US 2323786 A
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y 1943- E. 1.. BEISEL 2,323,786
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ACCELERATING PARAMAGNETIC PARTICLES Filed March 27, 1941 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 59 SW '1? E LJEENE' L-EEJ5EL July 6, 1943. E. BEISEL METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ACCELERATING PARAMAGNETIC PARTICLES 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed March 27, 1941 m E E L w E Patented Jul 6, 1943 METHOD ANi) APPARATUS F OR ACCELER- ATIN G PARAMAGNETIC PARTICLES I Eugene L. Bcisel, Jackson, Mich.
- Application March 27, 1941, Serial No. 385,476
The present invention relates to improvements in the method of and apparatus for the accelerating to high velocity of paramagnetic particles such as iron and steel shot used in cleaning, cutting and treating metal objects and other hard materials, as well as in other fields.
At the present time metallic abrasive and blasting material in the forms of iron and steel pellets are being propelled at high velocity by compressed air and centrifugal wheels. The use of compressed air is expensive as is the maintenance of the nozzles and associated parts. In the case of centrifugal wheels, the abrasive is fed into the center of a rapidly rotated wheel and thrust outwardly through the action of radial plates. The scrubbing action of the abrasive material in pass-- ing through the centrifugal wheel rapidl wears out the parts contacted by the abrasive resulting in excessive operating maintenance.
It is an object of the present invention to provide apparatus and method of propelling and directing paramagnetic particles at high velocity in which magnetic flux is utilized to momentarily couple the particle to the propelling object with a minimum of relative movement between the particles and operating parts of the propelling object.
Another object is to provide apparatus for throwing paramagnetic particles through the magnetic attraction of the particles against a .surface of a rapidly rotated body.
Another object is to provide a method and apparatus for accelerating and directing paramagnetic particles through the combined action of magnetic and centrifugal forces.
Another object is to provide a method and apparatus for magnetically coupling and uncoupling paramagnetic particles to the surface of a rapidly rotated body whereby the particles are acceleratedalong an arcuate path and discharged tangentially.
A further object is to provide a method and apparatus of accelerating paramagnetic particles by the projection of the particles into a rapidly moving inagentic field.
' A still further object is to provide a method and apparatus for accelerating paramagnetic ,particles in' which the coupling and release of the metallic abrasive from the accelerating agent is controlled by varation in magnetic flux.
A still further object resides in a method of and apparatus for the throwing of metallic abrasive in which the path of the entire abrasive mass is confined to a predetermined path reducing the '55 wear due to abrasion and the amount of abrasive required to a minimum.
These and other objects, and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from a consideration of the illustrated embodiments of the invention hereinafter described and disclosed in the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is' a vertical cross-sectional view taken on line I-I of Fig. 2 of one form of apparatus embodying the present invention,
- Fig. 2 is an elevational view, partially shown in broken section, of the form of the invention illustrated in Fig. 1,
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 of a slightly modified form of the invention,
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 1 taken on line IV-IV of Fig. 5 of a further modified form of the invention,
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 2 of the modifled form of the invention shown in Fig. 4,
Fig. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary view of a portion of the construction shown in Fig. 4,
Fig. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary view of a portion of the structure shown in Fig. 5,
Fig. 8 is a wiring diagram for the electromagnets shown in modification of Figs. 4 to 7, inclusive,
Fig. 9 is an elevational view of a further form of the invention in which the electromagnets are rotated and taken on line IX-JX of Fig. 10,
Fig. 10 is a vertical cross-sectional view taken on line X-X of Fig. 9, r
Fig. 11 is an elevational cross-sectional view of a still modified form of the invention in which permanent magnets are rotated, taken on line XI-XI of Fig. 12, and
Fig. 12 is a cross-sectional view taken on line XlI-XII of Fig. 11.
In Figs. 1 and 2 is shown one form of the invention in which a wheel H] of non-magnetic material having'a V-rim I2 is supported for rotation upon a shaft I4. As shown the wheel I 0 is of cast construction with the /-rim being formed with a continuous saw tooth bottom l6 providing a series of shoulders l8. The actual form of the shoulders I8 is optional and ma take many shapes, nor are theyfessential to the operation as they may be omitted as illustrated in Fig. 3 wherein the V-rim l2 of the Wheel I0 is of smooth construction.
