US 2322753 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 29, 1943. G. J. THOMAS 2,322,753
SURGICAL APPARATUS Filed Feb. 10, 1939 a y E IN V E NTOR. Y
Patented June 29, 1943 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE George J. Thomas, Pittsburgh, Pa. Application February 10, 1939, Serial No. 255,625
This invention relates generally to surgical apparatus and more specifically to apparatus for the injection of fluids into the body.
This apparatus may be advantageously applied for many surgical purposes, such as the intravenous injection of drugs and a normal salt solution to produce general anesthesia and resuscitation of a patient undergoing an operation or the injection of fluids for the treatment of patients.
The principal object of this invention is the provision of surgical apparatus for injecting a plurality of fluids into the body.
Another object is the provision of an improved surgical apparatus for injecting accurate quantitles of a plurality of fluids into the body.
Another object is the provision of improved apparatus for supporting a syringe and a reservoir for surgical use in injecting fluids into the body and which permits continuous use without interruption.
Another object is the provision of an improved hypodermic needle arranged to receive a .plurality of fluids for injection into the body.
Another object is the provision of a hypodermic needle arranged to receive fluids from independent sources and provided with valvular means preventing their mixture in the needle except in the presence of pressures independently imposed on the several fluids.
Other objects together with their advantages appear in the following description and claim.
In the accompanying drawing a practical embodiment illustrating the principles of this invention is shown wherein:
Fig. l is a perspective view of the complete apparatus.
Fig. 2' is a side elevation of the stand.
Fig. 3is a perspective view of the syringe supporting fbracket.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional view of a hypodermic needle having dual fluid connections.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged view partly in section of a hypodermic needle having a plurality of independent fluid connections each being provided with valvular means for preventing the development of a back pressure on said fluids.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawing, l0 represents the supporting stand of the injection apparatus which is of prime importance in the operating technic thereof. This stand is preferably made of a metal, such as a chrome steel or chromium plated brass or. other suitable material that may be highly polished and will withstand repeated sterilization without corrosion. It
is alsomade strong and rugged to withstand rough treatment without injury to the more delicate parts of the apparatus which it supports. This stand comprises a base ll having a table clamp l2 formed integral therewith and is provided with athumb set screw l3 permitting it to be readily secured or removed from a surgical table which materially facilitates the handling of the apparatus.
7 The top surface of the base I I is provided with a plurality of pockets I4 arranged to receive the base of the reservoirs or containers IS. A plurality of tapered holes are formed in the base and spaced in triangular relation about the pockets M for receiving the guard pins 16 therein. These pins are preferably driven in place and they guard against accidental dislodgment of the reservoirs.
On the side opposite to the clamp l2 the base is provided with an upstanding collar I! having a threaded bore for receiving the threaded end of the stand post [8. This post is positioned on the opposite side of the base from the clamp l2 so that it is adjacent the patient to ward off any uncalculated blow or movement and thus protect the apparatus. It will be noted from Fig. 2 that this heavy post is considerably beyond the pockets l4 and it is well suited for this purpose.
The post l8 is provided with an upper section IQ of reduced diameter, forming the shoulder 20 which is located well above the reservoirs l5. Thus any bracket removably secured on the post 19, such as the syringe supporting bracket 2|, upon becoming loose will slide down until it engages the shoulder 20 and thus prevent the apparatus carried by the bracket and the reservoirs from becoming broken or otherwise damaged by an impact therebetween.
The syringe supporting bracket 2| is H-shaped and the cross member 22 is provided with an integral depending cylindrical portion 23 having a hole 24 passing longitudinally therethrough to slidably receive the upper post IQ of the stand. A tapped hole is cut through the back of the wall of the cylindrical portion 23 adjacent the lower end thereof to receive the threaded set screw 25. When the bracket is positioned on the post l9 and the set screw 25 is tightened to secure it at the desired elevation the position of the set screw adjacent the lower extremity and to the rear of the bracket takes up the play between the hole 24 and the post l9, causing the bracket to tilt forward. Again the hole 24 may be cut through the cross member and the cylindrical portion so that the bracket tilts forward to a greater degree, thereby providing an inclined support for the syringes.
The front and rear arms 26 and 21 of the H- shaped bracket extend outwardly and downwardly with upturned flanges 28 on the ends thereof. The front arms 26 may be formed with a single bend as indicated at 29 to produce the dovmward projection, whereas the rear arms may be formed with two bends as indicated at 30 and 3 I. These bends place the sockets formed by the upwardly extending flanges in alignment but permit the sockets of the front arms 26 to be positioned lower than those of the rear arms 21. Thus by use of these three construction factors the syringes supported by the bracket 2| are given a definite inclination to the front to permit any air accidentally entrapped in the apparatus to collect in the back of the syringes.
