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Publication numberUS2324551 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 20, 1943
Filing dateFeb 5, 1942
Priority dateFeb 5, 1942
Publication numberUS 2324551 A, US 2324551A, US-A-2324551, US2324551 A, US2324551A
InventorsNorman Albree George
Original AssigneeNorman Albree George
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Projectile
US 2324551 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented July 2G, 1943 man STATES @TENT OFFICE 9 Claims.

This invention relates to projectiles and it has for its principal object to provide a novel projectile which, during flight, will have an increased sustained velocity, due partly to a reduction in the vortex drag to which a projectile is normally subjected during flight, and partly to an improved ballistic form by which the head pressure on the projectile is reduced.

rIhe present improvements may be embodied in projectiles of any calibre and also in projectiles having a solid body as well as in projectiles of the explosive type.

In order to give an understanding of the invention, I have illustrated it as it might be embodied in a projectile having a solid body and which is mounted in a case containing the explosive charge or propellant, but, as stated above, the invention is equally applicable for projectiles of large calibre that are not mounted ina case.

In the drawing,

Fig. 1 is a sectional View through the projectile embodying my present invention and showing the projectile before it has been discharged from the rearm.

Fig. 2 is a sectional view showing the projectile as it is moving through the barrel of the firearm.

Fig. 3 is a sectional view showing the projectile in flight.

Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional View showing a slightly different embodiment of the invention.

Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view showing a still different embodiment of the invention.

In the drawing, I indicates the body of a projectile which is made in accordance with the invention and which is shown as mounted in the end 2 of a case 3 carrying the usual explosive charge or propellant il. The projectile body I is formed with an axial bore 5 in which is received a tubular core member B which is somewhat longer than the projectile body I and is capable of limited movement in an axial direction. The forward end 'I of this core member is exteriorly tapered, and when the member is in its operative position, shown in Figs. 2 and 3, which is the position it occupies during flight, said tapered tip projects beyond the end 8 of the projectile body I and forms the tip of the projectile nose.

In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the tip portion I of the core B is not only tapered, but it is tapered on a slightly concave curvature 9 and this curvature is such that when the core 6 is in its forward position, the concave curvature 9 merges into the convex curvature l0 of the forward end of the projectile body I, thereby producing an ogee curvature to the projectile nose which improves the ballistic form of the projectile. The tip end I of the core member 6 terminates in a sharp annular edge II.

A projectile having the construction shown in Fig. 3 will have an increased sustained velocity because during the ilight of the projectile, a stream of air under pressure will flow through the passage I'I in the core member 6, as indicated by the arrows a in Fig. 3, and this air will be delivered from the passage directly in the rear of the traveling projectile and will thus very materially reduce the vacuum conditions which tend to develop in the area 2i) immediately in the rear of the projectile and thereby correspondingly reduce the vortex drag on the projectile. Furthermore, as stated above, the exterior shape of the tip 'I of the core gives to the projectile an improved ballistic form which results in a decreased head resistance. The sharp edge II of the core 6 cuts or bores its way through the air with a minimum of resistance and the ogee -curve 9, I0 provides a shape which promotes free flow of air around the projectile with a minimum resistance, thereby correspondingly reducing the head pressure on the projectile.

The axial bore 5 in the projectile body is provided at its rear end with a portion I2 of enlarged diameter which provides an interior annular shoulder I3 between the two portions of the bore of different diameter. The tubular core member 6 is provided at its rear end with a portion I4 of enlarged diameter which provides an annular exterior shoulder I5 between the two portions of different diameter. The main body of the tubular core member B will preferably have a sliding fit with the portion of the bore 5 of smaller diameter while the enlarged lbase end I4 of said core will have a press t with the portion I2 of the bore of larger diameter.

In order to provide appropriate protection for the tapered end I of the core member while the projectile is being handled or manipulated preparatory to its being iired, the core member 6 is constructed so that it can be moved backwardly in the projectile body I into a retracted position in which the tapered end thereof is located within the bore 5 as shown in Fig. 1.

The enlarged base end I4 of the core and the enlarged portion I2 of the axial bore are of such length that when the core is in its retracted position, the forward end of the enlarged portion I4 of the core will be entered slightly into the outer end of the enlarged portion I2 of the bore as shown in Fig. 1.

