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Publication numberUS2330267 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 28, 1943
Filing dateApr 3, 1942
Priority dateApr 3, 1942
Publication numberUS 2330267 A, US 2330267A, US-A-2330267, US2330267 A, US2330267A
InventorsAlthouse Jr William S, Burt Clarence E
Original AssigneeBaker Oil Tools Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Well cementing apparatus
US 2330267 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

c. E. BURT ET AL WELL CEMENTING APPARATUS Sept: 28, 1942,.

\ Filed April'S, 1942 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 M ATTORNEY C. E. BURT ETAL WELL CEMENTING APPARATUS Filed April 5. 1942 Sept. 28, 1943.

tie.

IN VEN T 0R5 Ill"!!! ATTORNEY come apparent from a consideration of the variure 1 of still another form of-the position;

.inFlgureSwiththe atente Sept. 143

assets":

Clarence E. Burt,

, osrrsrus Los Angeles, and Williams.

Althouse, lira, south Pasadena,- Calif assignors to Baker Oil Tools, inc,

poration oi California Vernon, Calif a cor- Application April 3, 1942, Serial No. 437,548

l1 Claims.

This invention relates to well cementing ap- 'paratus adapted to form part of a casing string;

It is an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus capable of forming part of a casing string, having an internal sleeve valve of sturdy construction and improved drillable characteristics, which can be shifted to valve opening position against the resistance of frangible or similar locking devices tending to hold it in valve closing position.

A further object of the invention is to provide a well apparatus embodying a composite internal sleeve valve formed predominantly of readily drillable material and secondarily of ,a less readily drillable material capable of more eflicient shearing of frangible means tending to prevent movement of the sleeve valve.

This invention has other objects that will beous forms of apparatus; shown in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the present specification. These forms will now be described in detail to'illustrate the invent qn,,butit isto'beilnderstood that such sdetaileddescription is not to be taken in a limited 25 sense, since the scope of the invention is best described by the claims appended hereto.

Referring to the drawings: V

Figure 1 is a longitudinal view, partly in section and partly in elevation, of one form of apparatus with its sleeve valve in one position;

Figure 2 is a view similarto Figure l with the sleeve valve in another position;

Figure 3 is a cross section taken along the line 3-3 in Figure l;

Flgure i is a longitudinal view, partly in section and partly in elevation, of another embodiment of the invention with its valve in one operative Figure 5 is a view similar to Figure 4 with the valve in another operative position;

Figure 6 is" a longitudinal view similar to Figinvention; Figure 7 is a longitudinal view of the apparatus in Figure 6 with the sleeve valve in another oper- 45 the influence of fluids passingtherethrough. Any ative position; V tendency jggspchlfluids to now back'through the Figure -8 is a view similar to Figure 1 ,of still preventedby theerubber sleeve ll snugly another form of the invention; and

, F1gu1'e9 is a longitudinal view of the sleeve valve in another: operapl 'atus atlve position.

Thesame referencenumerals refertolikeperts throughmlt the several views and embodiments of theinvention. V 74/; .belowtheloivef" end ottlie flexiblesleeve. and Initsgen aspectatheinventionisdirected the 1mm the general principles of" to an apparatus designed to form part of a casing string, which embodies asleeve valve for controlling the" passage of fluids through ports or openings in the apparatus. The sleeve valve is made of a readily drillable material, which is much easier to drill up than cast iron, aluminum, and similar materials heretofore used, Such more readily drillable materials as are available are incapable of efficiently rendering locking means ineffective that normally hold the sleeve valve in a particular position with respect to the ports of the apparatus, usually due to the comparatively brittle properties of the material employed. It is therefore proposed to overcome this difliculty by incorporating a the sleeve valve construction designed to operate on the locking devices in concert with thecomparatively brittle. material to render the devices ineffective when thesleevevalve is to be shifted, as by hydraulic action. The comparatively brittle material forms E 38 D lidominant part of thg sleevemalve and thefiless readily drillable iraterial, such as cast iron, aluminum, etc., forms a comparatively minor part of the sleeve valve construction. As a result, after the sleeve valve has performed its desired functions in the apparatus, it can be more readly removedby a drill bit thanif the entire sleeve valve were made of cast iron and similar materials.

