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Publication numberUS2324560 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 20, 1943
Filing dateJan 20, 1940
Priority dateJan 20, 1940
Publication numberUS 2324560 A, US 2324560A, US-A-2324560, US2324560 A, US2324560A
InventorsConlon Thomas P
Original AssigneeConlon Thomas P
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Navigational timepiece and setting mechanism
US 2324560 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 20, 1943.

T. P. CONLON 2,324,560 NAVIGATIONAL TIMEPIECE AND SETTING MECHANISM Filed Jan. 20, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR July 20, 1943. v T. P, CONLON NAVIGATIONAL TIMEPIECE AND SETTING MECHANISM Fil'cd Jan. 20, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR %W@cmv Patented July 20, 1943 NAVIGATIONAL TIMEPIECE AND SETTING MECHANISM Thomas P. Conlon, New York, N. Y.

Application January 20, 1940, Serial No. 314,840

9 Claims.

My invention relates to improvements in navigational timepieces and setting mechanism.

The objects of my invention are, first, to provide a navigational timepiece which will indicate mean time so that it can be set and regulated to mean time and which will also indicate the correction proper for application to the elapsed mean time to convert it into the elapsed sidereal time; second, to provide, in such a timepiece, means for setting all the hands, including the second hand, to the exact time, in some cases to the fractional part of a second, to agree exactly with another timepiece; third, to provide means for stopping all the hands of such a timepiece at any instant, so that it can be used as a comparing watch to record the instant of an observation; fourth, to provide means by which all the hands of such a timepiece can be turned forward or backward without any danger of injury to the escapement no matter how fine or delicate it may be constructed; fifth, to provide such a nesting of the mechanism and gearing, in such a timepiece, that the pitch diameters of all gears connecting each and every one of the hands can be made as large as possible to obtain the greatest degree of accuracy for the proportional movement of the hands; sixth, a further object is to provide in a simple form a calculating device adapted to indicate the correction proper for application to convert sidereal time into mean time, or to indicate the correction proper for application to convert mean time into sidereal time, either in time or angle.

I attain these objects by mechanism illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view of a simple form of my invention adapted for use as a computing device.

Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view of a preferred form of my invention as embodied in a navigational timepiece, the section being taken on the line II-II in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 is a front view looking at the dial and hands of the navigational timepiece. This view is also substantially the front view of the simple form of my invention shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is a detailed view in perspective of the clutch member; Fig. 5, a similar view of the double yoke lever; Fig. 6, a similar view of part of the second hand shaft; Fig. 7, a similar View of the setting member; Fig. 8, a similar view of the fulcrum bracket; Fig. 9, a similar view of the parts composing the brake.

Fig. is a front view showing a modification for the markings and graduations on the dial.

Similar numerals refer to similar throughout the several views.

In the simple form of my invention shown in Fig. 1, the casing l carries the dial 2 which has two scales which are respectively the same as the scales 26 and 33 shown in Fig. 3. The casing is closed by the back 3. The minute hand 4 and the hour hand 5 indicate respectively the minutes and hours on the scale 26. The correction hand 6 indicates on the correction scale 30. The knurled knob l is provided for manually turning the shaft 8, upon which is mounted the minute hand 4 and the pinion 9. The gear I0, the pinion l2 and the pinion M are all pressed tight on the countershaft II. On the sleeve I6 is mounted the hour hand 5 and the gear !3. On the sleeve I1 is mounted the correction hand 6 and the gear l5. The lateral position of the sleeve H is maintained by the thrust Washer IS. The shaft 8 turns freely in the sleeve I6 and the back 3. The sleeve I6 turns freely in the sleeve 5! and the sleeve l'l turns freely in the casing I. The movements of the said shaft and sleeves are controlled from the knurled knob I by the pinion 9 meshing with the gear H) in the ratio of one to four, and the pinion l2 meshing with the gear l3 in the ratio of one to three, and the pinion l4 meshing with the gear IS in the ratio of one to six. Other ratios may be used. The result is the proportional movement, either clockwise or counterclockwise, of one revolution for the correction hand to two revolutions for the hour hand, and to twenty four revolutions for the minute hand.

Referring more particularly to Figs. 2 to 10, the dial 2!! is attached to the front plate 2!. The front plate 2|, the casing 22 and the back plate 23 form a housing for the mechanism. The clock train of gears is shown in the drawings as driven through the pinion 66 from the gear 24, the latter partly outlined by the dot and dash lines in Fig. 2. As there are a number of well known mechanisms for driving the clock train and for spring loading the gear 2 4, the details of such a driving mechanism are not shown in the drawings.

