Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2330458 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 28, 1943
Filing dateSep 11, 1940
Priority dateSep 11, 1940
Publication numberUS 2330458 A, US 2330458A, US-A-2330458, US2330458 A, US2330458A
InventorsTubbs Ira I
Original AssigneeMargaret L Tubbs
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shoe sole
US 2330458 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

sept. 28, 1943. l. l. TUBES 2,330,458

SHOE SOLE Filed Sept. 1l, 1940 ATRRNEY.

Patented Sept. Z8, 1943 naar `2,330,458 S'HoEsoLE f Ira I. Tubbs,l MuntVernon, Iowa, assignorto' Margaret trustee L. Tubbs," Mount' Vernon, Iowa,` as

Applicationl September 11, 1940,l Serial No. 356,241-

12 Claims.

This invention relates to improvements in shoe soles. c

One object of the invention is to provide a sole construction provided `with improved means for attaching cleats or calks to the sole. f f

Another object of the invention is to provide-a sole construction embodying exible metal 'plates to which cleats or calksv are so anchored that imf pacts or stresses on the calks are distributed to the sole so as to avoid the .formationof relatively definite lines of flexure or cleavage in the plates and as to permit the normal transverse flexing of the sole as the weight thereon is shifted progressively toward the `toe during use.

Another objecty of the invention is to provide a shoe sole construction embodying calks .for athletic or the like use which kavoidsthe imposition of vertical calk impacts on A.relatively small superjacent portionsof the sole and .therey -Y by assures not only more vcomfort to the wearer but provides greater durability as well.

Another more speciiic objectfof .the invention is to provide a soleconstruction comprisinga metal calk-anchoring plate and attaching means for calks which do not impose distructive stresses on the plate at the points of anchorage thereto as the calks are deected from normal positions during use.

Other objects of the invention relate to various features ofA construction and arrangement of" parts which will be apparent from a consideration -of the following specication and accompanying drawing, wherein l Figure 1 is a bottom plan View of a shoe sole embodying the ypresent improvements, part of the sole being broken away;

Figure 2 is a side elevation, partially in section, of the shoe sole shown inFigure 1;v

Figure 3 is a perspective vviewof a calk'o'r cleat p in detached relation d v ,c

Figure-4 is a broken sectional viewk through'a calk as on line li-- of Figure 1;

Figure 5 is a broken sectional view illustrating j a modication of the structure shownin `Fig-` ure 4;

Figure 6 is a similar vertical g through a modiiied sole and calk construction;

Figure 7 is a-broken sectional .vieWof an additional'modication of the improvements; A, Figure 8 is a plan'view of another embodiment of the novel sole construction;

Figure 9 is a section taken `online 8--9 ofiFigv ure 8; and

Figure 10 is a perspectiveview of acalkof mod-r ied form.

sectional zview ,Inv` Figures 1,l 2 :and 4 vof ,thetdrawing a sole `lll Y is shown :formed of ilexibleV or resilient'material, preferably: of-molded,rubber composition; Dis;- posed within the-sole between Ithe upper and lower surfaces-thereof are two flexible plates Il and l2.

the latter is in the heel portion' of the sole. plates :preferably are formed of metal sheets hav-4 ing surfaces suchv tliatthe` rubber composition when vulcanizedwill adhere nrmlyy to the same. For'example; the steel maybe treated byknown methods, such as by one which produces Va surface crystal-linityr which'- enables the rubber tol bond fto the-.plates duringrthe vulcanization process.-In-addition toy vulcanizing rubberv `in `enf.- veloping;y relation-:to the plates, calk-anchoring Y members V-also are enveloped in the rubber. Such members are, in the embodiment of the invention illustratedin Figures 1 -to 4,;inthe formof threadednmembers- I3 V`which` extend `through perforain bosses orv calkA seats y, l 'l which are integral with the Amolded material of the sole proper., are designated generally bythe-numeral I8, one ofthe calks-being shown in detached relation in Figure 3.' The body ,4

