US 2321344 A
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June 1943. E. G. WHIPPLE PBOJEC'I'ILE Filed March 71939 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 fk/vasT G [/W-l/PPLE IN V EN TOR.
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Patented June 8, 1943 PEOJECTILE Ernest G. Whipple, Stratford, Conn, assignor to Remington Arms Company, 1110., a corporation of Delaware Application March 4, 1939, Serial No. 259,842
' This invention relates to projectiles and more particularly to projectiles of the type known as mushrooming projectiles.
Upon striking a target after being fired from a gun, a lead projectile is deformed from a long cylindrical shape to a shape of larger diameter which is very effective in a soft target such as an animal.
With the advent of smokeless powders and increase in velocities, the use of lead became impossible becauseof its being stripped by engagement with the riding in the barrel. This caused inaccurate flight due to the absence of rotary motion and also severely fouled the bore of the weapon.
To overcome this objection, bullets with a hard metal jacket were used but due to the higher velocities they would not be effective in soft objects and would merely pass through without changing shape.
Various methods have been suggested to cause the bullet to properly deform or mushroom upon striking the target. As the velocities of the bullets were continually increased, itwas found that the jacket material would separate from the core upon impact. As the jacket material did not have sufficient inertia it would stop and the core material would then disintegrate and not penetrate the target to give the desired effect and would also scatter portions of the metal through the edible meat. v
The same bullet at a lower velocity was not satisfactory as the jacket would prevent mushrooming. Various efforts have been made to construct bullets which could be depended upon to both penetrate and mushroom on impact with targets of varying hardness and at diflerent velocities, but with indifferent success. All are subject to disadvantages and tend 'to be expensive, especially when they include several parts.
One of the objects of my invention is to provide a bullet with a relatively hard jacket suitable for use with the modern gun that will mushroom properly without separation of core and jacket regardless of the velocity at which it strikes the target.
A further object of the invention is to provide a means of manufacturing a suitable jacket to give the desired core locking qualities so that the core will not separate from the jacket upon impact. j
A further object of the invention is to provide a nose that will facilitate penetration of the bullet into the target and at the same time insure proper mushrooming.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of a bullet made in accordance with my invention.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged perspective View with a portion in section of the nose of my bullet.
Fig. 3 is a view illustrating the effect as my bullet strikes a target, showing how the mushrooming starts.
Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation of a bullet showing another embodiment of my invention.
Figs. 5 to 10 inclusive are successive views showing a blank and its behavior as a punch and die operate thereon.
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary view of another type of punch as used for the embodiment of Fig. 4.
Fig. 12 is a sectional view of a punch of the general shape of Fig. 11 and its die.
Referring to the embodiment of Fig. 1, the bullet comprises a relatively hard jacket [6 having a widened portion l'l near the base 18. The portion of the jacket l9 near the nose is thinner than the major wall portion 20 and has an aperture 21 therein. Within the jacket I6 is a relatively soft core 22 that substantially completely fills the cavity of the jacket including the widened portion IT. The core 22 has a teat 23 in the aperture 2| of the nose that is separated from the walls of the opening 2|, such separation continuing inwardly of the core for a small distance 24 and the tip of the teat 23 being flush with the top of aperture 2| (Fig. 2) If desired, the core or the teat may be distinctly plated or finished.
Upon striking a soft target 25, (Fig. 3), the teat of the bullet will cleave at 26 the substance, such tending to cause the teat to retain its circular form and helping to guide the bullet. At the same time the material of the target enters the space between the jacket aperture 2! and the teat 23 to the bottom of the opening M which will aid the bullet to properly mushroom out as at 27. Tests have been made showing that when a high velocity bullet has been fired into wax or meat the teat will still be substantially intact and discernible.
The widened portion ll of the jacket prevents the core and jacket from separating and as the bullet penetrates further into the target the proper mushrooming is procured. The thinner portion of the upper part of the jacket allows the proper amount of mushrooming at low velocities and the heavier side wall prevents disintegration at the higher velocities.
In the process of manufacture of projectiles on a mass production basis, it is evident that some simple and elficient means must be employed to secure the widened portion I'l near the base I 8 of the jacket l6. This prohibits the use of an expanding punch or other and more complicated tools.
By way of example, in Figs. 5 to inclusive, I have illustrated one method by which the cup and jacket may be formed by use of a punch and die. I have found that the metal blank used should be of substantially the desired finished thickness of the major wall portion and that this thickness should not be substantially reduced during subsequent forming operations.
In Figs. 5 to 10 inclusive the blank is at 28, the punch at 29 and one form of die at 30. The punch in Fig. 5 has just started to contact the blank 28 which has been placed into position on the die 39. As the punch moves inward (Fig. 6) force is exerted against the blank 28, causing it to start to assume a cup shape. The force of the punch Commences to strain the metal adjacent the circumference of the punch which is evidenced by the fact that if a sharp edge punch be used instead of the rounded shoulder punch of 29. that the punch will go completely through the blank without substantially bending the same. In Fig. '7, the punch has progressed further and the circular section 3| adjacent the outside of the punch has started to thin out which is shown in exaggerated form in the drawings. As the punch progresses still further, Fig. 8, the blank is puckered at the outside edge which gives increased resistance to its passage through the die and consequently a greater thinning out of the metal at 3!. Then as the sides of the cup are folded in and become circular in shape (Fig. 9) and as the thickness of the wall has not been reduced. the wall at El (see Fig. 9) will not be forced against the punch and there will be a widened portion in the interior at this thinned out portion. The upper portion of the cup not having been thinned out will completely fill the space between the punch 29 and the wall 32 of the die which is substantially the same as the thickness of the original metal. Fig. 10 shows the cup just before it is stripped from the punch after passing completely through the die.