A spring clip 32 is secured to each of the arms 26 and 21 and is held against turning by the upstanding flanges 28. Two smaller clips 33 are secured to the front edge of the front arms 26 for supporting the tubes or needles when not in use.-' The syringes 34 and 35 are preferably of the glass type having graduated barrels and glass plungers. A three way valve 36 is fitted on the end of each syringe. Each valve is provided with a tubular line 31 extending into its respective reservoir to supply the syringes with fluid. The tubular lines 38 and 39 connect the valves of the syringes 34 and 35 respectively with the hypodermic needle 40. After a generous supply of the fluids have been placed i the reservoirs and the tubular lines have been filled the apparatus is ready for use. It is preferable to employ the open or easily accessible type of reservoir so that they may be replenished from time to time without interrupting the process of the treatment.
The needle 40 is constructed with an ordinary tubular stem 4| having a puncturing tip on its outer end and its butt end is secured in the manifold 42. The manifolds of the needles shown in Figs. 1 and 4 are provided with a longitudinal chamber 43, the outer portion being tapered to receive the ground glass end of the tube 44, the other end of which is connected to the tub'ular line 38. The side of the manifold 42 is provided with a tubular hub 45 which connects the tubular line 39 with the chamber 43. This hub is also provided witha finished bore to receive a glass tube 44 as shown in Fig. 1. However in addition it is provided with the enlarged head 46 to enable it to be directly connected to a rubber tube.
Thus the manifold 42 of the needle 40 permits of plurality of fluids to be directly delivered to the base of the small tubular stem and the application of each fluid may be administered independently with a very accurate knowledge of the amount employed. Each fluid is immediately effective because of its close proximity to the needle. Again the fluids may be observed in the glass tubes 44. This apparatus is advantageous when it is desired to inject two or more fluids into the body where their mixture prior to injection for a relatively short period of time may render the liquids less effective. Both liquids may be fed at the same time by operating the syringe plungers in unison. If, on the other hand, this apparatus is to be employed for administering an intravenous anesthesia the drug is usually operated through the syringe 34 and the restorative solution such as a normal salt solution is fed through the syringe 35. After the lines have been filled the plungers are drawn back to fill the syringes, th valves 36 are then set for feeding each fluid independently, and the doses are fed periodically in accordance with the needs. After each injection of the drug a small injection of the salt soluiton may be applied to just fill the needle.
When the apparatus is used for administering general anesthesia it has been found that if the hub 45 is provided with a short capillary nozzle such as shown at 41 in Fig. 4, which conducts the reviving solution to the mouth of the small opening to the butt of the hypodermic needle, that the fluids are less likely to have any effect on one another when being used independently. The valve 36 on one syringe is preferably shut off when the other is being operated to prevent mixing of the liquids and the production of a back pressure on the fluid not in use, which back pressure may move the plunger back and thus fail to inject the proper amount of fluid into the patient. The restricted orifice in the nozzle 41 increases the resistance to the flow of liquid back into the tubular line 39, thereby decreasing the possibility of back pressure. Again the opening of the nozzle 41 being directly adjacent to the small entry of the needle is very effective for injection purposes, as pressure developed thereby counteracts the pressure in the vein of the patient and the velocity of the fluid cleans the needle, preventing any possibility of blood coagulation therein. This is an important improvement in this apparatus.
The nozzle 41 with its small throat produces a resistance to the flow of the fluid from the syringe 35, whereas a resistance of this character is not effective on the syringe 34. If the syringes 34 and 35 are identical then itwill require a greater pressure to push in the plunger of th syringe 35 than it does theplunger of the syringe 34. This difference in the resist ance to the inward movement of-the plungers becomes a subconscious signal to the operator, warning him which fluid he is injecting. This represents another advantage of this apparatus.
Referring to Fig. 5, the manifold 42 of the needle is provided with two small passageways 48 in place of the chamber 43, which join forming a common passageway to the needle, proper. These passageways terminate in the threaded sockets 49 adapted to receive the threaded ends of the hub structures 59. The inner end of each of these hub structures is provided with a valve chamber 5| containing a ball valve 52 arranged to rest on the seat 53 and close the passageway 54 when the pressure in the manifold is greater. are adapted to receive the end of the glass tube 44 or other similar attachment or a rubber tube which may be slipped over the head 46.
These hub structures are easily removed by grasping and turning the knurled finger grips 55 and when completely unassembled the several parts may be easily cleaned and sterilized. The passageways 48 in the manifold are brought into the valve chambers 5| at one side of the center thereof so that the ball valve 52 would not. interfere with the passage of fluid from the 'hub to the needle.
Other types of valves are readily adaptable for use in the manifold of the needle which may be interlocked and operated by hand or pressure from a single stem. However the ball check The outer ends of the hub structures f valve provides the simplest structure and is easy to take care of and is less likely to give trouble.
A manifold for mounting a hypodermic needle for use in the intravenous injection of liquids, comprising in combination a passageway in the manifold provided at one end with means for mounting a hypodermic needle, an inlet at the opposite end of the passageway for admitting a liquid to the manifold, a. second inlet at the side of the passageway for admitting another liquid, a. tube connected to the second inlet and extending to a point adjacent to the outlet end of the passageway, and means for supplying liquids to said inlets.
GEORGE J. THOMAS.