Associated with the inner end of the core 6 is a sealing member I for closing the rear end of the opening I'I through the core until after the projectile has been fired. After the projectile has left the barrel of the firearm, however, said sealing member becomes dislodged, thus opening the passageway I'I for the flow of air therethrough, as above described,

The sealing member I 6 may be temporarily secured to the core member 6 in any suitable way, as by means of a ring of cement or other adhesive I3.

When the gun is fired, the pressure developed by the combustion of the propellant 4 will move the core member 6 forwardly from its retracted position shown in Fig. 1 to its forward operative position shown in Fig. 2, in which position the tapered tip I of the core member projects beyond the front end 8 of the projectile body and forms the tip of the nose of the projectile. As the core member moves forward, the air which is trapped in the portion I2 of the bore between the shoulders I and I3 will act as a shock absorber and will have a cushioning effect on the forward movement of the core thereby controlling its movement and reducing the force of the impact of the shoulder I5 against the shoulder I3. Since the portion of the core of smaller diameter has a ruiming fit in the bore, such air will eventually be forced forwardly to the nose of the projectile between the exterior surface of the core and the interior wall of the bore.

It is quite desirable to provide some means for controlling the forward movement of the core for the purpose of reducing the force of the impact between the shoulders I5 and I3 when the core member is brought to rest at the end of its forward movement, and while one way of accomplishing this is by means of the cushioning effect of the air between said shoulders, yet other means of accomplishing this end might be employed without departing from the invention, such, for instance, as providing the exterior surface of the core with a coarse screw thread 50 which engages a similar interior screw thread formed in the wall of the bore as shown in Fig. 5, (wherein the core is indicated at 6b and the projectile body at Ib), whereby the force exerted against the rear of the core when the propellant 4 is detonated will cause said core to turn in the bore as it moves forward. Such screw threads may be arranged to give the core a turning movement either in the direction in which the projectile is rotated on its axis by the rifling of the barrel of the gun or in a direction opposite to such rotation of the projectile body.

'Ihe sealing member I6 is shown as being slightly larger in diameter than the portion I4 of the core member, and the parts are so designed that when the core member has reached its forward position shown in Fig. 2 with the shoulder I5 thereof seated against the shoulder I3 of the projectile body, the peripheral portion of the sealing member I6 will be seated against the face I9 of the base of the projectile body I as shown in Fig. 2. Because the sealing member I6 has a larger diameter than the base portion I4 of the core member, said member will not only close the passage I 'I but will also prevent any leakage of gas through the joint between the portion I4 of the core and the interior wall of the portion I2 of the bore.

The face of the base of the projectile is preferably cone-shaped as shown at I9 although this face might have any other desirable shape without in any way departing from the invention.

The movement of the core member forwardly from the position shown in Fig. 1 to that shown in Fig. 2 will disintegrate the cement or adhesive I3 if the latter has not already been disintegrated or consumed by the heat generated by the detonation of the propellant 4.

While the projectile is traveling through the bore of the frearmfthe sealing member I5 will be retained onto its seat by the pressure within the firearm thereby maintaining the passage I'I closed.

After the projectile has been discharged from the muzzle of the gun, then the sealing member I6 will be dislodged from its operative position partly by the vacuum conditions which tend to develop immediately in the rear of the projectile and partly by the pressure of the air in the passage II.

After the sealing member I6 has thus been dislodged as shown in Fig. 3, then the passage I1 is open for the free flow of air therethrough as above described.

The provision of the central passage I'I through the projectile and the shape of the nose of the projectile combine to produce a projectile which Jill have an increased sustained velocity due partly to the reduction of the vortex drag and partly to the reduction in head resistance.

