US 2329311 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
sepr.14,1943. H. EwATr-:Rgs v2,329,311
METHOD OF PRODUClNG LIQUID GONTAINING PACKAGES Filed June 5, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet l a E l I gl l Qs 1Q m wat: Hill' *HH INVETOR. HHF/Qy/- W /17 Tf HS Sept. 14, 1943. H. F. WATERS 2,329,311 METHOD OF PRODUCINCY LIQUID CONTAINING PACKAGES .Filed June 5, 1940 2 sneet'ssmet 2` I HTTORNEY Patented Sept. 14, 1943 METHOD OF PRODUCING- LIQUID- CONTAINING PACKAGES Harry F. Waters, New York, N. Y.
` Application June 5, 1940, Serial No. 338,852
(ci. 22e- 51) 8 Claims.
This invention relates to methods for producing liquid containing packages and provides improvements therein.
Liquids in quantities to meet the needs of the tion, and repeated use. Such packaged goods do not receive rough and indiscriminate handling. They are not thrown around, dropped, subjected to transitory or chance atmospheric-tem-perature or handled with disregard of the position of the closure.
I am aware that eiiorts-have been heretofore made to package liquids in paper-stock containers so as to enter the general flow of packaged merchandise i'rom primary sources to consumer, but such eflorts have not been practically successiul. There has been too high a percentage of burst and leaky packages to be commercially successful or to induce users to adopt paper stock containers in preference to metal and glass containers, in spite of the large direct and indirect savings to be had from the use for packaging oi a paper stock container.
The large direct and indirect savings to be had by packaging liquids in paper-stock containers has been generally recognized, and these advantages of large direct and indirect savings have ior some considerable time been availed of in the packaging of so-called dry or solid contents.
The present invention provides a liquid-containing'package capable of entering the general flow of packaged merchandise from primary sources to consumer and standing up under the usual incidents of such flow with practical success. The practicability of the invention has been demonstrated by shipments through agencies by which the general iiow of merchandise is conducted and by rough handling and shelf and outdoor standing at changing temperatures. By reason oi the novel features of the present invention, the liquid-containing package can be dropped through distances related to the handling of the package-man-height, shelf-height to iioor, load-height on a truck to floor, platform or pavement, without bursting and without impairing the seal. The package can be iirmly grasped without the deformation due to flexure of the body or sides causing impairment of the seal. It can stand through a range of temperature from sun-exposure tem-peratures to sub-zero atmospheric temperatures without the seal being impaired.
The invention further provides a novel method and apparatus for producing the package and carrying into effect in the package the novelties and advantages herein described.
One embodiment of the liquid-containing package, one embodiment of the apparatus and three specic modes of procedure for practicing the generic method are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, but the inventions may have other embodiments, be put into practice by other procedures and with other'iorms of apparatus than those herein specifically illustrated and described.
Referring to said drawings:
Figs. 1 and 2 are views showing the completed package, Fig. 1 being a front elevation and Fig. 2 being a vertical section.
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view illustrating apparatus which may be used in producing the package, and also in conjunction with which the method may be practiced.
Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional view illustrating the package in conjunction with one element of the apparatus.
Figs. 5, 6 and 7 are views of the package at diierent stages of the method of producing the same. They are each vertical sectional views in which the shapes are shown somewhat exaggerated to better convey the ideas illustrated.
In said drawings, numeral I0 designates a bladder or sac and numeral l2 a case. Thecase I2 is iiexible, the flexibility being such as that possessed by various types of boards available in the paper industry, such as cardboard, paste board, kraft board, straw board, etc. The container i2 may bevmade from one of these board materials, or from a synthetic resinous material, (cellulose and vinyl ester polymers, etc.) or in fact any other suitable material. In practice a 30 point kraft board has been used for the case I2. In the generality of shapes in,which bags or contalnershave been made of paper stock materials or the like, one or more of the walls, as a side or an end, and especially a flat side or end will flex to a greater or less degree under the weight oi the contents and under external forces folding box. Furthermore, the structure of the l case I2. and also of the bladder I0, hereinafter to be more fully described, may-have the structure and form illustrated and described in my application Serial No. 191,860'.