The forms of invention disclosed in the drawar collar l0 adapted to form part of a casing string by being threaded at its opposite ends to upper and lower casing sections ll, l2. This collar is provided with lateral ports or outlets l3 through which fluids may pass from ings consist of a tub ableby any suitable back pressure valve device, I

ible sleeve valve 14 whose lower end is iixed to the exterior of the collar and whos remaining upper portion is free to flex outwardly away-fgpmfthe ports l3 under embracing theportedcollar arem The action of the .flexible sleeve valve can be implemented bya plurality of closely spaced lon- 7 tudinal lea! springs l5 extending circumfere entially ends of thesesprlngsare welded to the collar ll different material in the interior of thecasing string into the annulus of rubber or similar material around the flexfllle'sleeve ll. The lower this point of attachment to the collar extend over and engage the flexible sleeve valve I4 to add its spring action to the inherent elasticity of the flexible sleeve tending to hold it in closed .position over the ports I3. It is therefore necessary for the fluid under pressure within the casing string to overcome both the elasticity of the rubber sleeve valve I4 and leaf springs I5 in opening the ports I 3. Not only do the leaf springs I5 assist in the functioning of therubber sleeve I4 as a back pressure valve, but they also serve to protect it against damage during lowering of the casing string in the well bore.

Passage of fluids through the ports I3 is controlled by a sleeve valve I6 slidable within the collar I0. This valve is initially held over the ports by frangible means, such as shear screws H, which position its upper and lower side seals I8, I9 on opposite sides of the ports to prevent flow of fluids in either direction between the exterior f the sleeve and wall of the collar for passage outwardly through the ports I3. A tripping or'briclging ball 20 introduced in the casing string can gravitate through the casing fluids until it engages a valve seat 2I in the sleeve I6 to close its central passage 22, thus enabling pressure to be built up in the casing fluid and cause it to exert a downward force on the sleeve I6 of sufficient degree to shear the screws I1 and move the sleeve I6 downwardly in the collar to a position in which the upper seal I8 is below the ports I3. Fluids may then pass outwardly through the open ports to the exterior of the casing string. The fluids must follow this direction since they are incapable of passing downwardly through the sleeve I6 by the bore closing action of the tripping ball 20. It is to be noted that downward movement of the sleeve I6 is limited by engagement of its lower end with the upper end of the lower casing section I2 (as in Figures 2, and 9).

The sleeve valve I6 is of composite construction. It is made primarily of a readily drillable material, such as a phenolic casting resin, known as Bakercasting resin or Catalin. The sleeve valve can be cast in suitable molds to a sufficiently accurate degree permitting its use in the apparatus without the performance of any subsequent machine work. This material has the requisite strength for use as a sleeve valve, and, after the well casing has been cemented, it can be drilled up much more readily than materials heretofore used, such as cast iron or aluminum. However, the material appears to be more brittle than cast iron or aluminum, and therefore does not operate .as efficiently in effecting a clean shear of the screws when they are threaded directly into the. material.

The difliculty'noted has been overcome in the embodiment disclosed in Figures 1, 2 and 3 by inserting a plurality of cast iron or aluminum plugs 23 at spaced points circumferentially around the sleeve and by screwing the shear pins I'I into the threaded bores of these plugs. The plugs 23 may be threaded into the resin sleeve material after drilling and tapping the latter following the molding operation, Or they may be molded directly into this material. Regardless of the method of manufacture employed, the engagement of the tripping ball 20 with the seat 2| to close the sleeve bore 22 enables the hydraulic force on the ball and sleeve to be transmitted to the shear screws II through the agency of the cast iron or aluminum plugs 23, thus obtaining a clean fracture or shearing of the pins and allowing the sleeve I6 to be moved downwardly to port opening position. The plugs 23 are of much larger size than the shear pins I! and do not crush the comparatively brittle material of which the sleeve is primarily formed.