At the rear end of the core member 6, the wall of the passage 'I curves outwardly as shown at 2| to form a divergent end 22 for said passage. This curvature 2| is important as it provides for the easy flow of air outwardly toward the periphery of the projectile base without establishing eddy currents. The stream of air which flows through the passage Il will thus be delivered to the peripheral portion of the vortex as well as to the central portion, thereby more effectively killing or reducing the vacuum conditions which tend to develop at this point. In Fig. 4 there is shown a modification of the invention in which the tip portion of the core has a convex instead of a concave curvature. In this embodiment, the projectile body is indicated at Ia and the movable hollow core is shown at Ga, the latter having the passage I'Ia therethrough. The tip end of the core 6a has a convex curvature 9a which is a continuation of the convex curvature of the body at the base of the nose so that the portion of the core which projects beyond the end 8a of the body when said core is in operative position has a convex instead of concave curvature. In this construction, however, the extremity of the vcore presents the sharp edge IIa as in the other embodiment of the invention.

Although the invention has been herein shown as embodied in a projectile having a solid body, yet, as stated above, the invention is equally ap alicable to a projectile of the "shell or explosive When embodied in an explosive shell, the core member will function as an auxiliary projectile when the shell bursts upon impact with its target. The disintegration of the shell itself due to its explosion will free the core and the inertia of the latter will continue its movement into the target after the shell has exploded, thereby increasing considerably the effectiveness of the projectile.

I claim:

1. A projectile for firearms comprising a body portion provided with a through axial bore, and

a tubular core member mounted in said bore having a tapered forward end, said core member providing a passage through lthe projectile and being movable in said bore from a retracted position in which the tapered end is located within said bore to a forward operative position in which the tapered end projects beyond the body portion and forms the tip of the projectile nose, the rear end of said core being exposed to the pressure developed in the firearm when it is red, said core being maintained by such pressure in its forward operative position during the traveling movement of the projectile through the barrel of the firearm.

2. A projectile for firearms comprising a body portion provided with a through axial bore, a tubular core member mounted in said bore having a tapered forward end, said core member providing a passage through the projectile and being movable in said bore from a retracted position in which the tapered end is located in the bore to a forward operative position in which the tapered end projects beyond the body portion and forms the tip of the projectile nose, and closure means operative while the projectile is in a firearm to close the passage through the core member, the rear end of said core member and said closure means being exposed to the pressure developed within the firearm when it is fired, whereby said core is maintained in its forward operative position by such pressure during the traveling movement of the projectile through the barrel of the firearm, said closure means thereafter becoming inoperative for this purpose after the project-ile leaves the firearm.

3. A projectile for firearms comprising a projectile body having a through axial bore, a tubular core member mounted in said bore and having a tapered forward end, said core member providing a passage through the projectile and being movable in said bore from a retracted position in which the tapered end is located within the bore to an operative forward position in which said tapered end projects beyond the projectile body and forms the tip of the projectile nose, a sealing member for closing the end of the passage through the core member, and means for temporarily securing the sealing member to said core member, the rear end of the core member and the sealing member associated therewith being exposed to the pressure developed in the firearm when it is red and being moved thereby from the retracted position to the forward operative position.

4. A projectile for firearms comprising a body portion provided with a through axial bore, a tubular core member mounted in said bore having a tapered forward end, said core member providing a passage through the projectile and being longer than the projectile body and also being movable in said bore from a retracted position in which the tapered forward end is located within said bore and the rear end projects beyond the base of the projectile to a forward operative position in which the tapered forward end of the core member projects beyond the projectile body and forms the tip of the nose thereof, and a sealing member temporarily secured to the rear end of the core member and closing the passage therethrough, the sealed rear end of the core member being exposed to the pressure developed within the firearm when it is fired, whereby such pressure moves the core member into its forward operative position.

5. A projectile for firearms comprising a body portion provided with an axial bore, a tubular core member mounted in said bore having a tapered forward end, said core member providing a passage through the projectile and being movable in said bore rfrom a retracted position in which the tapered end is located in the bore to a forward operative position in which the tapered end projects beyond the body portion and forms the tip of the projectile nose, said core member being longer than said body portion by an amount substantially equal to the distance between its retracted position and its forward operative position, whereby when in its forward operative position, the rear end thereof comes substantially flush with the base of the projectile, and a sealing member temporarily secured to the rear end of the core member and closing the passage therethrough, the sealed rear end of the core member being exposed to the pressure developed within the firearm when it is fired, whereby such pressure moves the core member from its retracted position to its forward operative position.