of theicalks'islformed of a rm butv resilient Y, molded .rubbercomposition' or other suitable ma terial.. Embeddedfinl eachl of the calks I andy rmly anchored thereto Vis a stud I9 having a' threaded section 20' extending from the yupper end` of the calk. llItwill be apparent that the calks-can be attached *to the sole merely by screwing. the threaded studs into the threaded interiors ofthe anchoringme'mbers i3. ,By screwing them-firmly into position, the calks as well as the Calleri-ases` Il canbe compressed slightly, thus placing adequateA tension on the threadedy meni- V,

bers `to resist-looseningyof the calks during use.

Forthepurposeof more securely attaching the calks'to-the-sole, the contacting faces ofthe calks and-.the calk-bases. illustrated havefvcomplemenf taryformations of.-po1ygonal or circular conguf rations which increase the frictional engagement thereof when-the rcalks are iirmlyturned intox seating position.y For example, in Figures 3,-and

4 theflowe'r faces ofi'the calk bases are provided with circular or, Vas shown, frusto-conical recesses .These plates may be of sheet metal, lthe former being located in the forward portion whileY The calksor cleats Suitame for use .with the above.

I'Ia while the upper faces of the calks are provided with circular or, as shown, frusto-conical projections I8a. The projections preferably are of such diameter as to t snugly within the recesses or such as to distend the rubber material surrounding the recesses and compress the projections slightly as the latter are forced into seating relation and thus sei; up forces which further resist any tendency of the calks to become loose during use. The calk shown in Figure 10 has a protuberance I8b that is polygonal in plan view and is adapted to seat in a complementary i recess (not shown) in a calk base, the flexibility of the base material being such as to enable the calk to be screwed into firm contact as in the above described embodiment of the invention.

As illustrated in Figure 4 the flanges or heads I5 of the calk-anchoring members I3 are embedded in the portion of the rubber of the solev which lies above the plates II and I2, the rubber preferably being bonded to such heads. be noted that the apertures or perforations I4 of the plate are of such diameter in relation to the Shanks of the anchoring members I3 that the anchoring members are enabled to tilt or pivot or move upwardly with reference to the respective plates.

Figure 5 illustrates a modification of the construction shown in Figure 4. In Figure 5 it will be noted that the upperl flange I5 of the anchoring member I3 is spaced from'the upper surfacewith durability of construction but also with the comfort ofthe Vuser of shoes provided with such soles. For example, if an impact on a calk is directed vertically upward, the cushioning action of the resilient material of the call: and of the superjacent portion of the resilient sole material beneath the respective plate not only fun'ctions to absorb the impact but actually distributes the force thereof over a substantial portion'of the plate. This distribution of forces is augmented by reason of the lbonding of the sole material to the plates. While the calk attaching means, that is, the anchoring members I3 and the studs 20, may tend to rise relative to the plate as the calk and sole materials are compressed, as above-mentioned, such relative movement is further resistedto some extent by the upper portion of the resilient sole material which overlies the heads or flanges I5 of the members I3, which material, as stated, preferably is bonded to the heads I5. Hence the inner lportion of the sole material, that is, the rubber material above the plate or plates participates in cushioning and distributing shocks on the calks. It will be seen that the plates are not subjected directly to the forces of impacts transmitted to the attaching means since the members I3 can move relative to the respective plates and hence definite cleavage lines in the plates are not established nor is fatigue of the metal of the plates caused by successive vertical impacts imposed on the calks.

Where the calks are subjected to lateral or angular stresses tending to deflect them from It will normal position, the resultant angular movements of the attaching means do not impose destructive bending stresses on the plates due to the fact that the plate apertures are of such diameter as to accommodate such movements of the members. The heads or flanges of the anchoring members I3 tend to tilt or pivot with respect to the upper surface of the plate as a calk is laterally deflected due to the fact that a portion of the periphery of the heads I5 on the side of origin of the imposed stresses will contact the plate and so act as the center of moments. Such points of contact are spaced radially from the respective perforations of the plate a distance dependent on the radius of the heads which, as will be noted, are such as to avoid imposition of such stresses at the margins of the perforations. Formation of cracks in the plate extending from the perforations or deformations in the plate adjacent the perforation are thus substantially avoided by the improved construction.