The scale 26 is marked on the dial 213, as is usual for the markings and graduations on the dials of timepieces regulated to indicate mean solar time in cycles of twelve hours. On this scale 26 the sweep second hand 21 indicates seconds, the minute hand 28 indicates minutes, and the hour hand 29 indicates hours.

The scale 26a is the same as the scale 26 but with additional markings provided so that the parts sweep second hand 2?, the minute hand 28, and the hour hand 29 will also directly indicate the angular measure corresponding with the time indicated. That is, on scale 26a the angular equivalents of each hour, for the day of twentyfour hours, are marked adjacent to each of the hour numerals l to 12, on the inside of the scale. On the outside of the scale 26a, each fourth minute is marked by extending the graduation and marking the extensions by'the numerals 1 to 15, being the Value in degrees for the indications of the minute hand and the value in minutes of angle for the indications of the sweep second hand.

In proper relation to the scale 26, the correction scale 36 is marked on the dial 2!]. When the timepiece is regulated to mean solar time, this correction scale is divided into minute and seconds of time in such a way that the circumference of this correction scale 30 represents 3 minutes 56.55 seconds of time, which is the difference to be added in twenty-four hours to the mean time in order to convert such mean time into sidereal time. The correction scale 30a is this same difference expressed in angular measure, the circumference of the correction scale 36a representing 59.14 minutes of angle.

The correction hand 3| indicates upon the scale 30, and is provided with the arrow mark 32 and the Vernier 33, the arrow mark 32 indicating the main reading of the vernier 33. The correction hand 3| is cut away at 34 so as not to obscure, as far as possible, the scale 26 over which it passes. The correction hand makes one revolution to two revolutions of the hour hand.

The sweep second hand 2'! is attached to the shaft 35, which is squared at 35st and has the spring loading collar 36 and the pinion 3'! firmly pressed on it. The pinion 31 meshes with the gear 38. The clutch member 39 is fitted to slide laterally on the squared part 35a of the shaft 35,

and is loaded by the spring 40 to clutch the hub of the gear 4| as a cone clutch. Thus clutched the movement of the shaft 35 is regulated from the movement of the escapement wheel 25, as the gear 46 meshes with the pinion 52, which is tight on the shaft 43 on which the escapement wheel is also tight.

The double yoke lever 44 fulcrums on the pin 45 in the bracket 86, which is attached to the back plate 23. Two pin projections 47, 47, of the double yoke lever 44, are adapted to engage the circular shoulder 48 of the clutch member 35. The double yoke lever 46 has also the pin projections 49, 49 which are adapted to ride in the track 50 in the setting member 5|. The collar 52 is provided as a knob to facilitate the manual operation of the setting member 5|, both axially and in rotation. The settin member 5| is adapted to engage as a clutch with the cone shaped collar 53, which is firmly pressed on the hub of the pinion 54, which in turn is firmly pressed on the countershaft 55, and this retains the countershaft 55 in lateral position in one direction. The collar 55, which is peened on the end of the countershaft 55 retains it in lateral position in the other direction as the setting member 5| is manually moved laterally along its axis to engage one clutch and disengage the other. The brake bands 5?, 5'! have the linings 58, 58 and are held to the rear plate 23 by the screws 59, 59 and are adjusted as to their pressure on the setting member 5| by the screws 60, 6|! with sufi'icient pressure to retain the setting member 5| in whatsoever axial or rotative position it may be manually placed.

When the setting member 5| is placed in the lateral position shown in Fig. 2, the movement of the clock train to the hands is regulated from the escapement wheel 25. The clutch member 39 then clutches the hub of the gear ll, the two pin projections 57, 5'! being held out of contact with the shoulder 46, as the position of the double yoke lever 55 is controlled by the two pin projections 49, 49, riding in the track 50.' In this normal running position, the spring 50 does not cause any drag upon the rotation of the shaft 35, for the reason that the thrust of the spring 40 is confined to the shaft itself between the pinion 31 and the spring loading collar 36.

The other extreme position for the movement laterally along its axis of the setting member 5| is the position in which said setting member 5| clutches the cone shaped collar 53, and thus affords a control of the rotative movement of the clock train to the hands from the rotative movements manually imparted to the knob 52. In this extreme position, the two pin projections 31, 41, by their engagement with the circular shoulder 48, compress the spring 46 and disengage the clutch member 39 from the hub of the gear 4|. The squared part at 35a of the shaft 35 acts as a sto to the lateral motion of the gear il during this operation. This frees the escape-- ment mechanism from the clock train to the hands and to the setting member 5| as the shaft 35 is a running fit in the hub of the gear 4 And in this position the clock train to the hand is stopped, and can be set, or reset, by the rotative movements manuall imparted to the knob 52. The clock train to the sweep second hand 27 is through the pinion 31, the gear 38 fast to the hub of pinion 54, the pinion 54 and the gear 6| which is pressed on the sleeve 63 carrying the minute hand. The clock train to the minute hand 28 is through the pinion 62 which is also pressed on the sleeve 63 and which pinion 62 meshes with the gear 6 2. The clock train to the hour hand 29 is through the gear 61 and the pinion 66.