6. A projectile for firearms having a body portion provided with an axial bore, a tubular core member mounted in said bore having a tapered forward end, said core member forming a passage through the projectile and being movable in said bore from a retracted position in which the tapered end is located within said bore to a forward operative position in which the tapered end projects beyond the body portion and forms the tip of the projectile nose, and a sealing member at the rear end of the core member for temporarily closing said passage, whereby the pressure developed in the firearm when it is fired moves the core member to its forward operative position, said body member having means to prevent further forward movement of the core member after it reaches its operative position.

7. A projectile for firearms comprising a body portion provided with an axial bore, a tubular core member mounted in said bore having a tapered forward end, said core member providing a passage through the projectile and being movable in said bore from a retracted position in which the tapered end is located within said bore to a forward operative position in which the tapered end projects beyond the body portion and forms the tip of the projectile nose, and a sealing member at the rear end of the core member for temporarily closing said passage, whereby the pressure developed in the firearm when it is fired moves the core member to its forward operative position, said body portion having an interior rearwardly facing shoulder and the core having an annular forwardly facing shoulder which by its engagement with said rearwardly facing shoulder serves to prevent further forward movement of the core member after it has reached its operative position.

8. A projectile for rearms having a body portion provided with an axial bore, a core member mounted in said bore having a tapered forward end, said core member being movable in said bore from a retracted position in which the tapered end is located within the bore to a forward operative position in which the tapered end projects beyond the body portion and forms the tip of the projectile nose, said core member also having its rear end exposed to the pressure developed within the firearm when it is fired and adapted to be advanced by such pressure from its retracted position to its operative position, and means providing a cushioning action for the forward movement of the core member and a stop to limit its forward movement.

9. A projectile for firearms having a body portion provided with an axial bore extending therethrough, a tubular core member mounted in said bore extending from one end to the other of the body portion and having a tapered forward end, said tubular core member providing a passage through the projectile from one end to the other and being movable in said bore from a retracted position in which the tapered end is located Within said bore to a forward operative position in which the tapered end projects beyond the body portion and forms the tip of the projectile nose, and a sealing member at the rear end of the core member for temporarily closing the passage therethrough, whereby the pressure developed in the rearm when it is fired moves the core member to its forward operative position, the peripheral portion of said sealing member extending beyond the periphery of the core member and operating to seal the joint between the core member and the Wall of the bore while the projectile is traveling through the barrel of the iirearm.

GEORGE NORMAN ALBREE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2511408 *Jun 9, 1944Jun 13, 1950Schlumberger Well Surv CorpSide wall sample taker
US4381712 *Apr 10, 1981May 3, 1983The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyBall-actuated tubular projectile
US4573648 *Jan 20, 1983Mar 4, 1986Ford Aerospace And Communications Corp.Ram air combustion steering system for a guided missile
US4685639 *Dec 23, 1985Aug 11, 1987Ford Aerospace & Communications Corp.Pneumatically actuated ram air steering system for a guided missile
US4742774 *Jun 20, 1983May 10, 1988Abraham FlatauSmall arms ammunition
US4945836 *Aug 28, 1989Aug 7, 1990Michaels Daniel JRapid expansion bullet
US4964341 *Aug 21, 1989Oct 23, 1990Aai CorporationProjectile with ram air-extendible probe and ram air-extendible probe assembly therefor
US7036434 *Apr 27, 2004May 2, 2006The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyKinetic energy projectile with in-flight extended length
US20140202351 *Aug 7, 2012Jul 24, 2014Erich MuskatHollow-channel projectile nose and shaping of a projectile body in the nose region
DE3028378A1 *Jul 26, 1980Feb 18, 1982Diehl Gmbh & CoPfeilstabilisiertes treibspiegelgeschoss als uebungsgeschoss
WO1981001046A1 *Oct 3, 1980Apr 16, 1981A FlatauSmall arms ammunition
WO1984002975A1 *Jan 20, 1983Aug 2, 1984Ford Aerospace & CommunicationRam air combustion steering system for a guided missile
Classifications
U.S. Classification244/3.1, 102/503, 244/3.26
International ClassificationF42B10/34, F42B10/00
Cooperative ClassificationF42B10/34
European ClassificationF42B10/34