As was described above, downward movement of the sleeve I6 is limited by its engagement with the upper end of the lower casing section I2. Its upward movement is limited by providing a shoulder 24 011 the sleeve engageable with a corresponding stop shoulder 25 formed in the collar I0. In addition to limiting the extent of upward movement of the sleeve I6 and preventing upwardly directed forces on the sleeve from being transmitted to the shear pins H, the engaged shoulders 24, 25 also assist in locating the plugs 23 with respect to the holes in the collar I0 through which the shear pins I 1 are inserted.

The form of invention disclosed in Figures 4 and 5 is similar in most respects to the one just described. However, the construction is simplified through the omission of the threaded plugs 23. Instead of employing the plugs, the cast phenolic main portion of the sleeve I6 rests upon a cast iron or aluminum ring 26, forming another portion of said leeve, into which is threaded the shear screws I'I, whose purpose is to position the valve seals I8, I9 on opposite sides of the ports I 3. After the tripping ball 20 engages the seat 2|, an increase in the hydraulic pressure of the fluids above the sleeve shears the screws I I and moves the sleeve downwardly, as limited by engagement of the ring 26 with the end of the lower casing section I2, in which position the collar ports I3 are open. As in the other form of invention, upward movement of the sleeve is prevented by engagement between the sleeve shoulder 24 and collar shoulder 25.

The form of invention disclosed in Figures 6 and 7 is similar to that shown in Figures 4 and 5. However, sometimes a shoulder cannot be provided in the collar to engage with a cooperable shoulder on the sleeve to prevent upward movement of the latter, as when the entire casing string must be internally flush. Such upward movement is prevented in the Figures 6 and 7 form of invention by interlocking the sleeve I6 with the cast iron or aluminum ring 26. The cast iron ring has an inturned flange 27 forming an internal circumferential groove in which is received an external flange 28 at the lower end of the phenolic portion of the sleeve, thus forming an interlocking fit. The ring portion 26, 21 of the sleeve and phenoliccast portion of the sleeve may be secured together by inserting the ring in the mold and casting the remainder of the sleeve thereto.

Inasmuch as the entire casing string is internally flush, downward movement of the sleeve I6 by hydraulic action after shearing of the screws I1 is limited by an inwardly extending, drillable stop ring 29 secured at any suitable point below the sleeve, as by positioning it between the collar I0 and lower casing section I 2.

The form of invention shown in Figures 8 and 9 is also similar to Figures 4 and 5. However, other features have been added, such as providing a back pressure valve in the slidable sleeve valve I6, which allows the casing string to be floated in the well bore, and also prevents fluids from below the sleeve from passing upwardly through it. This back pressure valve consists of a ball 30, preferably buoyant in cement slurry, movable upwardly to engage a seat 3| in the X slurry has been ejected through also readilyits bore 22 agam tu sleeve valve It to close ward passage of fluids. Downward movementof the ball 30 is limited by its engagement with spaced stop fingers 32 extending inwardly from a ball stop ring 33 positioned between the cast iron shear ring 26 and the remaining phenolic portion of the sleeve Hi. This ring and its fingers 32 are formed integrally from the same material as the upper portion of the sleeve, but is made as a separate unit to permit insertion of the'ball 30 within the sleeve l6.

Instead of limiting upward movement of the sleeve by the engagement of an external phenolic resin shoulder with an internal shoulder in the collar, as in the Figures 4 and 5 embodiment, the greater loads imposed on the sleeve l6 due to'its supporting the casing string while the latter is being run in the well bore require the use of a cast iron or aluminum stop ring 34 molded into the resin portion of the sleeve and engageable with the collar shoulder 25. Stop rings 34 made of this material have a greater crushing strength than the phenolic material from which the sleeve l6 and ball stop ring 33 are made.

