US 2330273 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 28, 1943. s. J. FINN 2,330,273
MANUFACTURE OF SANDALS Filed July 12, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Sept. 28, 1943. 5. J. FINN MANUFACTURE OF SANDALS Filed July 12, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Sept. 28, 1943 Shoe Machinery Corporation, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey ApplicationJuly 12,1941, Serial No. 402 1 66 7 Flemington, m
t a s. 31. 12-148) This invention relates to improvements in the manufacture of sandals and other shoes th uppers of which comprise strap like members having inturned end portions that are secured to'the' shoe bottom. I
Objects of the invention are'to reduce the cost of manufacturing sandals or shoes-of the type referred to; to provide for shaping" the forepart of the upper of such a sandal or sho'e prior'to its assembly with the insole of the shoe, and tomsure that the' portions of the strap inem-bers of the upper which are interposed between the inner and outer soleswillnot produceridges or irregularities in the outsole.
To the accomplishment of-these objectsfthe invention, in one aspect, provides" arr-improvement in methods of making shoes the-uppers of which comprise a plurality ofstrap-like mem bers having" free end portionsfwhich involves bending the end portions 'of these -members abruptly away from the outer-side of the upper and thereby forming creases definingf the lower extremity of the portions of said members which are to extend above the bottom'of the sandaland assembling the upper with an insole 01f thelast by aligning the creases in the'strap-like members with the edge of the insole and positioning the bent end portions over the side of the insole which is to face the outsole of the'shoe. Preferably, and as herein shown, the end portions-of the strap-like members are also trimmed to size and skived to prepare them for the reception of outsole attaching cement. After the end porhave no tendency to produce undesirable ridges or irregularities in the treadface of the outsole tions of the strap members have been positioned upon the insole, they are preferably secured to the insole by means of wire staples which are driven through the insole and the legs of which are clenched against the inner side of the insole by means of an anvil carried by anofisethorn adapted to be positioned inside the shoe.
' In'another aspect the invention provides for the shaping of the forepart'o'f the upper into conformity with the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the ball orinstep portions of the foot before the upper is assembled withthe insole.
In the manufacture of the shoe, it is preferred to employ an insole composed of readily compressible material and in attaching the outsole to apply sufficient pressure to the shoe bottom to insure that the inturned end portions of the-straplike members of the upper shall'be embedded or countersunk in the material of'the insole until they are substantially flush with the outer or bottom surface of the insole so thatthey will as a result'of the pressure employed-in theohtsole attaching'operati-on; 1 I a Invention is also to be recognized as residing in an improved article of manufacture consisting of'a shoeupper or vampconstruct'edas hereinafter' described for use inmaking strap sandals.
The invention will be explainedwith reference to the accompanying drawings-,in which i I *Fig. -1is-'a perspective view of a blankw'hich is to be operated upon in accordance with thepreseht invention to form the vamp or'the forepart of the upper of'a sandal; the view-jillustratingthe use ofa template in markingthe strapm'ember's of theblankto'indicate where the latter are to be creased} v g-'5: Fig'.' 2 isa' view in cross 'scti'on of-thespre's'sing ormolding 'members of a machine for'molding, and-shaping shoe parts, illustrating the step of molding the central or body portion of the blank to'shape it to the contour of the footy" :-Fig 3 is a perspective 'view of the blankas it appears afterhaving been molded; 5 T
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary view, partially in elevaftion and partially in section, illustrating the step of trimming the free end 'r'iortion of one'ofthe strap inembersof the blank; 4 i 4 Figs. 5 and 6 are views similar to igwi'" but illustrating, respectivelythe operations of creasing and skiving the end-'portionsof the strap members; .1 J I Fig. 7 is a detailed view of amodification'of the work support shown in Figs; 4, i5 'and"6,' illustrat ing a method of skiving the endportions of the strap members which results in beveling said Fig 8 is a perspectiveviewof the vamppro duced by the molding of the blank and the trimming, creasing and skiving'of its strap members; Fig;'9 is a cross-sectionalviewof a"sa'ndal in course of construction; illustrating the step of securing the creased end' portions of the strap members of the vamp to aninsole; Y i Fig. 10 is a fragmentary cross-sectionalview of-the sandal illustrating the operation of at t'achingthe outsole; and I a Fig. 11 a fragmentary cross-sectional view of the completed sandal. 1 i w Referring to the drawings, I havefillustrated in 'Fig. 1' a blank l4 from which the'vamp of a sandal-is to be formed. As showmthe'blank l4 UNITED PATENT;
which are to be prepared for attachment to the.
