US 2321449 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. I. ARMAO BUILDING BLOCK FiledlNm'f. 15. 1940 June 8, 1943.
v 2 sheets-sheet 1 Inventor John I. Amm ao,
June 8, 1943- J. l. ARMAO 'BUILDING BLOCK Filed Nov. 155 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Invert-bcn` John I.Av-mao,
H is Attorney.
Patented June 8, 1943 UNITED STATES; PATENTOFHCE Application November 13, 1940, Serial No. 365,437
(Cl. 'i2-44) 1y Claim.
My invention more particularly relates to a compound building block and the method of making the same, the block having an outer portion which faces the outside of the wall in which .it is'laid and an inner portion which faces the inside of the wall in which it is laid and when it is used for a dwelling, the inner portion of the block forms a part of the inner finished wall of the dwelling.
My invention will best be understood by reference to the accompanying drawings in which I have illustrated two embodiments thereof and in which- Fig. 1 is a perspective view, partially broken away, illustrating the building block embodying my invention;
Fig. 2 is a transverse section taken through the tie rods of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is an end view of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a plan view of a building block illustrating a modified method of carrying out my invention;
Fig. 5 is a side view of Fig. 4 partially broken away;
Fig. 6 is a section taken along the line 6-6 of Fig. 4, and
Fig. '7 is a fragmentary perspective illustrating one of the members for filling a slot in one of the metal plates.
Like reference characters indicate like parts throughout the drawings.
Referring now to Fig. 1, in preparing the block I first prepare a collapsible form (not illustrated but having the shape of the block) in which I first pour in the bottom of the form a comparatively thin layer of cemntvlll which may be, for example, one quarter of an inch (1/4) thick and which forms the outer face of the finished wall in which the block is laid. The bottom of the form may, if desired, be provided with upwardly extending ridges` I0! which form grooves in the outer side of the wall and which serve to break up the monotonous fiat appearance of what would otherwise be a plain fiat surface. Obviously, the cement within the grooves may be colored differently from the remaining face of the wall, if desired, further to break up the monotonous appearance of a wall having a fiat base and a uniform color.
I then pour into the form a mixture of cement, sand and gravel (concrete) l2 above the cement layer to a depth sufficient to form the lower section I3 of the block. I preferably secure the two sections of the building block together by reinforcing bars li which are here shown in the form of U bars the lower laterally bent-ends IM of which are embedded in the plastic concrete either by inserting the same therein or by holding the lower end of the reinforcing member within the form in the correct position to be surrounded by the concrete when it is poured.
The concrete is thenpermitted to stand for a sufficient length of time to harden; When it has hardened, the upper surface thereof is covered with a layer I5 of asphalt, tar or other waterproofing layer toV prevent moisture from finding its Way from the outside to the inside of the wall.
The block so formed with the free ends of the reinforcing members therefrom is now inverted, and the now lower free ends of the reinforcing members are positioned below'in a form which may, if desired, be the same form in which the first portion of the block is formed and is retained in position with the lower ends within .the form. A layer of heat insulating material, preferably in the from of powdered asbestos I6 inplastic condition is poured into the bottom of the form and when hardened sufciently, a layer composed of a plastic mixture of plaster, sand and gravel I1 is l'poured over the layer of asbestos. By adding gravelto the sand and plaster a thicker wall will be obtained still using the same amount of plaster and sand. This mixture does not attract moisture making it Very advantageous for using it for inner wall structure. 'I'he strength of said inner section is sufcient for it to bear the weight of inner sections above it in the wall. Finally when the concrete has hardened, the inner surface of the now upper portion of the block is covered with a layer I8 of waterproofing ymaterial such as asphalt, tar or the like which may be brushed or sprayed -on the surface as desired. The layers l5 and I8 prevent moisture from finding its way from the outer side of the wall to the inner side thereof and renders the blockl impervious to moisture.
Tie rods between two sections of a wall are old and I claim no novelty therefor as such but only in the combination shown. It will be clear from the foregoing that the two sections of the block are maintained in spaced position and when laid in awall the concrete sides of the blocksprovide a solid foundation, and that thetinner ysides of the blocks provide a finished surface for the inner side of the wall which is permanently secured to the outer portion, a Ventilating space being provided between the two portions.
In Figs. 4 to '7 I have illustrated a modified method of making a compound building block of substantially the same construction as that de- I4 projecting upwardly scribed in connection with Figs. l to'3. In pre- .paring a block in accordance with the method here illustrated, I likewise prepare a *form comprising side boards I3 and 20 and end boards 2| and 22 in which are supported in vertical posi tion four spaced metal, preferably steel, plates 23, 24, 25 and 26, respectively.
The side board I3 of the form here illustrated may be provided with ridges 21 arranged vertically and horizontally to form grooves 23 and 23 in the block as indicated in Fig. 5. The rst steel plate 23 is disposed comparatively near the board I3. Into the space between this said steel plate and the board, cement is poured to form the outer layer 30 of the block and of the wall in which it is laid as best indicated in Fig. 6. Tie bars I4 of the same general character as those already described having been correctly positioned in the form, a mixture of cement, sand and gravel 3| is then poured into the space between the two metal plates 23 and 24 around the ends I4l of the tie rods and is permitted to harden, it being understood, however, that the steel plate 23 is withdrawn before the 'concrete has hardened. A mixture of plaster, sand and gravel 32 is then poured into the space between the plates 25 and 26 as indicated in Fig.` 6 and surrounds the other ends of the tie rods i4. Finally, a layer 33 of powdered asbestos in plastic form is poured into the space between the plate 26 and the side board 20 of the mold, it being understood that the ends I4| of the tie rods I4 are supported in the concrete in both portions vof the block as they are in the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 2. It will be understood that the plate 26 is likewise withdrawn before the layer of concrete 32 has hardened.
In order that the metal plates 24 and 2li-may be placedin position over the tie rods I4, it is necessary, of course, to provide the plates with slots 34, Fig. '7, which extend upwardly from the lower edge of the plates to the upper edge of the tie rods to bring the plate 25, for example, to the 'position indicated in Fig. '7. In order to prevent concrete from flowing through the slots 34 in the plates 24 and 25, I have provided cover plates 35 and 36 which fit the slots 34 and prevent the concrete from owing therethrough. The plates 35 and' 36 are provided with overlapping legs 31 as indicated in Fig. '7, the legs 31 being provided with overlapping slots 38 through which extends a bolt 39 (Fig. 6) which holds the plates 35 and 36 within the respective slots 34 of the two plates 24 and 25.
The plates 35 and 36 may also serve as supports i'or the tie rods when they are placed in position within the form. v
When the blocks are ilnished, they may be laid to form a wall in the usual manner and the wall will be provided with a heat insulating space between the inner and the outer sections oi' the wall and the wall will be damp-proof as no moisture is permitted to ow from the outside of the wall to the inner face thereof.
While I have-described my invention in its preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that the words which I have used are words oi' description rather than of limitation. Hence, changes within the purview of the appended claim may be made without departing from the true scope and spirit of my invention in its broader aspects.
What I claim is:
A preformed compound building block comprising a load bearing concrete section, a second section comprising sand, gravel and plaster in spaced parallel relation to the first section so as to, provide an air space therebetween, and tying means of relatively small cross section retaining the sections in said spaced relation, said second section constituting a self supporting waterprooiing layer adapted to have a finish coating applied thereto.
'JOHN I. ARMAO.