The bladder I is extensible within the case. The bladder is extensible without rupture when extended in any dimension at any position o1' flexure of the walls of the case, to the bursting lpoint of the case. Primarily the bladder I0 is a container for the liquid which is packaged, and the case I2 is the part which bears the stresses and strains incident to handling and mis-handling. f
Ordinarily the bladder I0 has a form distinct 1 from the case, and in this form it is like a paper bag. The bladder I0 is impervious to the liquid to be packaged, and thematerial of which it is made may be one which is impervious to the liquid, or one which is surfaced or impregnated so as to be impervious. The knowledge of the art of sheet materials and coatings is readily available for the selection of a material for the bladder I0 in relation to the liquid to be contained there in. Generally speaking, I prefer to employ a fibrous cellulosic material, such as paper, coated or laminated with vinyl derivatives, such as a vinyl derivative known in the trade as Vinylite.
With a bladder I0 of bag-like construction the Y lineal dimensions of the bladder are greater than the lineal inside dimensions of the case I2 so as to be extensible within the limits of expansion of the case to the bursting point of the case, so that thev bladder I0 will be supported by the case against bursting forces to the point at which the case I2 itself bursts. In the form of the package illustrated in the drawings, this is illustrated by the buckled portions of the bladder indicated by the numerals I4, I5, I6. There is indicated thereby that in any lateral direction the bladder I0 is larger than the inside dimensions of the case I2. Vertical extensibility of the kind heretofore described is also indicated by the buckled portions I4, I5 and I6. The sealing of the liquid filled bladder I 0 is carriedl out in such a way as to attain the aforesaid extensibility of the bladder I0. The manner of sealing in respect to the extensibility of the bladder will be hereinafter more fully described.
One purpose of the extensibility of the bladder IU is tb avoid any increase of hydrostatic'pressure within the bladder notwithstanding changes in the Volume or capacity of the case I2 due to lexure of the case I2 in handling and mishandling.
The quantity or volume of the liquid which is put into the bladder I0 is also related to the avoidance of an increase of hydrostatic pressure within the bladder I0, under conditions abovev stated. The quantity of the liquid within the bladder I 0 is so limited that its volume is less than the volume or capacity of the bladder`when the latter is at its greatest reduction caused by inward ilexure of the case I2 dueto handling or ordinary mis-handling. The proper quantity cf liquid within the package will be governed by the shape of the case I2, as the reduction in volume of cases by flexure due to handling and ordinary mls-handling will vary with the shape ofthe container. Pressure on the sides of two cases of equal volume will vary with the shape of the case. For example, with cases of rectangular parallelg epipedal form the reduction in volume will be greater in the one which is narrower or thinner than the other. The quantity of liquid put into .Y
a package having'any particular shape, so asV to take optimum advantage of the space available, and also to avoid an increase of hydrostatic pressure within the bladder under the conditions of handling can be readily ascertained by simple trial. 'I'he particular case is flexed inwardly by an amount which corresponds to its maximum inward exure under ordinary mis-handling, and while so flexed, is filled to a level which is below but approximately corresponding to the top of the case, and the quantity of liquid thus ascertained is the'maximum content of the package. A good working rule also for ascertaining the quantity or volume of liquid for sealing the package, is to have the volume of the liquid as much less than the geometrical volume of the unstressed case as the volume of the case is increased in volume by outward ilexure up to the bursting point of the case. Therefore, withI a package as thus far described, the bladder I!) is extensible up to an increase in volume of the case I 2 by fiexure to the bursting point of the case, whereby a dynamic force in the liquid (such as would be created by the falling of the package from a height) is sustained by the case and does not burst or disrupt the bladder, and on the other hand, the integrity of the bladder is maintained against an increase of internal hydrostatic pressure such as would otherwise occur consequent upon a iiexure of a case inwardly' to an extent where the volume of its bladder is reduced to less than the volume of the liquid contained therein.
The bladder I0 after receiving a'quantity of liquid, Idetermined as aforesaid, is sealed as indicated by numeral I8. With a bag type of bladder, the preferred seal I8 is an adhesive (either autogenous or applied) running across the inside of the bladder near its upper edge, the opposite sides of the bladder at its upper end being united by the adhesive so as to hermetically seal the liquid in the bladder.
In making the sealthe upper part of the bladder I0 is handled in such a way as to have extensibility at the top of the bladder to an extent that variables acting on the contents will not stress the seal. With a bag type of bladder such as illustrated, this is effected by having an excess of material 20 at the top of the bladder, with the vertical sides extending to the top of the case. The presence of this excess of material 20 at the top of the bladder may be effected in a number of ways, some of which will be explained in connection with the description of the method of producing the package.