bottom of the sandal. The preparation of the outer end portions of the straps or members 24 comprises bending these portions abruptly away from the sides of the straps whichrare to be outermost in the sandal so as to provide in each" strap a sharply defined crease between the portion which is to be attached to the bottom of the.
sandal and the portion which is to overlie the foot- The locations of these creases will, of course, determine the size or girth of the exposed portion of the vamp and in order thatthe creases shall .be properly located for this purpose I propose to indicate the locations where the creases are to be formed/by making marks or gage lines 26 on the strap members. These gage lines 26 may be made, for example,- by marking with a crayon or the like along the edge of a template 28 (Fig. 1) of an appropriate size which is overlaid upon the blank.
After marking the strap members of the blank as above described, and preferably before making the creases in the locations determined by the marks, I preshape the central or body portion and the instep extension 22 of the blank into conformity with the shape of the ball and instep portions of the foot. This may be done, as illus trated in Fig. 2, by stretching or molding'the body and instep portions of the blank between a heated lower form 30 and a cooperating upper presser member 32, the molding or shaping surfaces of the form and the presser member being appropriately shaped to conform the blank to both the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the upper side of the ball and instep portions of the foot. Advantageously, the form 30 and the presser member 32 are parts of a machine for pressing and shaping shoe parts which may be of substantially the same construction and may be operated in the same manner as described and claimed in United States Letters Patent No. 2,047,259, granted July 14, 1936, upon application of the present inventor. After having been preshaped or molded as above described, central or body portion 20 and the instep extension 22 of the blank M will be curved transversely as indicated in Fig. 2 and longitudinally as indicated in Fig. 3. As clearly shown .in Fig. 2 the strap members 24 are not conformed to foot curvature but are caused to extend outwardly, these members actually being curved reversely with respect to the transverse curvature of the body portion 20 to facilitate subsequent operations to be performed upon the strap members. It is to be noted that it is particularly important that the blank be thus preshaped to the longitudinal curvature of the upper side of the foot in order to insure that it will fit the foot and will be free from uncomfortable and unsightly wrinkles when the shoe is being worn. 1
Either before or. after the blank has been molded the end portions of the strap members 24 are trimmed, creased and skived, as illustrated in Figs. 4 to 6, inclusive, of the drawings. These operations may be performed simultaneously upon the several strap members or the strap members may be presented separately and in succession to the instrumentalities which are to perform the various operations. In operating separately upon the several strap members the blank is positioned, as shown in Figs- 4 to 6, so that one of its strap members rests upon the flat horizontal upper surface of a table or support 36 having a side 33 which is disposed at right angles to the upper surface of the support and defines a straight edge 40 over which the strap member is to be creased or bent to facilitate assembly of the vamp in a desired predetermined relation to an insole. To position a strap member forthe trimming, creasing and skiving operamark 26 on the'strap member in alinement with the edge 40 of the support and with the free end of the strap member projecting beyond the support and extending between cooperating cutting. devices, such as the upper and lower shear blades 42..and 44 (Fig. 4). The upper shear blade 4 2is then moved relatively to the lower blade. 44. from an elevated position (not shown) to the position indicated in Fig. l during which movement it coacts with the lower blade 44 to trim the strap member to the desired length. Thereafter, the trimmed endportion bf the strap member. is bent abruptly downward over the edge 43 of the support 36 by suitable means, herein shown as a creasing tool 46, which is moved downwardly from the position shown. in Fig. 4 to that shown in Fig. 5 to accomplish the bending or creasing of the strap member. This operation results in bending the end portion of the strap member. substantiallyat right angles to the rest of the blank andforming a sharp crease 48 between the bent-end portion and the body portion of the strap member. As the creasing tool 46 moves downwardly the smooth vertical face 50 thereon presses the .bent portion of the strap member against the face '38 -of the support 36 and cooperates with the face 38 to hold the bent portionof the strap firmly in place forthe performance of askiving operation which preferably resultsin removing a thin layer of uniform thickness from the grain' side of the strap member-,fthus preparing this portion of the strap member for the reception of outsole-attaching cement. The skiving operation, as herein shown, isaceomplished by means of a skiving knife 52 which-moves downwardly with the creasing tool 46. Advantageously the trimming blade 42, the
. creasing tool 46, and'the skiving knife 52 may be arranged to. operate simultaneously and the shear blade 44 may be depressed after the blade 42 has cooperated with it to insurethat the blade 44 will not interfere with the operative 'movements of the creasing and skiving tools.