The paramagnetic particles 20 are fed by grav- A ity down a suitable conduit 22, projecting through "an opening 24 in the hood 26 supported by brackets 28, into the V-rim I2 of the Wheel [0. For
momentarily coupling the particles 2 to the wheel I0, fixed semicircular yokes 30 and 32 carry similarly shaped electromagnets 34 and 38 of opposite polarity. The poles 38 and 40 of the magnets are so located and shaped with respect to the V-rim I2 that the magnetic field is strongest in the bottom of the V-rim I2. These magnetic fields embrace the rim I2 through its rotatable arc abc attaching the particles 20 to the sides and bottom of the rim I2. As the magnetic field is substantially equal throughout the arc abc, there is up appreciable tendency for the particles to be attracted in a direction opposed to the direction of rotation of the wheel III with the result that the particles 20 are uniformly distributed along the rim I2 as they fiow from the end 42 of the conduit 22. The forces of the magnetic flux across the rim I2 are adequate to instantly couple the particles 20 to the rotated body without appreciable lag or scrubbing action between the particles and the wheel surfaces. As the particles 20 pass from the magnetic field the centrifugal forces will tangentially direct the particles 20 from the rim I2 with a velocity corresponding substantially to that of the rim I2. In practice, any tendency toward magnetizing the particles 20 while in contact with the wheel I0 is destroyed by the impact of the particles 20 against the work.
Referring to Figs. 4 to 8, inclusive, there is illustrated another form of the present invention in which the paramagnetic particles 20 are fed through a conduit 44 and directed against the face 46 of a plate 48 of non-magnetic material supported for rotation upon a shaft 50. The conduit M has a discharge 52 extending through an opening 54 in the hood 58. Fixed to a semicircularyoke 58 supported by a bracket 60 is a plurality of electromagnets 02 and 84 having common poles 66 and 68, respectively, in the form of semi-circular 'ranges of soft steel. As more clearly shown in Fig-6, stud bolts hold the poles 68 and 68 as well as the coils I2 and cores I4 of the electromagnets assembled upon the yoke 58. The magnetic field between the yokes 66 and 68 attracts the particles to the face 48 of the plate 48. The coupling and. discharge of the particles 20 relative to the plate 48 involve the same principles as have heretofore been described relative to the form of the invention of Figs. 1 and 2 and need not be repeated.
The magnets and their supporting structure disclosed in the forms of Figs. 1 to 4 may be adjustably supported about the center of rotation of the rotated structure so as to vary the point and direction of discharge of the particles 20.
From a consideration of the wiring diagram in Fig. 8, it will be noticed that the coils of the electromagnets I52 and 84 are all connected in series. Assuming the magnets 62 to constitute north poles and the magnets 64 to constitute the south poles, it will be noted that all the south poles are located on the innerarc and that the north poles are all located on the outer arc. Also the north and south poles are disposed in staggered relation with the flow of magnetic flux between the poles angularly disposed to the direction of rotation.
In Figs. 9 and 10 is shown another form of the invention in which the plat I8 supported for rotation upon the shaft I8 has mounted thereon for rotation as a unit electromagnets 80 and 82, which correspond in function and operation to the magnets 62 and 64 of the modifications shown in Figs. 4 and 5, except that they are carried upon and rotate with the Plate IS in lieu of being staticles to the accelerating plate.
tionary. The magnets and 82 are connected through suitable conductors 84 to a commutator ring 86. The contacts 88 carried by the ring 86 are insulated from each other by sections 89 and electrically connected through the conductors 84 to their respective magnets 80 and 82 and are insulated from one another in any suitable manner as for example in the manner of the commutator of an electric motor. Coacting with the commuta tor ring 86 is' a pair of segmental brush rings 90 and 92 fixedly supported and insulated from one another. The brush rings 90 and 92 each carry a plurality of spring stressed brushes 94 and 96, which are adapted to wipe across the face of the contacts 88 carried by the ring 86. The brushes 94 of the brush ring 90 and the brushes 9B of the brush ring 92 are connected respectively to suitable sources of direct and alternating currents. The arrangement of the commutator ring 86 and the brush rings 90 and 92 is such that upon rotation the electromagnets 80 and 82 carried by the plate I6 while passing through the arc abc of Fig. 9 are energized by the direct current creating a magnetic field acting throughout the arc abc while the magnets 80 and 82 passing through the arc ccla are being subject to the demagnetizing effect of the alternating current. In the arrangement shown in Figs. 9 and 10, paramagnetic particles directed through the conduit 98 will be attracted to the surface of th wheel I6 throughout the arc of rotation abc, and upon passing beyond said are will be released in a tangential direction to the influence of the centrifugal forces as the active magnets pass into the demagnetizing arc of rotation cda.
It is to be understood that Figs. 9 and 10 merely illustrate one manner in which the principles of the invention may be applied to an apparatus in which electromagnets attached to the rotated body are employed.
