US 2321175 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 8, 1943- G. s. BlNcKLEY LIQUID GRAVITOMETER Filed Aug. 4, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 ATTORN EY.
June 8, 1943. G. s. BlNcKLi-:Y
LIQUID GRAVITQMETER Fil-ed Aug. 4, 1940 2v Sheets-Sheet 2 mvENToR;
Patented June 8, 1943 UNITED STATESPATENT orrics 8 Claims.
'I'his invention relates to improvements in liquid gravitometers.
An object of this invention is to provide means through which the specific gravity of a, continuously flowing sample of liquid may be indicated vmeans through which the action of the instrument in indicating or recording the specific gravity of a continuously flowing sample may be employed to control the specific gravity of the liquid in question or to exercise control over processes which depend for their correct functioning upon the specific gravity of the liquid involved.
Another object of this invention is to provide means through which changes in the temperature of the continuously flowing sample of liquid are automatically compensated so that the indication or record as made shall be the specific gravity ofthe liquid as of a standard temperature-say 60 F.
Other objects of the invention will appear as the description thereof proceeds.
The invention comprises a liquid gravitometer which is simple of construction, inexpensive in cost of manufacture, and generally superior to gravitometers now known to the inventor, in that it is fool-proof and capable of working over along duration. of time without the attention of an attendant.
With the above named objects and others in view, the invention consists in the novel and useful provision, formation, construction, association, and relative arrangement of parts, members and features, all as depicted in a certain embodiment in the accompanying drawings, described generally, and more particularly pointed out in the claims.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the instru.- mentalities entering into the construction of the liquid gravitometer, with certain parts broken away and in section,
Figure 2 is an enlarged sectional View on the line 2-2 of Figure 1,
Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional view on the line 3-3 of Figure l, and,
Figure 4 is an enlarged sectional view on the line 4 4 of Figure 1. Referring now to the drawings, the improved liquid gravitometer includes a baseV I having mounted thereon a pedestal or standard 2 as by means 3. A cross piece 4 is secured-to the top of the pedestal or standard by means 5, and this cross piece has secured thereto and depending therefrom a knife-edged member '6. The knifeedged member is adaptedY to support a beam 1, the bearing 8 of said beam resting upon the knife edge 9 of the member S. This provides the fulcrum for the beam. One end of the beam is provided with a bearing It. A knife-edged member II has the knife edge thereof supported by the bearing I0 and the member II in turn is swingingly secured by lmeans I3' to across head carrying a pair of suspension links I2. A screw cap I4 hasthe threads thereof in engagement with the threads of a tting I5. The fitting I5 in turn is threaded to an annular nutl, the nui-,being fastened by welding or otherwise to a bulb Il. In the present instance, the bulb is in the form of a hollow ball with the links. I2 diametrically loosely pinned to the ball.
Diametrically opposite the fitting' I5 and secured to the wall of the bulb is a further fiting I3 provided with a screw cap I9. Access to the interior of the bulb may be effected-by removing the cap I9. Depending from the fitting I5 and diametrically disposed within the bulb 'is a tube 20. The lower end of said tube is spaced slightly above the shank of the cap I9 so as to permit fluid ingress. The opposite end of the tube has egress in the space 2I of the fitting I5. The fitting I5 is provided with one or more transverse bores 22 which communicate with the upper portion of the bulb I'I and with the spacezZI. The beam 'I carries an adjustable weight 23 for the purpose of counter-balancing the weight of the bulb and its fittings.
A block 24 is secured to the base I in any appropriate manner, such as by the means 25 and said block is provided with through transverse ports '26' and 2IA and a blind transverse port 28. The wall bounding the transverse ports aforesaid is enlarged in diameter at 29, and saidenlarged diameter portions are adapted to receive ends of tubes 30, 3I and 32. The opposite end of the tube 3| is anchored within a bore of fitting 34, the said fitting being secured to the bulb I7, so that the tube has communication with the interior of said bulb. The tube 32 is reversibly curved at 35, and isanchored within a bore 36 of fitting I5 so that Vthe end of the tube has communication with the'space 2| ofthe fitting Y Screw-threaded connectors, designated generally as 31, are receivedin threaded-openings of ,with the arm 53.
' arm is keyed to the shaft 60.
