
US8408336May 28, 2009Apr 2, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationFlow guide actuation
US8522897Sep 11, 2009Sep 3, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationLead the bit rotary steerable tool
US8640768Jun 21, 2011Feb 4, 2014David R. HallSintered polycrystalline diamond tubular members
Classifications
U.S. Classification166/328
International ClassificationE21B17/00, E21B21/00, E21B21/10, E21B17/14
Cooperative ClassificationE21B21/10, E21B17/14
European ClassificationE21B21/10, E21B17/14