US 2326609 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Aug. 10, 1943 DEPILATORY Joseph N. Borglin, Wilmington, Hercules Powder Company,
Del., assignor to Wilmington, Del.,
, a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Application December Serial'No., 372,010
14 Claims. This invention relates to depilatories and, more particularly, to depilatories which are substantially liquid when hot and which upon cooling congeal. Still more particularly, itrelates to adhesive depilatory compositions of the aforementioned type containing polymerized rosin and a modifying constituent therefor, such as oil, these compositions being adapted foruse as food carcass depilatories.
Heretofore, deplilatories for the removal of hair, feathers or the like from carcasses have comprised chiefly ordinary rosin. In the U. S. patent to Richardson et al., No. 2,013,928, dated September 10, 1935, thereis' shown a depilatory which comprises about 90% of rosin and'a complement of cottonseed oil. This composition is applied in hot, molten form to the carcass, allowed to congeal and/or solidify, and removed, thereby removing the hair, feathers or similar material from the surface.
This invention has as an object the production of an improved depilatory. Another object is to devise an improved depilatory for the removal of hair, feathers, etc. from carcasses. A further object is the production of a' depilatory which liquefies upon the application of moderate heat and which forms, upon cooling, a harder, more adhesive, more brittle mass than has been formed or solidified coating that maybe removed either by hand or by machine. Alternatively,; the depilatory composition in molten form may be spread as a thin layer over a cloth of.'suflicient size to cover the area of skin from which the hair or feathers is to be removed, this cloth pressed against the skin and moderate heat applied for a v short time followed by cooling, either naturally heretofore. A still further object is the production of a composition for the purposes specified which contains a substantially greater amountof oil than has been used in such compositions heretofore. Other objects will appear hereinafter.
These objects are accomplished in accordance with the present invention by theuse of polymerized rosin in conjunction with a modifying v agent which is preferably of an oily nature such as oils of mineral, animal or vegetable origin and mixtures thereof. If desired, polymerized rosin may be used in conjunction with other resinous materials such as ordinary rosin or.less preferably modified rosinsother than polymerized rosin such as hydrogenated rosin, heat treated rosin,
isomerized rosin, rosin which has been treated so as to simultaneously hydrogenate a portion thereof and dehydrogenate the balance, and known as Hyex rosin, etc.
In accordance with the present invention, a.
composition of the polymerized rosin, ordinary rosin, or other modified rosin, thedily material,
and any other modifying or plasticizing agent,
is intimately intermixed in any suitable manner as for example, by melting together the ingredients in appropriate amounts. This hot com-' position, or this composition which has been per-- mitted to solidify and then remelted, is then applied as a thin coating to the skin of the carcass to betreated bybrushing, dipping, orspraying. Upon cooling, there is formed a congealed or by some expedient.artificial means, and stripping of the cloth. In this manner, upon removal of the cloth, the hair or other epidermal excrescences, which are embedded in the composition, are'withdrawn from the skin, leaving it in an improved condition.
In accordance with the present invention, the depilatory composition is preferably so proportioned as to be an amorphous solid at ordinary room temperatures. If desired, however, it may be so proportioned that it is a liquid at ordinary room temperatures and is applied at such temperatures in such liquid form followed by chilling to below room temperature to solidify the mass, which can then be stripped off in any desired manner.
In-order to make a composition which is an amorphous solidat ordinary room temperatures and which becomes liquid at moderately elevated temperatures, the depilatory composition may contain from about to about 95% of polymerized rosin, the balance of the composition being an appropriate modifying agent such as oil or oily material or a wax or a mixtureof an oily material and a wax. Still more suitably the composition comprises from about to about 90% ofpolymerized rosin, the balance consisting of a modifying component of the 'type'referred to. A particularly satisfactory composition is-one consisting of about of polymerizedrosin and about 15% of an oily material.
As the oily modifying agent, I may employ a wide variety of fats and oils such as cottonseed castor oil, olive oil, lard, lard oil, neatsfoot oil, coconut oil, palm oil, fish oils such as menhaden oil, tallow, etc. I prefer to use those oils which are normally liquid. The. oils enumerated are" the oily higher fatty acid glycerides. Instead of using the. glycerides, I may use the oily higher fatty acids themselves such as oleic acid, stearic .acid, palmitic acid, myristic acid, lauric acid,
linolinic acid, linoleic acid, etc. By the term higher fatty acids, I mean the fatty acids having at least 12 carbon atoms which are commonly termed the non-volatile acids. 01 the foregoing, I prefer to usethe non-drying or semi-drying fatty oils or fatty acids. Still further, I may employ a mineraloil such as paraflin oil, waterwhite mineral oil, etc. or any petroleum oil which is preferably relatively pure and which may range in viscosity from say 135 Saybolt seconds at 100 F. to 375 Saybolt seconds at 210 F. It is preferred to use those mineral oils which are not readily distilled and yet which are not on the verge of being tars, or I may use a resin oil such as rosin oil. Non-drying or semi-drying oily modifying agents are preferred.