In lieu of electromagnets, the form of the invention shown in Figs. 11 and 12 shows one manner in which rotated permanent magnets may be employed for coupling the paramagnetic par- A shown, the plate I00 of non-magnetic material is supported for rotation upon a shaft I02, as is a econd plate I04 pinned to the shaft I02 at I08. The plate I04 carries permanent magnets I08 and H0 presenting a series of north and south poles I08 and I I0, which set up a magnetic flux to momentarily couple the paramagnetic particles to the face of the plate I00 in the manner described with reference to a form of the invention shown in Figs. 4 and 5. As more clearly shown in Fig. 11, the paramagnetic particles 20 are directed through a conduit H2 and attracted to the face of the plate I00 throughout the arc of rotation abc. In order to release the particle 20 from the face of the plate I00 so that the same. may yield to the centrifugal forces and be projected tangentially of the plate I00, a semi-circular plate H4 is supported in a fixed position through brackets H6 and located in the air space between the permanent magnets I08 and I I0 and the back side of the plate I00, plate II I being of magnetic material. Preferably, the plate III is slightly spaced from both the plate I00 and the magnets I08 and I I0. In operation the plate I I4 functions to pro- 'vide substantially closed magnetic circuits between the north and south poles I08 and III) to reduce the external effects of the magnetic field with respect to the magnets which are passing through the arc cda. In practice the plate IM will sufiiciently reduce the external magnetic effects to enable the paramagnetic particles 20 to be released tangentially under the influence of the centrifugal forces.
Having described my invention, what I desire to secure by Letters Patent and claim is:
1. An abrading device for accelerating paramagnetic particles through the combined action of magnetic and centrifugal forces comprising a body having a circumferential surface adapted to be rotated about an axis at relatively high speed, means for embracing said surface of said body in a magnetic field, means for directing paramagnetic particles against said surface in said field, whereby said particles are coupled to said body and move therewith as a unit, the rotation of said body carrying said particles out of said magnetic field, and mean for rotating said body, whereby said particles will be released to the action of centrifugal forces, and freely thrown against work to be abraded.
2. An apparatus for accelerating paramagnetic particles through the combined action of mag netic and centrifugal forces comprising a body adapted to be rotated at a relatively high speed about a fixed axis, fixed magnetic means for embracing a portion of said wheel in its cycle of rotation in a magnetic field, means for directing relatively slow moving paramagnetic particles into said field whereby they are magnetically coupled to said body and rotate therewith as a unit within said field, said particles upon leaving said field being released to the action of centrifugal forces.
3. An abrading device for accelerating paramagnetic particles through the compound action of magnetic and centrifugal forces comprising a body having a circumferential surface adapted to be rotated at relatively high speed, means for directing a relatively continuous flow of paramagnetic particles against said surface as it is being rotated, means for providing a magnetic field throughout a segment of the arc of rotation of said body coupling said particle against said surface for rotation therewith as a unit, said surface being shaped so as to release said particles to the action of centrifugal force upon being carrled beyond the influence of said magnetic field whereby said particles are thrown against work to be abraded.
4. An abrading device for accelerating paramagnetic particles comprising an accelerating wheel having peripheral arcuat surfaces, means supporting said wheel for rotation at relatively high speeds, means for embracing a segment of the arc of rotation of said wheel in the locality of its periphery in a magnetic field, means for directing paramagnetic particles onto said wheel where they are attracted against said arcuate surfaces of said wheels and magnetically coupled thereto for rotation with said wheel 'a a unit, the surface of said wheel being so shaped as to release said particles to the action of centrifugal forces upon being carried beyond/the influence of said magnetic field whereby said particles are thrown against work to be abraded.
5. An abrading device for accelerating and directing metallic'abrasives of paramagnetic material comprising a wheel, means supporting said wheel for rotation at relatively high speeds, means providing a magnetic field embracing a substantial segment only,of the arc. of rotation of said wheel and being provided along a peripheral arc of said wheel, and means for directing metallic abrasives upon said wheel and into said magnetic field, whereby said abrasives are magnetically coupled to said wheel and accelerated through said are of rotation, said wheel being so shaped as to release said abrasives to the action of centrifugal forces upon being carried beyond the influence of said magnetic field, whereby said abrasives are freely thrownagainst work to be abraded.
6. An apparatus for accelerating paramagnetic particles comprising an accelerating wheel having a channeled rim, means for directing paramagnetic particles into the channel of said rim, electromagnetic means located at the side of said wheel, and extending along the periphery of said wheel throughout a substantial arc from adjacent the point of discharge of said particles into said rim, said electromagnetic means providing a magnetic field through a segment oflrotation of said wheel for attracting said particles against the surface of saidrim whereby said particles are rotated with said wheel as a unit, said rim being shaped to release said particles. to centrifugal forces upon passing beyond the influence of said magnetic field.
7. A method of accelerating and discharging paramagnetic particles at a high rate of speed against a surface to be abraded, comprising the steps of feeding relatively slow moving particles against the surface of a body rotated at relatively high speeds, magnetically coupling said particles to said body for a portion of its arc of rotation to accelerate the particles, and reducing the magnetic coupling outside of said are to, release the particles to tangential discharge at ahigh rate of speed in the desired direction against the surface to b abraded.