If, as illustrated in Figs. 4. 5 and 6, the ski ing operation is to result in merely removinga thin layerof'uniform thickness from the-grain side of the strap member of theupper, the surface 38 of the support 38 will be disposed in parallel relation to the path of movement of the skiving knife 52, but as shown in Fig. 7, the portion 39 of the surface of the support 38 against which the end portion of the strap member is to be pressed by the creasing tool- 46 may be. disposed at a slight angle to the path of movement of that tool and of the skiving knife 52 so that the latter will operate to bevel the end portion of the strap member as indicated at M whereby a thin feather edge is produced at the free extremity of said member. V
After the blank has been molded 'andits strap members have been trimmed, creased and skived, there has been produced a preshaped and prefitted vamp 54 (Fig. 8) :ready for attachment'to an insole. vAs shown, the strap members 24 of the vamp have their end portions 56 bent inwardly so that they are'positioned for attach ment to an insole and'the. creases48 are formed for alinement with the insole edge: Theassembly. of the vamp with an insolel58and its attachment to thezinsole are efiected .off the last by merely laying thebent end portions of'the strap members over'the insole with the crease 48 of each strap member alined with the edge ofthe insole, as indicated in Fig. 9, and securing the bent end portions to the insole by suitable fastening means, such for example as wire staples 60. As also shown in Fig. 9, the staples fill'zmay be driven byfmeans of a driver 62 through the strap members and through the insole and the free ends of the staple legs may be clenched over I against the lower side of the insole (which is to face the foot) by means of an anvil 64 carried by a horn 66 which extends inside the shoe. It may be desirable to mark the insol before its assembly with the vamp to indicate upon the insole the locations which the strap members are to occupy. The back part of the upper may be formed with strap members which may be prepared for attachment to the insole by creasing and skiving in the same manner as the strap members of the vamp, in which case the back part will be assembled with the insole and its strap members secured to the insole in a manner similar to that already described with respect to the vamp. The back part, however, may be premolded and attached to the insole in any customary manner.
The upper parts having been attached to the insole the sandal is now ready to receive an outsole 68 which is herein shown as attached by means of adhesive, the margin of the outsole having previously been roughened as is customary to facilitate the securing of a satisfactory bond between the outsole and the margin of the sandal. Advantageously pyroxylin cement will be employed as the adhesive, in which case the cement will be applied to the margin of the outsole and also to the overlasted end portions of the strap members 24 and to the marginal portions of the insole in the locations between the strap 1 members, the cement being allowed to dry and being activated by means of a suitable solvent just before the outsole is laid. The attachment of the outsole may be accomplishedwithout inserting a last in the sandal by the use of solid metal forms, such as the upper and lower forms 10 and 12, respectively (Fig. 9), in a direct pressure leveling machine such, for example, as that disclosed in United States Letters Patent No. 1,108,472, granted August 25, 19l4,-upon application of E. N. Preble, the assembled upper and insole being placed over the lower form 12 and the outsole, after having been laid in the proper position upon the bottom of the sandal, being attached by operating the machine to bring the forms 10 and 12 into cooperative pressure applying relation. It is preferred to employ an insole composed of readily compressible and substantially inelastic material such, for example, as a composition of wood pulp and latex or other fabricated or so-called manufactured insole material of the sort commonly used as a substitute for sole leather and it is contemplated that surficient pressure will be applied by means of the forms 10 and 12 to cause the over-lasted end portions of thetstrapmembers 24 to :zbecomeem'bed dedorzcoun'tersunk in the material-of the insole until theuouter -surfacesrsof the strap:,;members are substantially flush withvthe .ou'ter orabottom surface of the. insole, as. illustratedin Fig.1.10; Thus, the strap v members will not. project; above the adj acentsurfaces 4 of the insole and the presenoeof: the end portions ofthe' strap members between the insole and theoutsole will not result in the-formation of any-undesirable ridges orirregularities. in z the tread "surface-of the outsole. If the inturned end portionsof, the strapmembers arebeveled; as; illustrated in Fig. 7, the embedding; of these portions in the insole. material can be-satisfactorily accomplished b-y'the application of somewhatless pressure thanwould otherwisebegrequired. As indicated in Fig.1 9, a lower form-.may be employed inside the sandal which is somewhat larger than, the-shoe bottom itself without injuriously' affecting the shape of the upper, inasmuch as the strap members will ield to accommodate the shape of the form. Thus, it will be practicable to employ no more than perhaps two or three different sizes of lower forms in the process of attaching the outsoles to sandals comprising a complete run of sizes.