. ply, the specic gravity of which is to be recorded. The tube 32 is in communication with port 38, which is at right angles to port 28 in block 24 to form therewith an elbow-shaped passage, and the wall of the block concentric with the port 38 is threaded to receive a tting 39. This tting is adapted to have secured thereto in any appropriate manner a tube 40. This tube has the opposite end thereof communicating with the interior of a thermostat casing 4I. The tube 30 also has communication with the interior of the same casing 4I (see Figure 3). The thermostat and its casing are supported by member 42, the member 42 being movably or slidably fastened to the base I. Within the casing 4I is tube 43. One end of the tube is internally threaded at 44, and closed by means of a cap nut 45. The opposite end of the tube is provided with an enlarged head 46, which is shouldered and screw-threaded at 41,- whereby said tube may be threaded within an opening 48 of the casing 4I. The head is'formed with a bore, which may be bushed or otherwise constructed so as to provide a bearing for a short shaft 49. This shaft has an end received within the tube 43, which end has fastened thereto one end of a thermostat coil 50. This coil may be formed of bi-metal material, such as brass with an overlay of Invar metal. The opposite end of the coil is' fastened to a short stud 5I carried by a screw cap 45. Secured to the outer end of the shaft 49 so as to be rotated upon a turning of said shaft is a lever 52. This lever includes a short arm 53 having an enlarged end 54 adapted to be carried on the shaft 49 and locked to said shaft by means 55. The arm 53 directly communicates with a part 56 at right angles thereto and the part 56 in turn is connected to part 51 which is substantially parallel The reason for providing a lever having a returnedly bent and spaced end portion will appear as the description proceeds.
Secured to the member 4 is an arm 58, the end of which is provided with a bearing 59 adapted to house a short shaft 60. YSecured to the shaft is lever 6I and this lever in turn has secured thereto a floating lever 62 as by pivot means 63. A link 64 provided with pinned adjustable slide blocks 65 and 66 is interposed between the counter-balance beam and the floating lever. l
A link 61 provided with pinned adJustable slide blocks 68 and 69 is interposed between the floating lever and the lever 52. The movable or slidable relationship of the member 42 with respect to the base may be eifected in any suitable manner in order to permit adjustment of the link 61 and its slide blocks 68 and 63 to the right and left of the limiting positions imposed by the length of the lever 52. Such movement of the member 42 may require flexure or adjustment of the tubes 30 and 4U.
In the adaptation of the invention, I have found it expedient to use some indicator which properly records any rise and fall of the bulb I1 when the instrumentality as an entirety 1s properly calibrated for the particular gravity of liquid under test. To this end, I lndicate at a chart of the usual type which is clock operated and over the face of which is adapted for movement a pen arm 1I.V One end of the pen Also, it may be desired that the said device operate other instrumentalities in accordance with movement of the bulb I1 and I have roughly indicated suitable means, which includes an arm 12, one end of which is keyed to the shaft 6U, and the opposite end of which is provided with valve discs 13. A bracket 14 supports a block 15 provided with ports 16 and 11, ends of the ports opening outwardly of the block in the zone of the spaced valve discs 13. Dependent upon movement of the arm 12, one or the other of the ports will be open to the atmosphere. Suitable tubes 18 and 19 communicate with the block and with the ports 16 and 11. If compressed air is not used for the medium for moving certain other apparatus, dependent upon movement of the lever arm 12, I may provide the electrical switch means shown at 80, wherein a pair of spaced contacts BI and 82 are carried on an insulation block 83. The arm 12 carries a member 84 which may be brought into engagement with one.or the other of the contacts, depending upon direction of rotation of the arm 12. Electrical connections are made with the contacts and with the member 84,
The operation, uses and advantages of the gravitometer just described are as follows:
Referring to Figure 1, it is necessary that the bulb I1 adapted to receive the liquid, the specific gravity of which is to be recorded, should be of a size so that a suflicient quantity of liquid may be received therein to give a deiiecting force, which is measurable on the chart 18 when the pen arm 1I moves thereover.v The gravitometer is adapted to operate with a moving fluid. In other words, suitable connection is made with the connectors 31 which'join the pipes or tubes 30 and 3|, whereby the continuously moving sample will move through the tube 3| into the bulb I1 and substantially fill the same. This liquid will flow into the tube 20, as indicated by the arrow, thence ll the space 2I through tubes 32, 40 into the casing 4I within which is positioned a thermostat, out of said casing into tube 30. The direction of flow is indicated by the arrows. Some standard is utilized for the liquid, which as I have before stated, may be 60 F. At 60 F., the apparatus is so adjusted that the minimum density of a liquid at this temperature will not produce any deflection of the beam 1. Thus, in Calibrating the instrument, I calibrate it for the specic gravity of the liquid under test at a given temperature. By way of example, I move the counterbalance weight 23 on the counter-balance beam so that the weight of the bulb, its contents and its associated elements are perfectly balanced and the tubes 3| and 32 are in transverse stress, that is to say, tend to raise the bulb I1. VThe adjustment of the weight 23 is such with relation to the adjustment of the tubes 3| and 32 that when the density of the liquid within the bulb is at the minimum point desired as a basis -for the record, the counter-balance weight 23 will just sustain the bulb in its position with a veryV small initial iiexure of the resilient tubes. If now the density of the liquid owing into and out of the tubes should increase, the bulb I1 Yis depressed, the counter-balance weight 23 offering no resistance to movement of the bulb as the system is in balance, and such resistance as is offered being that of the tubes 3| and 32 .Thisdepression of the bulb will cause a movementof the indicating arm 1I to record, by the pen connectedwith said arm,
avsuitable line on the face of the chart 10.- This4 movement will be in direct proportion to the change in density of the continuously iiowing sample. If we assume now that the liquid is not at the standard base temperature at which lits 'gravity is employed in calculation or adjustment of processes, the temperature above or below the standard point will cause, through the action of the coil of the thermostatic metal 50 movement of the lever 52, which movement will act to move the link 61 and thence act on the intermediate point or zone of the oating lever 62. For instance, if the temperature increases, the thermostat coil 50 will rotate the shaft 49 in a clockwise direction to in turn move the right end of the lever 52 downwardly, which in turn will move the floating lever in a clockwise direction with respect to shaft 60 or in other words, downwardly, viewing Figure 1. This downward movement of the floating lever will produce a movement of the lever 6l and thereby the pointer or recording pen which will adjust it to a position on the chart corresponding to the true density of the liquid sample at the standard base temperature.
