US 2331140 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
7 Oct. 5, 1943. SCHMIDT 2,331,140
LARGE RESERVOIR FOR LIQUIDS Filed Sept. 15, 1939 $2 Allorney Patented Oct. 5, 1943 v J "2.331.14 j s ARGE-:nEsERvom FOR LIQUIDS. 7 lFerdinand Schmidt, 'Verden,,Aller, Germany; 1: 1 vested in theAlien Property Custodian Application February 15,1939, SerialNo. ,610 I 1 In Germany February 26, 1938 I l l fClaiin (c1. fie-14) Reservoirs for motor fuel and oth'erhydrocarbons and spirits aswell as fats, traintoil; acids and various, other,liquidsand'..semi-liquids are frequently constructed of sheet iron andnther metallic building materials. 'Whilea structure of this'character is resistant .and possesses long life it .is nevertheless of an expensive character;
A reservoir of this type is frequently undesirable for-"storage. purposes'due to'its. high heat 'conductivity especially where, as is usually the case,
the reservoir is subjected to rays .from thesun andthe heat of thesurrounding atmosphere. On the otherhand, concretereservoirs. are notresistant to attack by certain liquids and on weather-1' ing frequently receive cracks and small altera-j tions in their form. Thisaids penetration "of the contents of 'a concrete reservoirinto' its walls with flexibility dependingon, the nature of the said curves'of the sheet metal skin to'the expansions or contractions in the concrete or, in the skin it-i" self so that any coming loose or evenv cracking.
is very reliably obviateda Very valuable in all casesis-the manufacture of'the skin of iron or a similar substance capaconsequent destructiveresults. :Hencaione'pram tice isto line the interior of a concrete reservoir 1 with chemically resistant andwaterproo'f sheets.
.However, this last named practice has heretofore required complicated fabrication 'practices which have been difficultand-troublesome to carry out.
The invention consists inaoo'ncrete reservoir,= the interiorof whichis linedrwitha liquid. tight skin ofsheet metal or'tfiwith metal or synthetic material which is sprayedpr otherwise de'posit'ed' on theinside of the reservoir.
Sucha container combinestheadvantages of a reinforcedconcrete reservoir in that it is..inexpensive'.*and affords good protection from heat, with those of an iron reservoir, in that it has .longjlife; is liquid tight and provides a construction whichpermits supplypipes and. other auxiliary parts to be conveniently attached thereto. 'By this constructiorrthe skin is shaped to generally conform tothe contour 'of the inner surface of: the"container,'which sur-' face may be curved in one or more planesor may be formedofa plurality of. adjoining sections of.
curvedoutline. An'inner' skin is thus obtained which is elastic in such away that it is notinclined to crack or come off even with the differ ence in expansion between the skin and the reinforced concrete walls, but'always remains tight and closely adhering. v
The new, reservoir has proved itself particularly 'advantageous with .the' inner skin made of sheet metal which .consists of individual 'sheets with rim strips bent into theiconcrete and is joined at these rim strips by welding, solderingors folding or ,even by fine. riveting; The'bent back rim strips notonly provide a verysimple connecting means for the metal sheets, partic ularly also forthe welding of the edges of neighe ble of adhering toconcrete and having thesame coeflicient-ofl expansion asthe latter. "Then the? skinunites with the-concrete just as'firmly; as the iron. reinforcement lying. inside, to form a lasting and tight connection. :1 i A particularly flexible construction-of-the-skin;
' ofisheet metal results ifgthe bent up seamsare constructed as free aspossible fromlo'ng straight.
' lines, that is constructedinflzig-zag:cr-in echelon; or otherwise broken up, forexample also'in'the, form of a honeycomb. In'such cases forxeach straight, lined and therefore in itself. rigid seam portion-there results at its-endma transversely abutting and flexible seam portion and thus the necessary adaptability to balance the difierences in heat .eXpanslon. Herebyaunderasom'e circumstances the horizontal seam rims mayi'gbe' in-. tentionally constructed continuous :in a'ord'er to cooperate as an annular. inner reinforcement of the reservoir to take up'itsannular. stresses; LQn" the other hand intermediate foldsmaylbepressed into a singlepiece sheet metal surface .irizorderi to make it particularly flexible;in a desired die rection.; i
. A valuable detailresults. i-f-.the sheet metalskin; carries anchor; irons and particularly supports; 1 for the. internal protection of the concrete. -Th' is, not only gives the skin of sheet metal. a hold on the concrete but makes possible considerable saving in the manufacture in ,thatsupporting'iron .for the protecting iron becomes superfluous.-
I If "theeindividual metal sheets'are united byfolding, riveting or electrical resistance.jwelding, no special arrangements to protect the seams against corrosion need be made, because all these connections avoid every electrolytically active var-- iation in the main metal which on its part, for 7 example a pure iron free from carbon, maybe i v If the individualv sheets are connected by'some other methodgas highly resistant to; corrosion.
for instance soldering, a protection against .corrosion of the seams may be achieved, if the'seams are deeply imbedded in the concrete and closely pressed together so that liquids cannot reach them at all; the. access .of liquid may also beprevented by; coating the seams with cement or by spraying on metal spray, and finallya protection fromcorbouringrims, but at thesame timethey giveua' rosion of an electrolytic type may be-u'sed,such
side the concrete may be used as a protection against any small leaks which may still occur.