After engagement of the tripping ball 20 with the upper seat 2| in the sleeve valve, pressure built up in the fluids thereabove shears the screws l1 and shifts the entire internal construction downwardly to a position limited by engagement of the cast iron or aluminum shear ring 26 with a lower casing section l2. Fluids may then be displaced through the collar ports I3. Were there any tendency for fluids to pass upwardly into the casing below the ball 3ll'would'engage its seat 3| to prevent such passage, and if the upwardly directed fluidforces were great enough, the back pressureball 30 and the upper sleeve valve body would then be movedupwardly until the .stop ring 34 engages the collar shoulder 25, preventing further movement from occurring. As a result of this upward return movement of the sleeve valve l6, it would again be positioned over the ports l3 and assist the flexible sleeve'valve H on the exterior of the collar ill in preventing return passage of fluids through the ports l3 into the casing string.

In all forms of the invention, after cement the ports l3 and sleeve valve, the back pressure gible means upon imposing sumcient force on said valve.

2. Apparatus of the character described, including a tubular member having ports adapted to form part of a casing string, a sleeve valve within said member for controlling passage of fluids through said ports, said sleeve valve being made of readily ring of less readily drillable material, and releashas set and hardened, a suitable drill bit can be run in the casing and the internal valve mechanism drilled out; This can be done very readily in view of the relative predominance of the phenolic casting material from which most of the sleeve valve' I6 is made. The cast iron or aluminum parts of the sleeve valve constructionare drillable, butnot as easily as the remainder of the sleeve valve. As a result, the entire portion within the collar is removable much .easier and in much less time than would be the case were it to be made entirely of cast iron or similar materials.

We claim:

.1. Apparatus of the character described, including a tubular member having ports adapted to form part of a casing string, a sleeve valve within said member-for controlling passage of fluids through said ports, said-sleeve valve being made ofreadily drillable material and having circumferentially spaced inserts in said material ofless, readily drillable material, and frangible means .extending into said member and inserts for holding said sleeve valve in position closing said ports, said first-mentioned'readily drillable material having such capable alone of eflectively dis pting said francharacteristics as to be in ytioned readily fluids through said ports-said made predominantly of readily drillable material 4 'gible.

able means on said member cooperable with said ring for holding said sleeve valve in a fixed posi-' tion .with respect to said ports, said first-mendrillable material having such characteristics as to be incapable alone of releasing said means upon' subjecting said valve to pressure. 1

3. Apparatus of the character described, including a tubular member having ports adapted to form part of a casing string, a sleeve valve within said member for controlling passage of sleeve valve being and secondarily of less readily drillable material, frangible means connected to said tubular-memher and less readily drillable material for holding said sleeve valve over said ports, said pre-' dominantly readily drillable material having such characteristics as to be-incapablealone of efe fectively disrupting said frangible means upon imposing suflicient force on said valve, and cooperable means on said sleeve valve and member of said sleeve member in one direction.

4. Apparatus of the character described, including a tubular member having ports adapted to form part of a casing string,

for limiting the extent of movement valve within said fluids through said ports, said sleeve valve being made of readily drillable material and also of a ring of less readily drillable material, and franmeans extending into said member and ring for holding said sleeve valve in a position closing said ports, said first-mentioned readily drillable material having such characteristics as to be incapable alone of effectively disrupting said frangible means upon imposing sufllcient force on said valve.

5. Apparatus of the character described, including a tubular member having ports adapted to form part of a casing string, a sleeve valve slidable within said member for controlling passage of fluids through said ports, said sleeve valve being made of readily drillable of a ring at the lower end of such readily drillable material, and frangible means extending into said member and ring for holding said sleeve valve in a position closing said ports, said first-mentioned readily drillable material having such characteristics as to be incapable alone of effectively disrupting said frangible means upon imposing sufllcient force on said valve.

