US 2323063 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 29, 1943. J, O 2,323,063
Filed Aug. 1, 1941 INVENTOR John [02 Patented June 29, 1943 UNITED STATES PATENT orrice SHIP John Long, Oakland, Calif. Application August 1, 1941, Serial No. 405,007
The invention relates to ship construction and more particularly to buoyant chamber arrangements for ships.
An' object of the present invention is to provide a floating structure such as a ship or the like which will be practically unsinkable by reason of the incorporation therein of a large number of individual air cells which will function to buoy up the ship notwithstanding the puncturing of the hull wall and admission of water into the hold of the ship. While the use of such air cells has been heretofore suggested, to my knowledge no practical arrangement of such cells has ever been evolved due in part and at least to the dimculty of properly supporting such air cells when submerged and furnishing the overall structure with sufficient strength to withstand the great forces and pressures to which the same is subjected in case of emergency. Accordingly and as a further object of my invention, I provide an air cell construction which is far stronger, lighter and more buoyant than has been heretofore suggested and one which is amply strong to accomplish the floating of a relatively large cargo-laden vessel.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a construction of the character described wherein the number of air cells used and the total displacement afforded thereby may be adjusted to suit the needs of the vessel and to thereby render the structure most efficiently adaptable to various types of cargo.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a construction of the character above which makes use of the conventional type of steel oil drums which are available economically and in large numbers both on the new and used market.
The invention possesses other objects and features of advantage, some of which, with the foregoing, will be set forth in the following description of the preferred form of the invention which is illustrated in the drawing accompanying and forming part of the specification. It is to be understood, however, that variations in the showing made by the said drawing and description may be adopted within the scope of the invention as set forth in the claims.
Referring to said drawing:
Figure 1 is a cross-sectional view of a ship constructed in accordance with the present invention.
Figure 2 is a perspective view of a plurality of buoyant members used in the ship construction.
Figure 3 is a perspective view of a modified form of buoyant member.
The ship 6 illustrated in the accompanying rawing is of more or less standard construction in the frame or hull portion 1 thereof including suitable frame and bracing members for supporting the water impervious side wall of the ship and defining an interior compartment 8'. Moun ed across the hull or shell of the ship about midway of the height thereof are a plurality of girders 9 which support on the upper side thereof the floor II of one of the lower decks of the ship and thereby providing below the deck I and the abutment l2 of the ship a hold compartment lit in which the present air cell construction is provided. One or more cargo decks may be provided above the lower deck I l as may be desired.
Mounted in the compartment l3 are a plurality of air-tight containers M which are arranged in side by side relation in horizontal planes and stacked vertically to substantially completely fill the compartment. Supporting members, in the form of planks l6, are preferably positioned between the superimposed layers and across the top of the uppermost layer so as to hold down the containers mounted below the planks and to support the containers above the planks. The entire assembly is held vertically in place by means of vertical supporting members or stanchions I! mounted between the girders 9 and the planks 16' extending across the top of the upper layer of containers.
As an important feature of the present construction containers are selected which when placed in side by side relation will abut each other substantially at the head ends of the container, whereby the transverse strain is carried by the abutting end or head walls of the container. With reference to Figures 1 and 2, and in the preferred form of the invention I prefer to use a steel drum having a cylindrical side wall [8 and substantially planar end or head walls I9 and which are so formed that the diametrical dimensions of the side wall ar slightly greater at or adjacent the head walls than at the longitudinal center, whereby when the containers are placed in side by side abutting relation as aforesaid, the end walls of all of the containers in the layer will function to provide a substantially continuous transverse support completely across the layer in all directions. As a further important feature of the present invention, the supply of these containers may be filled by the conventional type steel oil drum of approximately fifty gallons capacity. As will be understood a large and substantially unlimited supply of these drums is available at low prices both in the new and used markets and discarded steel drums of this type may well be used for the present purpose. However, if desired other types of containers may be used, such as the rectangular form illustrated in Figure 3. Where such containers are used it is desirable as here shown, that the container have its greatest widthwise dimension adjacent the head ends l9 thereof so that the adjacent abutting. support of the containers will be at the ends of the container for supplying the continuous transverse support as above described.
As will be seen from Figure 1, the containers are preferably arranged vertically, that is with the head ends at the top and bottom of the containers so that when fully assembled as aforementioned, the containers in the several layers will be positioned in substantially vertical alignment. In this manner th vertical thrust or support of the container is most efliciently carried by the side walls of the container. Further, with reference to Figure 2, it will be noted that the planks l 6 need not and preferably do not extend completely across the end area of the containers, it being suincient that the plank cross the end faces of the container in a manner providing their vertical support.
As will be understood from the foregoing, the present construction is readily adaptable as to the number of layers of containers used. Where a relatively light cargo is being carried, several of the upper layers may be deleted and the 'vertical supporting members l1 extended to support the lower layers, thereby affording more freight space in the vessel. Also the present arrangement permits of the grading of the Weight of material used in the containers from the top to the bottom of the assembly so a to most efiiciently support the buoyant force of the assembly when fully or partially submerged. If desired the containers may be charged with air pressure so as to resist collapse when submerged and to permit the use of lighter weight material. Also the amount of air pressure in the containers may be varied in accordance with the vertical position of the container in the assembly.
It will be clear from the foregoing that I have provided an economical, extremely strong and compact air cell assembly which will furnish buoyancy to the ship should the side wall be punctured and wherein the puncturing of some of the containers will not render the whole structure inoperative, and lastly wherein the construction is readily adaptable to varying type and weights of cargo to be carried by the ship.
1. A ship comprising, a shell, a tier of air-tight containers each having side and top and bottom walls and set vertically and positioned in side by side relation in horizontal plane and stacked vertically in a plurality of layers, a plurality of removable spacers mounted between said layers and across the top of the uppermost layer and functioning to hold down the containers mounted therebelow when submerged and to support the containers mounted thereabove, and means for holding the spacers and. containers together vertically.
2. A ship comprising, a shell, a tier of air-tight cylindrical container each having side and top and bottom walls and set vertically and positioned in side by side relation in horizontal planes and stacked vertically in a plurality of layers, said containers in each of said layers abutting the adjacent containers in said layer substantially exclusively at said top and bottom walls of said I container to provid a substantially continuous transverse support across said top and bottom walls, and a plurality of spacers mounted between said layers and across the top of the uppermost layer and functioning to hold down the containers mounted therebelow when submerged and to support the containers mounted thereabove.
3. A ship comprising, a shell, 'a tier of air-tight cylindrical containers each having side and top and bottom walls and set vertically and positioned in side by side relation in horizontal planes and stacked vertically in a plurality of layers, said containers being of greater girth at the top and bottom walls and in contact with each other thereat to provide a substantially continuous transverse support across said walls, a plurality of removable spacers mounted between said layers and across the top of the uppermost layer and functioning to hold down the containers mounted therebelow when submerged and to support th containers mounted thereabove, a plu-,
rality of girders extending across the interior of said shell above said top layer of containers, and vertical supporting members mounted between said girders and said spacers extending across the upper ends of said containers in said top layer.