Where the calks and the contacting portions of the sole are of resilient material, they tend to absorb the lateral as well as the upward components of the laterally applied forces and to distribute them to relatively large areas of the plates as above mentioned, and hence lessen the likelihood of forming cleavage lines in the plate. The tilting or pivotal movement of the members I3, as above mentioned, is resisted also by the superjacent portion of the sole material. It will be apparent, therefore, that while the plates aord means for anchoring the calk attaching members the latter do not impose directly or localize at or adjacent the points of attachment or contact therewith the numerous upward and lateral stresses encountered by the calks during use of shoes embodying the improvements but due to the co-action of the parts described the applied forces or stresses are distributed over substantial areas which not only renders the construction more durable but more comfortable as well. When the calks are firmly attached in position on the sole, lateral stresses imposed on the calks are transmitted directly from the upper surface of the calk to the contacting portion of the sole but are not so directly transmitted by the calk attaching means and hence the studs are not readily bent during use. However, the studs are reinforced or stiffened by the anchoring member I3. Such reinforcement extends from the upper end of the studs down to a ,line adjacent the lower surface of the sole material and hence the studs are adequately stiffened at the portions most subjected to'bending stresses upon the imposition of lateral impacts on the calks.

In the embodiment of the improvements shown in Figure 6, the sole 2| has embedded thereinka calli-anchoring plate or plates 22 similar to plates II and I2 above described. The plates 22 are provided with perforations 23 for accommodating the shanks of threaded studs 24, the heads of which overlie the marginal portions of the plates surrounding the respective openings 23 and preferably are substantially flush with the upper surface of the sole material beneath the plates 22. Nuts 25 on the studs 24 are spaced from the plates 22 by the intermediate portions 26 of the sole material which not only cushions the plates from the effect of vertical thrusts imposed on the nuts but also serves to disperse such shocks or forces throughout and to dissipate them in relatively large superjacent areas of the plates.

'Ihe calk 21 has embedded therein a nut 28 for receiving the threaded portionof thestudandat the upper surface of the calk there isprovided a recess-29 for accommodatingthe exposedportion ofthe nut or anchoring member 25. l' Stresses imposed on the calks 21 during use are partially-abc orsoleplate,asithelatter fiexes'in useian'dlalso' sorbed by vthecalks and partiallybythe sole'ma- Y terial disposed beneath vthe plates "22; Such stresses are'distribut'ed to the sole overgsubstantial vareas ofthe sole as will be seen; Whereithe impacts imposedon the calks arefsufcientto tend to cause the studs to move upwardly vwith reference vto theplates, such movement is accommodated by reason of the factthat the `studs arenot rigidly attached to the'plates andhence such im-` posed stresses do notr tend to distort or flex the platesito orf adjacent theperforations 23 therein,

and thus' the formation of cleavage lines passing through or originating inthe perforations Vis avoided.r` Lateral stresses imposed on the calks may :tend to cause .the studs to'move pivotally slightly, in which instance the calks may pivot at points'on the heads which bear directly or'indi-V rectlyon the; upper surfaces of the plates. Such points, however, are spaced radially from the perthe lower portion of the solematerial on`thesideof the members opposite the origin of the imposed stresses. i Y

It will, therefore, be seen that while the -plates in the embodiments of the invention disclosed can flex transversely and thus permit the normal flexing action of the'soleias the weight of the wearer serves to indicate thefseam tectthe` seam'. e I l yIt Will-be observed `therefore that the above Idescribed embodiments of the invention produce certain advantageous results over prior art'structures wherein the calk-attaching means were directly attached to the plates as by threaded .engagement therewith, or. were provided with heads line aswell as to pro-v which were anchored merely inthe flexible rubber or composition sole/material beneath theV plates.

i While AI have shownv and described certain em-v bodiments of my improvements for the purpose of illustrating the invention, it will be apparent thatv various1modications thereof may beresorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention.