The package is further contrived in such a manner that a gas pressure within the bladder Ill, which would impair the seal, is avoided. Some of the air or gas is removed from the space below the seal I8, or otherwise stated, the amount of air in the bladder IU is reduced by such an amount that the air remaining in said bladder (when sealed) is capable .of an increase of pressure limited to approximately atmospheric pressure. at maximum air temperatures encountered in the normal .transportation and storage of merspeaking it may be said that the pressure within the sealed bladder I is sub-atmospheric, but this is not strictly correct, because, the bladder being quite flexible, yields under the external pressure of the atmosphere and the pressures inside and outside of the bladder are in substantial equilibrium. However, the condition isthat the air (or other gas) within the bladder I0 after sealing ls of such volume, when expanded by the action of temperature, as for example, the action of the sun thereon in hot weather, and also when the volume of the case I2 is reduced by fiexure under ordinary mis-handling, will not have a pressure which substantially exceeds atmospheric pressure. There is sufficient capacity Within the bladder at the reduced volume thereof and at thc increased temperature of the air or gas remaining in the bladder to accommodate or contain the gas at a pressure at 'or approximately at atmospheric pressure. l
Accordingly, as the ultimate result of the structure and arrangement of the' bladder and case and the relation thereto of the liquid and gaseous contents, there is obtained a package which will not lose its contents or have its seal impaired by fiexures such as are ordinarily encountered in the transportation of general packaged merchandise and the ordinary mis-handling of some of such merchandise, or by the action of air temperature ,or climatic conditions on the package, either at the normal volume of the case, as when the package is merely standing on a shelf,
or at the deformed volume of the case such as it bladder I0 is assembled with a flexible case I2, a
quantity of liquid is put into the bladder, the quantity or volume being determined in relation to the volume of the bladder I0 at the minimum volume of the latter resulting from inward flexture of the case under ordinary conditions instant to the handling and mis-handling of general merchandise in the iiow of goods from production sources to consumer and the extensibility of the bladder being determined in relation to the volume or capacity of the case in such manner that the extensibility of the bladder is not exceeded in any dimension by an increase of the volume or capacity of the case to its bursting point; the amount of air or gas in the bladder I0 is reduced by such an amount that the air or gas remaining in the bladder (when sealed) is capable of an increase of pressure limited to approximately atmospheric pressure at maximum air temperature encountered inv the normal transportation and storage of merchandise and when the case I2 has its maximum inward exure (minimum capacity) described above; and with the liquid and gaseous contents of the bladder so related to the variables of capacity or Volume and temperature expansion, the bladder is closed to hermetically seal the contents therein. The package is completed by closing the case, and when this is done a package is obtained having the advantages set out above in the description of the package. A liquid containing package is obtained which can be subjected to the handling and temperature conditions ordinarily encountered in the transportation and storage of general packaged merchandise without impairment of the seal or bursting of the package.
flexed inwardly by the bulges 41.
The method may be carried into effect by the modes of procedure illustrated in the drawings.
Referring to Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 'l an assembled case I2 and bladder I0 is received by an operator at position A, from a conveyor 40, or otherwise, the assembling being done manually or by machine. The case 'I2 and bladder I0 are open at the top so the contents may be received. 1n front of the position A is a supply of molds 43. The molds 43 may be supplied to the operator at position A on an endless conveyor 45, or otherwise. At position A the operator takes an assembled bladder I0 and case I2, and inserts the assembly into the mold 43. The mold 43 is shown in enlarged vertical section in Fig. 4. The mold 43 is provided with suitable means, as inward bulges 41 on the inner walls of the mold, for inwardly flexing the sides of the case I2. For convenience in preventing the end aps 49 of the case from projecting upwardly, the mold maybe provided with keepers 50, behind which the said flaps may be temporarily placed. In the act' of placing the assembled case and bladder in the mold 43, the walls of the case I2 ,are The bulges 41 of the mold are contrived to produce an amount of inward iiexure of the case I2 corresporiding to the maximum inward exure which the case is likely to receive in ordinary mishandling incidental to the handling and transportation of packaged general merchandise. While the case I2 is so exed by the mold 43 the operator places the case with its bladder beneath a spout 53 leading from a tank or other source of supply of the liquid to be put into the blad- .der I0. Means are provided forcontrolling the quantity or volume of the liquid put into the lbladder I0. These means may be a valve 55 on the spout, which may be manually or automatically controlled to deliver a determined quantity or volume of liquid. After the bladder Ill has received its determined amount of liquid the bladder is ready for sealing. To effect this step, the operator at position B places the mold 43 with the case and filled bladder therein, on a conveyor 60, by which it is carried to a sealing means 63 at a position C. The sealing means 63 may be of any form or character to effect the sealing of the bladder I0, and may, as here illustrated, comprise a heated sealing member 64 and a resillent backing member 65 of rubber or the like. 