The pinion 65 is a running fit on the countershaft 55, and on the hub of this pinion are pressed the pinion 6B and the said gear 64. The pinion 66 meshes with the driving gear 24 and with the gear 61. The gear 61 is pressed on the sleeve 68 which carries the hour hand 29.

The pinion 65 meshes with the gear 69, which is pressed on the sleeve 76. The sleeve 10 carries the correction hand 3|.

The spacing collar ii is provided to laterally position the sleeve H3. The sleeve i0 is a running fit in the front plate 2| The sleeve 58 is a runnin fit in the sleeve ill. The sleeve 63 is a running fit in the sleeve 68. The shaft 35 is a running fit in the sleeve 63 and in the back plate 23.

The proportionate gear ratios are, as shown in 'Fig. 2, as follows: for pinion 31 to gear 38, as 1 to 8; for pinion 52 to gear 5|, as 1 to 8; for pinion 55 to gear 68, as l to 7 /2; for pinion 62 to gear 64, as l to 4; for pinion 66 to gear 61, as 1 to 3; for pinion 55 to gear 69, as 1 to 6. And the ratio of the number of teeth in the pinion 66 to the driv ing gear 24 can be as 1 to 6. Pinion 56 should be driven at a timed rate of six revolutions in twenty-four hours. Other gear ratios may be used without changing the principle of my invention. Andwhile the hands are described as running in the same direction, it does not change the principle to run them in different directions.

The simple form of my invention shown in Fig. 1 i intended as a calculating device, in which the hour and minute hands are set to the corresponding time as indicated by another timepiece. The simple form. is operated by manually turning the knurled knob 1, thereby turning the hands to any desired position as a setting for reading the indications of the hands including the correction hand. Such setting of the minute hand and the hour hand must be made as an antemeridian hour or as a postmeridian hour as the correction hand 6 is either in the first half or in the second half of its complete revolution. The correction hand 6 will then indicate on the correction scale 30 the correction to be added to the indications of the hour hand and the minute hand 4 on the scale 26. The purpose and use of the correction so indicated is more fully described hereinafter in connection with the form of my invention as incorporated in a timepiece.

In the form of my invention shown in Figs. 2 to 9, in order to stop all the hands, the setting member 5|, operated from the knob 52, is moved in to firmly clutch the cone shaped collar 53. And in this position the knob 52 can be manually rotated in either direction to set all the hands. When the proper setting is obtained, the setting member 5| is then moved away from and out of engagement with the cone shaped collar 53, and at the limit of this movement, the position shown in Fig. 2, the clock train is properly connected to the escapement. When properly set as to antemeridian and postmeridian hours, all the hands, including the correction hand, will coincide at midnight. That is, the proper reading for the position of the hands as shown in Fig. 3 is 13 hours 11 minutes 30 seconds from the indications of the hour, minute and second hands, and to this mean time reading is to be added 2 minutes 10 seconds from the indication of the correction hand, in order to obtain the elapsed sidereal time as 13 hours 13 minutes 40 seconds since the last midnight. As the Nautical Almanac gives the sidereal time of midnight at Greenwich for each day, the elapsed sidereal time, as well as the mean time, is usually referred to Greenwich in navigational computations. From the dial marked, as shown in Fig. 10, with the scales 26a and 3011, the angular equivalent of mean time and the angular equivalent of the correction to be added in order to obtain the elapsed sidereal time in angular equivalent are indicated from the indications of the hour, minute, second and correction hands. The time indicated can be read directly in its angular equivalent from the indications of these hands; the numerals 1 to 15 being the value in minutes of angle for reading the second hand, and the value in degrees for reading the minute hand.

The foregoing however are only some of the uses to which my invention may be put, for the reason that time is measured by the rotation of the earth. For mean time such rotation is referred to a fictitious mean Sun, and for sidereal time such rotation is referred to the fixed stars. And for this reason, the timepiece can be regulated to sidereal time and the conversion made to mean time from indications of the correction hand, the readings may be in time or angle, by the simple expedient of providing the proper correction scale. It is also evident that the correction hand can be arranged as a simple hand without the Vernier, and that such correction hand could take the place of, and dispense with, the usual hour hand by numbering the dial for twenty-four hours, all without departing from the principles of my invention.

I claim:

1. In a navigational timepiece, a dial, hour, minute and second hands, a correction hand, a clock train, means for moving all the hands around the dial from the clock train, graduations on the dial for the indication of time by the hour, minute and second hands, as such time is reckoned according to one system, and graduations on the dial for the indication by the correction hand of the difierence between the time as indicated by the hour, minute and second hands and the corresponding time as reckoned according to another system.