It will be apparent that substantial economies in the cost. of manufacturing sandals may be effected by the practice of the above-described method inasmuch as no lasts are required and the operation of lasting the shoe is eliminated. It is unnecessaryto employ a large number of dies for cutting out the blanks from which the yamps or uppers are to be formed since the blanks are sized by. the trimming of the strap-like members thereof after the latter have been marked to indicate where they are to be. creased. The creasing of the strap members enables the uppers to be assembled with the insoles in the desired relation to the latter without the employment of skilled operatives so that the uppers will be accurately sized to correspond with the sizes of the bottom membersof the sandals. Each upper is shaped to conform to the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the upper side of the ball and instep portion of the foot by means of an inexpensive molding operation which is performed upon the upper before it is assembled with the insole. Moreover, the use of insoles ofreadily compressible material enables the end portions of the strap members of the upper to be embedded in the insoles as a result of the applica tion of the outsole-attaching pressure to insure that the tread face of the outsole will be free from ridges or irregularities in the areas immediately beneath the end portions of the strap members.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. That improvement in methods of making sandals which consists in providing an upper in a flat condition comprising a body portion for covering the upper side of the ball of the foot, a
strap-like rear extension for overlying the instep of the foot, and a plurality of strap members extending laterally from said body portion and having free outer edges, marking said strap members along the edge of a flat templet overlaid upon the vamp thereby making gage lines on said strap members to define outer portions for attachment to an insole and inner portions which are to ex tend above the bottom of the sandal, molding said body portion and said instep extension by means of heat and pressure into conformity with the longitudinal and? transverse curvatures .of the upper side of the ball portion" of a last Without molding said strap members, thereafter bending the outer end portions of said unmoldedrstrap members abruptly away from the outer side of the upper at localities determined by said gage lines thereby forming permanent sharp creases in the inner sides of said members, assembling said upper with an insole off i the lastby' alining said creases with the edge of the insole, securing said end portions to the insole, and securing'an outsole to said end portions.
2. For use in making strap sandals, a leather vamp having a grain surface at its outer side and comprising a body portion for covering the upper side of the ball of the foot, a strap-like rearward extension for overlying the instep of the foot, and a plurality of laterally extending strap'members having upper portions for overlying the sides of I the foot and lower portions for attachment to an insole, said body and instep extension portions only being shaped to the curvature of the foot leaving the upper portions of said strap members unshaped to foot curvature but capable of'accommodating themselves freely to the contour of the sides of the foot after the vamp has been incorporated in a sandal, and the lower portions of said strap members-being bent inwardly substantially at right angles to the upper portions thereof to predetermine the girth measurements of that part of the vamp which is to extendabove the bottom of the, sandal and to provide sharply defined creases for engaging the edge of an insole to facilitate off the last assembly of the vamp with the insole, andthe lower portions of said strap members having skived surfaces at their grain sides to facilitate cement attachment of an outsolethereto.
SIDNEY J. FINN.