Instead of, or in addition to, the oily modifying agent, I may employ a waxy plasticizing material such as carnauba wax, candelilla wax, Montan wax, Japan wax, beeswax, lanolin or wool grease, paraffin, etc. I prefer to use such a wax-like modifying constituent in an amount ranging from about 0.1% to about 4.5% by weight based on the weight of the total composition, although I may use as high as 8% of the waxy component.
The proportion of modifying constituent, preferably a normally liquid oily modifying component may range from about to about 25% by weight of the composition although more desirably it ranges'between about to about 20%. Still more desirably, it approximates of the total composition.
While the foregoing description refers particularly to the use of polymerized rosin as the sole or principal resinous component of the depilatory, within the spirit of my invention up to about 50% of this resinous component may be replaced by ordinary rosin such as either wood rosin or gum rosin or modified rosin other than polymerized rosin such as hydrogenated rosin, Hyex rosin, or the like. 'In other words, at least about 50% by weight of the rosin material present in the depilatory is polymerized rosin.
Methods of making polymerized rosin are well known to the art and need not be described in detail here. A typical method is that set forth in U. S. Patent No. 2,017,866, to Avery A. Morton, dated October 22, 1935. In general, polymerized rosin may be said to be characterized by a melting point increase above ordinaryrosin of from about 5 C. to about 100 C., a molecular weight considerably greater than ordinary rosin, substantial freedom from hardening substances held in combination, an acid number varying from thatof the original rosin down to say about 100, and an iodine value materially lower than ordinary rosin. The rosin may be polymerized by means of metal halides, mineral .acids, etc., and the polymerized rosin regardless of the method of polymerization maybe further refined in any suitable manner as for example by means of selective solvents such as furfural, etc., or selective adsorbents such as fullers earth, activated. carbon, activated clay, etc. Treatment 'of the polymerized rosin with such selective adsorbents serves to remove therefrom traces of catalyst as well as color bodies. It is preferred in accordance with the present invention to employ polymerized rosin having a melting point of at least about 95 C. ranging upwardly to about 170 C., the melting point of the pure dimer. Below are given several specific examples of depilatories prepared in accordance with the principles of the present invention. While each of the depilatories -described was employed for removing hair from an animal carcass, they may be employed for removing superfiuous hair from the human body. The polymerized rosin used in these examples had a drop melting point of 98-100 C. and an acid number of 151-155. This material was obtained by the polymerization of Wood rosin with sulfuric acid.
Examples 1 to 9 Polymerized rosin-containing depilatories were prepared by mixing together theingredients inmerized rosin, or the mixture of polymerized rosin and regular wood rosin in the case of Example 1, and adding the oily component with agitation at 110 C. Upon cooling, a semi-solid plastic mass formed which had excellent depila tory characteristics.
Example number Percentages!) weight Polymerized rosin- 45 82 85 85 85 85 85 Nwood rosin 45 The polymerized rosin was melted at C. and the wax added thereto with stirring. The cottonseed oil was then added with stirring at 110 C.
Example 11 Percentage by weight Polymerized rosin 45 N wood ros 41 Cottonseed oil 10 Parafiin wax The polymerized rosin and wood rosin were melted together at 110 C. whereupon the wax was dissolved with stirring followed by addition of the cottonseed oil with stirring.
Example 12 Percentage by weight Polymerized rosin 5 Paramn oil (so-called liquid petrolatum or white medicinal oil, sp. gr. 0.870) 15 Y The polymerized rosin was melted and brought to 110 C. whereupon the parafiin oil was added with agitation.
r The polymerized rosin wasbrought into the molten state'at a temperature of 110 C. where-.-
- upon the rosin oil was commingled therewith with stirring.
Because of the nature of polymerized rosin and especially because of its high meltingpoint, increased resistance to oxidation, and increased resistance to crystaIIiz'atiom-many advantages flow from the depilatory composition prepared 1 therefrom. .One particularly outstanding advantage is the ready production of a composition that is quite fluid when heated moderately yet cools to a hard,- fairly pliable mass. This composition is well adapted to the removal of epidermal excrescences by hand. By the addition of more of the modifying agents such as oily material or waxy material, the composition may be easily made applicable to removal by machine. A further advantage of the compositions of the present invention is that they may contain a substantially greater amount of oil, thereby overcoming to a large extent the difiicultyof having the material become too viscous upon continued use. This disadvantage is noted in dehairing compositions containing ordinary rosin which are in continuous use. Because of the stability of the compositions'of the present invention, the difliculties heretofore experienced Y tion and lower content 'of volatile components does not behave in this manner and consequently does not form a composition possessing this great disadvantage.