The subsequent forming operation may consist of reduction of the diameter in successive punch and die processes, in which the clearances are maintained the same as the finished wall thickness similar to that in the formation of the cup. Further thinning out will take place at (H as the jacket is passed through each smaller die and the thinned portion will be moved further up the wall at each forming because the section immediately adjacent the outside of the punch on or near the bottom of the cup is squeezed to the side wall of the cup as the piece is forced downward in the contracting portion of the die in the same way as that illustrated in Figs. 5 to 10. It is therefore seen that the widened out portion is thinned out more in each operation and is increased in extent. This thinning out is further increased by stretching as the cup is further passed through the die due to the resistance to this passage as the upper part is squeezed in to a smaller diameter and the absence of metal to fill the thinned portion due to the major wall thickness having been maintained the same.
Another modification is illustrated in Fig. 4 wherein the widened portion at 33 has a series of concentric indentations or steps. These are the result of the use of a punch shown in Fig. 11 which instead of having a slightly rounded corner has a plurality of progressively decreasing concentric shoulders 36. The punch is used in a manner similar to that shown in Figs. 5 to 10 and the die assumes the same general shape, although the profile 35 may be a little sharper as shown in Fig. 12. The indentations weaken and extend the metal between the shoulders and cause a larger widened portion. The indentations also form a further locking action between the core and the jacket. The use of this type of punch also allows the subsequent forming operations to be reduced. In the modification of Fig. 1 usually four drawing or closing-in operations are necessary whereas with the modification of Fig. 4 only three are necessary. This is due to the fact that the indentations produced by the shoulders at the bottom of the cup serve as a centering means for the next punch, thus insuring walls of uniform circular thickness which would not be the case if the substantially smaller punch should engage the die off-center.
After the jacket has been completed by bringing it to the proper exterior diameter and the wall thickness adjacent the nose has been reduced by suitably shaped punches which are old in the art, the soft metal core is inserted in the jacket. A punch with an indentation for the teat then is forced against the top of the core while in the jacket, which causes the core to completely fill the jacket including the widened out portion adjacent the base, effectively locking the core to the jacket. The teat is also formed during this operation, the level of the core being a suitable distance below the end of the jacket before the nose is formed so that with the subsequent finishing operations of the nose, the teat will be brought flush with the aperture 2| and there will be the circular depression 24 surrounding the teat.
I am aware that the reduction of thickness of the jacket walls near the nose to assist in mushrooming is not new, and is old in the art.
I have by my method produced a bullet of superior mushrooming qualities. The teat of the bullet will cause the soft material to be wedged between it and the jacket causing the mushroom ing action to be initiated correctly and aiding the penetration into the target. The core locking means whereby the core is held in position in the jacket so that they will not separate upon impact solves a problem existant with previous forms of bullets. This method of making the widened portion of the interior of the jacket, one form of which is herein disclosed, provides a cheap and efiicient means adaptable to modern quantity production methods.
The method may also be used in the formation of metallic cups or containers for any use in which it is desirable to place a filler in locking relationship therewith.
The process of forming the jackets may also be applied to blanks of cup shape, the cup being of the substantially desired finished wall thickness.
As the invention is believed to be the first to provide a satisfactory mushrooming bullet with a locking core and method of manufacturing the same, it is not limited to the details shown herein, described in the drawings and illustrated, but is to be construed as covering all equivalent devices falling within the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a bullet, the combination of a relatively hard jacket with an interior portion of increased diameter near the base thereof, and a relatively soft metal core in looking engagement with the jacket, said jacket having an aperture at the nose of the bullet, the core terminating in a metal teat substantially flush with and spaced centrally of said aperture.
2. In a bullet, the combination of a relatively hard jacket with an interior portion of increased diameter near the base thereof, and a relatively soft metal core in locking engagement with the jacket, said jacket having an aperture at the nose of the bullet, the core terminating in a metal teat substantially flush with and spaced centrally of said aperture, said spaced relation continuing inwardly of the nose for a small distance.
3. A bullet comprising a core of relatively soft metal and a jacket of relatively harder metal, said jacket comprising an aperture at the nose of the bullet and said core having a projection integral therewith and extending into said aperture and spaced from the margin of said aperture.
4. A bullet comprising a core of relatively soft metal and a jacket of relatively harder metal, said jacket having an aperture at the nose portion of the bullet, said core having a teat integral therewith and extending into said aperture, said teat extending upwardly in spaced concentric relation to the wall of said aperture and terminating substantially flush with said aperture.
ERNEST G. WHIPPLE.