'I'he bladder I0, with this form of sealing means, maybe-of a material which is capable of being autogenously united. Such materials are, for example, heat-sealing Cellophane, Pliofilm, Vinylite, or paper which is coated or laminated with a similar huid-tight and fusible material on at least one face thereof. At position C, the operator fiattens the bladder I0 at its upper open end and .places thel fiattened upper portions 68, 69 between the heat sealing member, or bar 64 and the backing member 65. The parts in this position are illustrated in Figure 4. With the upper portions 68, 69 of the bladder flattened and between the heat sealing member 64 and the backing member 65, these members are brought together against said flattened portions 68 and 69, and the heat of the heat sealing member softens the material of the bladder (or a coating thereon) to such an extent that under the action of the heat and pressure the part of the bladder between the heat sealing and backing members welds or autogenously unites to form an hermetic seal. The assembly of mold, case, and sealed bladder I0 is then removed from the sealing means 63 and may `to the closing of the case on the sealed bladder I0. The closing of the case I2 on the sealed bladder I maybe done in any suitable manner 'by automatic machinery, or by semi-automatic means, such as those employed at positions D, E and F. The removal of the molds 43 may be done at any time after the bladder I0 is sealed. According to the mode of procedure illustrated, the mold 43 is not removed until after the case I2 is closed. According to this mode of procedure, the operator at position D removes the assembled mold, case and sealed bladder and transfers them to another conveyor 15, the latter being provided with a series of spaced projections 16 having a shape adapted to enter the open bottom end of the mold 43. The operator places the mold 43 over one of the projections 18, and the projection entering the mold forces the case I2 containing the bladder upwardly. The upward movement disengages the flaps 48 of the case from the keepers 5I), and with the flaps so released, the operator at position E tucks the upper portions 68,."89 into the case and guides an opposite pair of flaps under a. holddown 11 Where they are held while glue is applied to the two other upstanding flaps by a suitable applicator 19. With the glue so applied, the two glued flaps are turned down on the first two in suitable manner, as by means of guide rails 8|, and then passed to a press 83, which may have the form of an endless .belt which travels above and at the same speed at the conveyor 15, and which bears on and holds the glued flaps of the case I2 together' until the glue has had time to set. When the assembled mold 43, sealed bladder, and closed case are carried beyond the press 83, an operator positioned there (position F) removes the sealed case I2 vand its contents from the mold 43, placing the packages in shipping cases, or routing them to any desired destination. At the same time the molds 43 are sent back to position A where the cases I2 and molds 43 are initially assembled. The return of the empty molds may be eiected by a conveyor 30, on ,which the operator at yposition F may place the molds after the cases are removed. The effect of sealing the bladder I0 while the latter is held inwardly flexed by the mold 43 is to reduce the amount of air or gas in the bladder I0 by such an amount that the air or gas remaining in the bladder after sealing is capable of expansion whereby its pressure is limited to approximately atmospheric pressure at maximum air temperatures encountered in the normal transportation and storage of merchandise and when the case I2 has the maximum inward ilexure which it is likely to have as the result of ordinary mis-handling.
- 'Ihe amount of liquid which is put into the bladder is determined in relation to an inwardly flexed condition of the case I2 substantially corresponding to its iiexure in the mold 43. Such a determined amount of liquid within a case so flexed, would have a level substantially as shown by the line |00, Fig. 6. In the free standing position of the case I2, the aforesaid determined amount of liquid would have a level substantially as shown by the line I 0I, Figs. 5 and '7. Consequently when the case I2 is removed from the mold 43 after the bladder I0 is sealed, the
atmospheric pressure would be created in the air or gas above the liquid and below the seal I8. The bladder I0, however, ybeing in fact quite flexible, the external pressure of the atmosphere will force it inwardly until equilibrium is obtained between the inside and outside pressures, so that the bladder will partially collapse, and have approximately the form illustrated in Fig. 7. This partially collapsed `form of the upper part of the bladder I0 nevertheless enables the bladder to extend on an increase of pressure of the air or gas sealed within the bladder, and the bladder, when sealed under conditions above described, is capable of such extension under increases of pressure caused by such increases of temperature as are to be expected in the transportation, ordinary mis-handling and storage of merchandise, without an increase substantially beyond atmospheric pressure. That is, as the pressure of the air or gas inside the bladder I0 increases, the bladder extends and an equilibrium at substantially atmospheric pressure is reached for each increment of temperature increase up to the maximum.