A marked advantage of the present invention is that the compositions may be remelted repeatedly. This allows the use of a continuous process in which the stripped mass of depilatory and hair or feathers is melted to separate the depilatory from the hair or feathers, the re-.- covered depilatory being'used again and again. A still further advantage of the present invention is that the compositions made in accordtemperature changes, especially in the range of ordinary room temperatures. Still other advantages will be obvious to those skilled in the art.
v It will be understood that the details and examples hereinbefore set forth are illustrative only and that the invention as broadly described and claimed is in no way limited thereby.
What I claim. and desire to protect by Letters I Patent is: 1
1. A depilatory comprising polymerized rosin and from about 5% 'to about 25%, by weight, of an oily modifier therefor, said depilatory being adapted to be applied in liquid form' to hairy or feathered surfaces to be solidified by chilling andto be removed in the solid state to strip the hair or feathers from said surfaces.
2..A' depilatory comprising polymerized rosin and from about 5% to about 25%, by weight, of an oily modifier therefor, said depilatory being an amorphous solid at ordinary room temperature and being adapted to be applied in hot molten form to hairy or feathered surfaces, to
. ance therewith are not as readily aifectedby v be solidifiedby cooling, andtovbe removed in the solid state to strip the hair or feathers from said surfaces.
3. A depilatory composition comprising from about 75% to about 95% of a rosin material con-- taining at least about 50% by weight of polymerized rosin, and from about 5% to about 25% of a modifier therefor selected from the group consisting of waxes, mineral oils, higher fatty acid glycerides, and higher fatty acids,
4. A depilatory composition comprising from about to about 90% of a rosin material containing at least about 50% by weight of polymerized rosin, and from about 10% to about 20% of an oily material selected from the group consisting of oily higher fatty acid glycerides, oily higher fatty acids, and mineral oils.
5. A depilatory composition comprising from about 80% to about 90% of rosin material containing at least about 50% of polymerized rosin and from about 10% to about 20% of a normally liquid oil.
6. A depilatory composition consisting essentially of approximately of polymerized rosin and approximately 15% of a normally liquid oil.
'7. A depilatory composition consisting essentially of approximately 85% of polymerized rosin and approximately 15% of a normally liquid oil of the glyceride type.
8. A depilatory composition consisting essentially of approximately 85% of polymerized rosin and 15% of mineral oil.
9. A depilatory composition consisting essentially of from about 80% to about of a rosin material selected from the group consisting of rosin and modified rosins, said-rosin material containing at least about 50% of polymerized rosin, and from about 10% to about 20% of a modifying agent selected from the group consisting of waxes, mineral oils, higher fatty acidglycerides, and higher fatty acids.
10. A depilatory comprising polymerized rosin,
from about 10% to 20%, by weight, of a normally liquid oil, and from about .1% by weight, to about 8%, by weight, of a wax.
11. A depilatory consisting essentially of from about 80% to about 90% of a rosin material selected from the group consisting of'rosin and modified rosins, said rosin material containing at least about 50% of polymerized rosin, an oily material selected from the group consisting of oily higher fatty acid glycerides, oily higher fatty acids, and mineral oils, and a wax.
12. A depilatory consisting essentially -of approximately 515% of polymerized rosin, approximately 45% of normal wood rosin, and approximately 10% of cottonseed oil. v
13. .A depilatory consisting essentially of approximately 85% of polymerized rosin and approximately 15% of cottonseedoil.
14. The method of depilating feathered cutaneoussurfaces of a poultry carcass which comprises applying to a surface of a sheet of fabric a molten depilatory consisting of from about 75% to about by weight of a rosin material containing at least about 50% by weight ofpolymerized rosin, and from about 5% to-about 25% by weight of an oily modifiertherefor selected from the group-consisting of waxes, mineral oils,
higher fattyacid glycerides, and higher fatty acids, applying the fabric to the surface to be depilated so that the depilatory-coated surface of the fabric is pressed against the feathered cutaneous surface, heating the outer surface of the sheet of fabric at a suflicient temperature and for a sufficient length of time to permit the depilatory to soften and firmly adhere to the feathered cutaneous surface, cooling the sheet of fabric, and then stripping the sheet from said cutaneous surface thereby removing feathers from said surface.
JOSEPH N. BORGLIN.