Havingthus describedw 'the invention, what I c claim as `new and `desireto cover byiLetters Patentis: l 'y e '1. A shoe sole comprising a perforated plate and .resilient sole material on thelower side thereof, calk-anchoring members each movably l contacting the upper surface of the plate and l extending downwardly through a perforation into .embraced relation with said resilient"sole material, and calks of'resilient material`each-provided with means for engaging a calk-anchorshifts from backward and forwardin use, the

stresses imposed on the calks are not transmitted ened at the perforations but concavities are provided for the ush receipt of the heads 24 of the studs 23, or the flanges I 5 of the member I3 where the anchoring means. shown in Figure 4 are employed. The flexible sole material IIlb on the upper surface of the plate I IEL extends into the concavities and thus cushions the heads of the studs or the upper anges of the members I3 as described above with respect to the embodiment illustrated in Figure 5. v

The sole construction illustrated in Figures 8 and 9v of the drawing may correspond with the construction shown in either of the above described embodiments except that in the form shown in Figures 8 and 9 the outer surface of the sole is provided with a rib 30 integral with the lower portion of the sole material which reinforces the latter along the marginal portions of the plates 3| and 32. The reinforcing rib reduces the likelihood of the sole material being cut by the edges of the plates, particularly the forward ing` member' for retaining the respective 'calkin bompressive contactlwithv the resilient material of the sole for cooperationy with thev latter in absorbing Vstresses imposed on fthe calks in directions `t'ending'to move 'the respective anchoring members relativeto the plate. l 2. A shoe sole comprising la perforated plate and resilient sole material on the lower" side thereof, threadedcalk-anchoring members each movablyj contacting the upper surface `lof the plate'andex'tending through one of the perfora-j tionszandi enfibrace'dv byf the resilient material on the. lowerside ofthe plate, and calks-of resilient material each 'provided with threaded meansfor threadedlyengaging 'a calk-anchoring member whereby.theresilientmaterial of the calks can be tightenedlinto compressive contact with the resilient materialoflthe sole 4for cooperation with the-latter infabsorbing stresses'imp'osed on the calks-tending to move the respectiveI anchoring membersirelative' to the plate. 5

'3. Ashcef sole of molded flexible material havinga Vflexibleperforated plate embedded therein, calks for the sole', and calk attaching means each having Va portion embedded ina calk and a cooperating portion extending through a perforation of the plate and moyablerelatively thereto.

4. A shoe sole of molded resilient material comprising a flexible perforated plate embedded in ,taching means for securing the calks to the sole,

said means comprising members secured to the calks and cooperating members extending through perforations of the plateand movable laterally within said perforations, said last mentioned members being so embraced by the flexible sole material at the lower side of the plate that said material cushions the relative movement of the embraced members with respect to theplate.

5. A shoe sole of iiexible rubber composition, a perforated flexible metal plate embedded therein, calks for the sole, and means for attaching the calks to the sole comprising members secured within said calks and cooperating members each extending through a perforation in the plate and of a diameter affording relative movement within ;the Vperforation, and provided with anchoring portionsyboth above and below the plate, at least one of said portions of each of said members being embraced by the flexible composition of the sole vwhereby the latter cushions upward and lateral movements of the members imparted` thereto'by stresses imposed on the calks.

6. A shoe sole of flexible material, a perforated flexible metal plate embedded therein, calksprovided with threaded attaching members, and means for anchoring the calks to the sole comprising a threaded member for threadedly receiving the threaded member of a calk and each extending through one cf the perforations of the plate and of a diameter aording relative movement thereof within the respective perforation, each of said members having ahead extending over the portion of the plate surrounding the respective perforation and a lower portion embraced within the exible material of the sole below the plate.