What is claimed is:
l. The method of packaging a liquid which comprises deforming an empty flexible-walled container within areas confined to the space to be occupied by the contents thereof, introducing' a predetermined volume of liquid into said deformed container to substantially fill the same, and sealing the container while in the lastmentioned condition, the walls of said container being sufficiently iiexible to permit partial col- 2. rI'he method of packaging a liquid which comprises the steps of deforming a flexiblewalled empty container within areas confined to the space to be occupied by the contents thereof to reduce the volumetric capacity thereof, delivering a measured volume of a liquid into said deformed container to substantially ll the same, sealing said container substantially at the level of th'e liquid, and then discontinuing said deforming operation to cause partial collapsing of the top portion of said container and lowering of the liquid level.
3. The method of packaging a liquid in a ilexible bag having an outer comparatively rigid Ibut deformable carton associated therewith which comprises applying deforming pressure to said carton and the flexible bag therein to reduce the volumetric capacity of said bag, delivering a measured volume of a liquid into the bag thus deformed to fill the same to a predetermined level, sealing said bag substantially at said level, and then releasing said deforming pressure to cause partial collapsing of the top portion of the bag and lowering of the liquid level.
tively rigid but resiliently deformable character and an inner liquid-tight flexible bag, said bag having dimensional factors exceeding in all di-v rections the corresponding dimensional factors of the space dened by the carton, partially collansing said bag within areas conned to the space to be occupied by the contents thereof to reduce its volumetric capacity to substantially less than its fully extended capacity below its seal. thereafter introducing into said bag a measured amount of liquid corresponding to such reduced capacity, and then sealing the liquid-filled bag while its capacity is so reduced.
6. The method of producing a liquid-containing package which comprises providing a container including a substantially quadranguiar outer carton of comparatively rigid but resiliently deformable character and an inner liquid-tight flexible bag, said bag havingdimensional factors exceeding' inall directions the corresponding dimensional factors of the space defined by the carton, inwardly exins at least one of the sides of said carton and said bag therein to reduce its volumetric capacity to substantially less than its fully extended capacity below its seal, thereafter introducing, into said bag a measured amount of liquid corresponding to such reduced capacity.'
and then sealing'the liquid-filled bag while its capacity is so reduced.
7. The method of producing a liquid-containing package which comprises providing a duplex container including an outer carton of comparatively rigid. but resiliently deformable character and an inner liquid-tight exible bag, inwardly exing portions of said carton and the bag'therein to an extent corresponding to its inward flexure by lordinary mishandling incidental to shipment and handling thereby reducing the volumetric capacity thereof, introducing a measured amount of liquid into said bag While its capacity is so reduced to substantially fill the same, thereafter sealing said bag while it is in the lastmentioned condition, and then releasing said carton and bag from flexing whereby a liquid-containing package is produced capable of being subjected to moderate deformation incidental to shipment and handling substantially without increasing the hydrostatic pressure-prevailing within the flexible bag.
8. The method of producingk a liquid-containing package which comprises providing a duplex container includingy an outer,` carton of comparatively rigid but resiliently deformable character land an inner liquid-tight flexible bag, said bag having dimensional factors in an directionsI in excess of correspondingl dimensional factors o f the inner space defined by said carton, inwardly flexing two oppositely spaced panels of said carton and of the bagl therein to an extent corresponding to its inward exure by ordinary mishandling incidental to shipment and handling thereby reducing the, volumetric capacity thereof, introducing a measured amount of liquid into said bag of reduced capacity to substantially fill the same, thereafter sealing said bag while it is in the last-mentioned condition, and then releasing said carton and said bag from flexing to cause partial collapsing of the top of the bag and lowering of the liquid level therein whereby a liquid-containing package is produced capabie of being subjected to moderate deformation incidental to shipment and handling without increasing the hydrostatic pressure prevailing within the flexible bag.
HARRY F. WA'I'ERS.