2. In a navigational timepiece, a dial, hands, graduations on the dial upon which the hands are adapted to indicate time as reckoned according to one system, a correction hand, a clock train, means for moving all the hands around the dial from the clock train, graduations on the dial upon which said correction hand indicates the difference between the time as indicated according to the aforesaid system and the time as reckoned according to another system.

3. In a timepiece regulated to run at mean time, a clock train, hands driven from the clock train, a dial, scales on the dial graduated in units of mean time and angle, upon which the said hands indicate the elapsed mean time and the coresponding angle, a correction hand driven from the clock train of the timepiece in proper relation to the drive of the other hands, and a correction scale on the dial of the timepiece graduated in units, as indicated by the correction hand, for the conversion of the elapsed mean time into the angular equivalent of the elapsed sidereal time.

4. In a timepiece regulated to run at sidereal time, a clock train, hands driven from the clock train, a dial, scales on the dial graduated in units of sidereal time and angle, upon which the said hands indicate the elapsed sidereal time and the corresponding angle, a correction hand driven from the clock train of the timepiece in proper relation to the driv of the other hands, and a correction scale on the dial of the timepiece graduated in units, as indicated by the correction hand, for the conversion of the elapsed sidereal time into the angular equivalent of the elapsed mean time.

5. In a navigational timepiece, a gear train, a dial, scales on the dial graduated in terms of the time and the angle of longitude as reckoned according to one system of reckoning time, hands driven from the gear train of the timepiece, adapted to indicate on the aforesaid scales the time and the angle of longitude according to one system, a correction hand, also driven from the gear train, and a correction scale on the dial graduated in terms of the correction proper to convert the time of said one system into the angle of longitude as reckoned according to another system of reckoning time, the correction hand being adapted to indicate such correction on the said correction scale.

6. A dial for a navigational timepiece provided with circular scales on the dial graduated in units of time as reckoned according to one system of reckoning time, upon which circular scales hands of the timepiece are adapted to indicate the time as reckoned according to said system, and provided with a circular correction scale graduated vin terms of a proportionate correction, as such proportionate correction is indicated by a correction hand driven from the clock train, proper for application to the time, as indicated by the hands on the scales of one system, to convert said time into terms of time as reckoned according to another system of reckoning time.

'7. A mechanical computing machine comprising a stationary dial, hands, including a correction hand, a gear train connecting and driving all the hands around the dial, circular scales on the dial graduated in terms of time as reckoned according to onesystem of reckoning time, a circular correction scale on the dial graduated in terms of the correction, as indicated by the correction hand, proper for application to the time as indicated by the hands on the scales of one system to convert said time into terms corresponding with the time as reckoned according to another system, and means for manually setting the hands to a desired time according to one system, at which setting the correction hand is adapted to indicate the value of the correction.

8. In a timepiece, time indicating hands, a correction hand, a clock train including an escapement mechanism driving all the hands, a dial provided with scales adapted for hands indicating time according to one system thereon and with a correction scale adapted for the correction hand indicating the proper correction to be applied to such time to convert it into time according to another system, a clutch interposed in the clock train between the hands and the escapement mechanism, another clutch interposed between the clock train and the means for setting the hands, means for setting the hands, and means for interconnecting the clutches for their operation from the means for setting the hands to release one clutch on the engagement of the other, the said means being adapted, on one alternative manual operation of the means for setting the hands, to free the connection between the escapement and the clock train during the manual operation of setting the hands, and adapted, on another alternative manual operation of the means for setting the hands, to connect the-escapement and the clock train and to free the clock train from the means for setting the hands.

9. In a timepiece, comprising a clock train, an escapement mechanism, hands, means for setting the hands and means for driving the hands from the clock train, the combination of a clutch interposed between the clock train of the hands and the escapement mechanism, with another clutch interposed between the clock train and the means for setting the hands and means for interconnecting the clutches for their operation from the means for setting the hands, adapted to release one clutch on the engagement of the other, and adapted toafiord from the manual operation of the means for setting the hands, as one alternative, for setting the hands, the release of the escapement mechanism from the clock train and the connection of the clock train with the means for setting the hands, and as the other alternative, when the hands are set, the release of the connection between the clock train and the means for setting the hands and the connection of the clock train with the escapement mechanism.

THOMAS P. CONLON.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2976674 *Feb 11, 1959Mar 28, 1961Sessions Clock CompanyOpen-face clock
Classifications
U.S. Classification368/20, 368/106, 968/167
International ClassificationG04B19/22, G04B19/00
Cooperative ClassificationG04B19/22
European ClassificationG04B19/22