'7. A shoe sole of fiexiblematerial having a perforated plate disposed between the upper and lower surfaces thereof, calks of resilient com. pressible material, and attaching means for the calks anchored to the sole above the plate comprising members provided with heads overlying the margins of the perforations and each extending downwardly through one of said perforations and of a diameter permitting the heads of the members to pivot on the plate at points radially removed from the margins of the respective perforations, and members carried by the calks each fcr'engaging one of the attaching members cf the sole for retaining the calks in compressed relation in contact with the sole.

8. A shoe sole of resilient material provided with a perforated resilient metal plate disposed between the upper and lower surfaces thereof, call: anchoring membershaving shanks extending downwardly through said perforations and each provided with heads overlying the margins of the respective perforations, the portions of the Shanks of said members within said perforations being of such diameter as to enable the members to pivot with respect to the plate about marginal portions of the respective heads, and calks each provided with a member for engaging a shank of one of the anchoring members of the sole and retaining the respective calk in contact `with a lowerportion of the resilient sole material.

9. A shoe sole comprising a lower surface of resilientsmaterial, a perforated plate disposed above said surface, calks for the sole, and means for attaching theY calks under tension against the resilient material of the sole comprising col operating pairs of threaded members, one of each pair being carried by a calk and the other member having a shank` extending downwardly through and of smaller diameter than a perforation of the plate and provided with a portion having pivotal anchoring contact with the upper surface of the plate to enable the calk to pivot about said portion under restraint of the contacted portion of the resilient sole material.

l0. A shoe sole comprising a metal plate and resilient sole material on the lower side thereof constituting the lower surface of the sole, calks movably the sole, and means for attaching the calks under compression againstl the material of the sole whereby relative movements of the calks with respect to the sole are cushioned, said means comprising threaded members pivotally attached to the plate and cooperating threaded` members carried by the calks.

11. A shoe sole provided with flexible calk seats on the lowerisurface thereof, calks for the sole and cooperating threaded members carried by the sole and calks for removably securing'the calks in contact with the seats, the contacting surfaces of the seats and calks having coacting frusto-conical formations which mutually exert opposed radial forces on the seats and "calks for resisting retrograde threaded movement of the calk.

l2. A shoe sole comprising a perforated plate and resilient sole material on the lower side thereof, calk-anchoring members each movably contacting the upper surface of the plate and extending downwardly through a perforation into embraced relation with the said resilient material, and calks each provided with means for engaging a calli-anchoring member for retaining the respective calk in compressive con# tact with the resilient material of the sole for cooperation with the latter in absorbing stresses imposed on the calks in directions tending to move the respective anchoring members relative to the plate.


CERTIFICATE oF CORRECTION. Patent No. 255o,t58. september 23, 1915.


It is hereby certified that error appa ars in the printed specification of the above numbered patent -eqair-ing; correctl on as follows Page l, first co lumn, line 25, for "dstrdctive" read -destructiVe-; page li, second co lumn, line 20, for "movably" read "for; same line, for' for read --movably; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.

Signed and sealed this 2.1 st dasr of December, A. v D. 19MB.

n Henry Van 'Arsdale, (Seal) Acting Commssi oner of Patents.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2471113 *Sep 29, 1947May 24, 1949Melehionna Frank ASports shoe
US2746174 *Jan 5, 1954May 22, 1956Patterson Joseph LShoe attachment
US2758396 *Jan 28, 1954Aug 14, 1956John EdwardesCalk assembly
US3010229 *Jun 28, 1960Nov 28, 1961B W Footwear CompanyGolf shoe
US4380878 *Sep 26, 1980Apr 26, 1983Keds CorporationOutsole
US7370441 *Jan 5, 2006May 13, 2008Chuan-Li ChangHobnail structure
US20070172331 *Jan 5, 2006Jul 26, 2007Chuan-Li ChangHobnail structure
U.S. Classification36/59.00R, 36/134, 36/128, 36/32.00R
International ClassificationA43C15/00, A43C15/16
Cooperative ClassificationA43C15/161
European ClassificationA43C15/16A