6. Apparatus of the character described, in

material of less cluding a tubular member having ports adapted pable alone of efiectively-disrupting saidfrandrillable material, and also of a 7 a sleeve valve within said member for controlling passage of material and also gible means upon imposing suflicient force on said valve, and means on said sleevevalve engageable with said member for limiting movement of said sleeve valve within said member in an upward direction.

'7. Apparatus of cluding a tubular terial and secondarily of less readily drillable material, frangible means connected to said tubular member and less readily drillable material for holding said sleeve valve over said ports, said predominantly readily drillable material having such characteristics as to be incapable alone of effectively disrupting said frangible means upon imposing suflicient force on said valve, cooperable means on said sleeve valve and member for limiting the extent of upward movement of said sleeve valve Within said sure valve means movable upwardly against said sleeve valve to close a central passage therethrough.

8. Apparatus of the character described, including a tubular member having ports adapted casing string, a sleeve valve within said member for controlling passage of ports, said sleeve valve being made of readily drillable material and also of a ring at the lower end of such material of less readily drillable material, frangible means extending into said member and ring for holding said sleeve valve in a position closing said port's,

member, and back presof such characteristics as to be incapable alone of eifectively releasing said means upon subjecting said valve to pressure and secondarily of less readily drillable material engaging said means and operative to release said means when said valve is subjected to sufficient pressure.

10. Apparatus of the character described, in-

. cluding a tubular member having ports adapted to form part of a casing string, a slidable sleeve valve within said member for controlling passage of fluid through said ports, and frangible means for holding said sleeve valve over said ports, said sleeve valve being composed predominantly of readily drillable material of such characteristics as to be incapable alone of efi'ectively disrupting said frangible means upon imposing a longitudinal force on said valve and secondarily of less readily drillable material connected to said frangible means to efifect disruption of the latter upon longitudinal movement of said sleeve valve.

11. Apparatus of the character described, in cluding a tubular member having ports adapted to form part of a casing string, a sleeve valve over said ports.

CLARENCE E. BURT.

S. AL'I'HOUSE, JR.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2429912 *Dec 29, 1944Oct 28, 1947Baker Oil Tools IncWell cementing apparatus
US2438992 *Apr 3, 1942Apr 6, 1948Baker Oil Tools IncWell cementing apparatus
US2482651 *Oct 25, 1944Sep 20, 1949Baker Oil Tools IncWell cementing apparatus
US2493650 *Mar 1, 1946Jan 3, 1950Baker Oil Tools IncValve device for well conduits
US2602510 *Jan 12, 1948Jul 8, 1952Baker Oil Tools IncPorted cementing apparatus
US2644526 *Apr 4, 1947Jul 7, 1953Baker Oil Tools IncCasing collar for cementing wells
US2662602 *Jun 27, 1947Dec 15, 1953L L RectorMeans for guiding, floating, and cementing well casing in bored holes
US2718265 *Nov 25, 1950Sep 20, 1955Baker Oil Tools IncApparatus for automatically filling well casing
US2751023 *Dec 18, 1950Jun 19, 1956Baker Oil Tools IncDevices for automatically filling well casing
US2976932 *Apr 23, 1957Mar 28, 1961Baker Oil Tools IncSubsurface well bore valve apparatus
US3131767 *Apr 24, 1962May 5, 1964Chancellor Forrest EStage collar
US3318605 *Oct 9, 1964May 9, 1967Otis Eng CoDevice movable through a flow conductor and seals for use thereon
US4352366 *Feb 5, 1980Oct 5, 1982Otis Engineering CorporationVelocity operated standing valve
US4452306 *Sep 27, 1982Jun 5, 1984Polley Jack LApparatus for detecting ruptures in drill pipe above and below the drill collar
US7500516 *Oct 6, 2005Mar 10, 2009Vetco Gray Inc.System, method, and apparatus for accessing outlets in a two-stage diverter spool assembly
Classifications
U.S. Classification137/71, 166/196
International ClassificationE21B33/13, E21B33/14
Cooperative ClassificationE21B33/14
European ClassificationE21B33/14