Viewing Figure 1 and the position of the apparatus as shown, if the standard sample has been calibrated for a certain density, it is evident that the link El will not move as the thermostat will maintain the arm 52 in a given position, say that illustrated. Hence the density of the flowing sample is all that will aiect the beam 1. The floating lever will then be held by the link so that any movement of the lever will be about the connection 68, acting as the fulcrum. Movement of the floating lever is, of course, accomplished through the medium of the link 64 and its connection between the counter-balance beam and the floating lever. Thus, if the counter-'balance end of the beam rises, that portion oi the floating lever outward from the fulcrum point, assumed to be the block 68, will rise and depress the opposite end of the floating lever where it has connection, as at 63, with a lever 6I. Movement of the lever 6l will actuate the pen arm 'il in a clockwise direction. Ii the density of the sample should be lighter, the bulb will rise for the reason that initially a givensample lls the said bulb, which sample plus the bulb and connections have been counter-balanced by the weight 23. Thus, if the sample has a lesser specic gravity than that for which it has been set, the beam will tend to rotate clockwise, and in so doing, will move the floating lever in a clockwise .direction about its fulcrum point with the block 68. This will move the lever 6I in an anti-clockwise direction relative to shaft 60 and will move the pen arm 'H anticlockwise. If now the temperature of the sample should vary, say become a temperature less than 60 F., the lever 52 would move in an anti-clockwise direction, viewing Figure 1, and move the link 61 upwardly and move the floating lever also upwardly, but specifically so that the floating lever would move in an anti-clockwise direction relative to its connection 63 with lever 6l. Thus, temperature is automatically compensated.
In order that there may be no possibility of accumulation of gas in the upper part of the bulb or an abnormally heavy liquid, such as water, in the lower part of the bulb, it is to be observed that the lower end of the induction tube 2l] is placed close to the bottom of the bulb so that any abnormally heavy liquid which accumulates will be drawn out by movement of the normal sample through the induction tube to discharge. The ports 22 at the top of the bulb will aspirate therethrough any gas or air contained in the upper part of the bulb through the tube 32 and be discharged from the instrument.
In order to employ the gravitometer in the control as well as the indicating or recording of specic gravity, electrical contacts illustrated may be positioned so that the arm 12 may bring the portion 84 into one or the other of the contact points 82, 83 to actuate, through a relay, or other device, appropriate mechanism within a determined range or density of the liquid. I may also use the frictionless type of pilot valve, illustrated in Figures l and 2, which may control the opening or closing of compressed air, or other fluid, for the purpose of operating auxiliary apparatus to control the specic gravity of the liquid. Various controls will readily suggest themselves to those familiar with the art to which this apparatus appertains.
Particular attention is called to the fact that the tubes 3| and 32 are formed of spring-like material and act as a spring-balance for the bulb after the bulb and associated parts have been balanced through the weight 23 on the beam. This is important for the reason that any change in density of the liquid received in the bulb during its flow will deilect the tubes. Thus, the device is very sensitive and a minute deection of the tubes is immediately indicated on the chart 'Ill by a pen or other device carried by the arm 1|.
Under certain circumstances, it may be desired that movement of the thermostat produce no deflection in the link 61. This is conveniently accomplished by sliding the blocks B3 and 69 along the floating lever 62 and the lever 52. The link 61 should at all times be maintained in a vertical position. The flow of liquid within and outwardly of the bulb does not affect the correct operation of the device as an entirety. It will be observed that all dynamic force of moving liquid is absorbed within the tubes 3| and 32. This is important. for accuracy of operation of the device and is one of the features of the present invention.
l. In a liquid' gravitometer, a pair of resilient tubes, a relatively iixed support for one end of each of said tubes, and a bulbsecured to and partially supported by the opposite ends of said tubes; one of said tubes serving to conduct a flowing liquid into the bulb and the other of said tubes providing for the egress of liquid from the bulb; a counter-balance beam cooperating with said tubes for supporting the bulb in every position when iilled with liquid of a selected specific gravity, means for balancing said beam, bulb and its contents and stressing said tubes at said selected specic gravity whereby change in specic gravity and liquid flowing through said bulb, produces deflection of said tubes, and means t indicate said deflection.
2. In a liquid gravitometer, a pair of spring tubes, a relatively fixed support for one end of each of said tubes, a bulb partially supported by, secured to and interiorly communicating with said tubes to allow a liquid sample to flow continuously through one tube into said bulb and outwardly discharge through the other tube, adjustable balance means cooperating with said tubes to support said bulb in every position, and means for recording de'ection of the tubes due to change in specific gravity oi the liquid sample received in said bulb.
3. In a liquid gravitometer, a bulb adapted to receive a liquid, adjustable means for counterbalancing the weight of the bulb and its contents in every position, a pair of spring tubes leading t0 the interior of said bulb through which tubes a liquid sample has continuous ingress and egress with the bulb, said tubes cooperating with said counter-balancing means to support said bulb, and means for recording deection of the tubes due to change in specic gravity of liquid sample flowing through the bulb.
4. In a liquid gravitometer, a oating lever, a bulb suspended for vertical movement adapted to receive a `continuous stream of liquid passing therethrough, resilient conduits partially supporting said bulb and communicating therewith for the passage of said liquid, balance means of connection between the floating lever and said bulb whereby a change of density of liquid within the bulb produces movement thereof and of said floating lever and balance means, a thermostat responsive to the temperature of said liquid, and means of connection between the thermostat and the said floating lever whereby change of temperature of liquid within the bulb will actuate the thermostat to move the floating lever, and a recording device secured to the floating lever.
5. In a liquid gravitometen a bulb, an ingress tube and an egress tube for a sample liquid communicating with the interior of said bulb, said tubes being resilient for lending support to said bulb, means cooperating with said tubes for counter-balancing the bulb and the liquid within said bulb, a thermostat within the ilow path of the liquid sample passed through said tubes, a lever adapted to be moved by movement of said thermostat due to change of temperature of said liquid, a floating lever, a link connection between said oating lever and the counter-balancing means, a link connection between the thermostat lever and the said floating lever, and a recording pen arm swingingly secured to an end of said oating lever, whereby change of density of liquid owing through said tubes and said bulb acts as one force, and temperature change producing movement of the thermostat lever acts as the other force producing movement of said pen arm corrected for actual temperature of the liquid so that the density recorded is that of the liquid as of the standard base temperature.
6. VIn a liquid gravitometer adapted to indicate the specific gravity of aliquid as of a standard temperature; a pressure chamber member adapted to-receive 4thesample liquid, resilient means lending support to said member whereby the sample liquid may be conducted inv a continuous flow path to and from said pressure chamber member, counter-balance mechanism cooperating with said means for supporting the pressure chamber member when filled with the sample liquid, a floating lever, means of connection between said lever and the counter-balance mechanism, an indicator pointer shaft, an intermediate connection between the said shaft and an end of said floating lever, a thermostat included within the path of the flowing sample liquid, and means for transmitting motion of the thermostat due to changes of temperature of the liquid to said iloating lever.
7. In a liquid gravitometer, a bulb, a counterbalance beam for balancing the weight of the bulb and any content therein, means cooperating with said beam in the support of said bulb for conducting a liquid sample within said bulb, means for conducting a liquid sample from the bulb, an induction tube within the bulb and through which the liquid must pass in its ow through the means aforesaid, means cooperating with said tube to remove entrapped air from said bulb, change in speciiic lgravity of the liquid sample shifting the counter-balance beam, and means for recording movement of the beam to indicate change in specic gravity of the liquid.
8. In liquid gravitometer construction, a bulb, the interior of which acts as a pressure chamber for a liquid, fluidconnections for promoting circulation of fluid through said bulb, an induction tube within the bulb through which the liquid in the bulb must pass in any flow movement, said induction tube extending to the upper portion of said bulb, and means defining ports near the up,- per portion of said bulb cooperating with said induction tube for aspirating any gas abovev the .liquid in said bulb resultant upon passage of liquidthrough the induction tube.
GEORGE S. BINCKLEY