A valuable special construction canbe obtained g for the introduction of pipes by insertion of a thicker plate between the thinner plates, said thicker plate being disposed over an opening in the concrete wall and inside said opening carries flanges on the pipe or other member to be attached. Lasting tightness can be obtained here, as the connection has good flexibility and adheres completely metallically therefore it does not be come leaky either through high pressures or through considerable temperature influences.
In the construction of new reservoirs, thefioor thereof is first formed and before it sets, the floor sheets are pressed onto the same with the anchors of the floor sheets extending well into the concrete. The form for the concrete walls is then erected around the floor to extend above the same, the skin for the interior surface of I the walls being employed to provide'at least a portion'of the inner side of the form. Concrete is poured into the form and when the concrete has set, the skin will be bonded thereto.- This construction also permitsa goodconnectionto be made betweenthe floor skinandthat appliedto the walls and also simplifies the construction of the form for the wall. 'The practice herein set forth is especially adaptable to thealteration and rebuilding of already constructed'reservoirs on applying the skin to the existing walls and floor which may be prepared, if necessary,
by cutting away damaged concrete and substituting in its place 'a layer of fresh concrete to which the metal skin is attached.
In order that it should not be necessary always to set up low units for the sheet metal skin and to fill in the concrete behind before setting up the next highest units, which concreting must then be carried out in small sections which are undesirable, the invention uses with great advantage motor shakers which are laid inside against the shell or the inside portion of the form carrying the sheet metal skin or even against the outer shell or against theconcrete walls already standing and tamps the latter by fine shaking vibrations. Such a solid embedding of the concrete takes place by this means that; the whole skin is solidly bound throughout from the start.
The drawing illustrates the invention in a se- Fig. 11 is a section of a bottom corner of the reservoir at the place for the introduction of a pipe.
Fig. 12 is a section of a portion of the wall wit a vibrator attached.
According to Fig. 1 a container wall I is manufactured, by any usual method, of reinforced concrete constructed on the inside with vertical waves (similar to a Morrison wave). Upon the latter is then sprayed, by means of a spraying pistol, an inner'sprayed metal skin 2, which depending on the liquid to be introduced may consist of zinc, copper, aluminium or other metals. The waves give the sprayed metal skin 2 which in itself adheres firmly to the concrete by penetrating into its pores, a sufficient flexibility in the circumferential direction to allow it to follow theheat expansion ofthe concrete or to adaptitself with its heat expansion to the concrete. I Fig. 2 shows a fundamentally similar construction only here the sprayed metal skin 3 is pro- 'vided with wave like divisions both in the circumferential direction and in the vertical direction.
The flexility isgreatly increased hereby.
Fig. 3 shows individual plates of sheet metal d placed on the reservoir wall which with bent up strips 5 are constructed with flexibly effective bodies similar to the above waves. The sheet metal plates are welded at the rims 5 either autogenously or by means of an electric are or at best by'point or roller'welding; in the latter case the structure experiences no alterations in composition so that,'for' example with the use of iron as free as possible from carbon, neither carbonation nor decarbonation is effected by the welding andconsequently electrolytic corrosion effects are avoided. 'The same is also obtainable if the seams are folded or riveted. Iron anchors 6, I are welded partly on the surfaces and partly on the rims of the sheet metal plates and'concreted in therewith. If the plates of sheet metal are very large, folds similar to the grooves formed by. the rims can also be provided in theirsurfaces.
According to Fig.4 similar sheet metal plates 4 are applied to the concrete wall I" and fixed to it supplementarily by anchors 8. Thebent up rims 5 also haveisteppedinner. parts 8a which lie closely together and penetrate relatively deeply intov the concrete sothat the welded seam at their ends is removed from access .of the liquid bythe' compression of the rim parts 8a by the concrete and is thereby secured from corrosion; autogenous welding or welding'byelectric arc or soldering with soft solder or hard solder may be used here. To improve the sealing between the flat parts 8a an intermediate layer of cement may be inserted between them and theircloser adhesion can be obtained by point welding near the transition between the rim portions 5 and 8a already before the pressing together by the 'concrete. As a final safety measure a coating 9 of acid proof cement is provided here, along the welding seam on the concrete side thereof.
For the most flexible construction possible of the sheets long straight line seams are to be avoided, in that the flexible seams formed by the rim strips 5 should be constructed-either zig-zag according to Fig. 5 or honey-comb fashion according to Fig. 6 or have various patterns according to Figs. 7, 8 and 9 which all have the common property that each piece of straight lined and therefore rigid seam meets another seam transversely at the end which other se'am'is flexible in this transverse direction so that the whole skin of sheet metal is sufficiently'fiexible in all directions to be able to adjust itself to the difference in heat expansion compared with the concrete.
According to Fig. 10 the plates of sheet metal are constructed with continuous horizontal rims ID in order to form here, as can be'seen, stiff annular rims with tensile strength, which when manufactured of iron and engaging deeply into the concrete as in Fig. 4 and also strongly anchored to it as in Fig. 3 act as annular reiniorcements of the concrete. This is valuable for reservoirs with high internal pressures.
According to Fig. 11 theinner skin 4 first of all has holding irons II which penetrate deeply into the concrete wall I which serve to support annular shaped concrete reinforcing irons I2 and thusreplace clamping connections and also holding irons and shell parts when building. The concrete floor I3 is here covered with a skin of sheet 3 metal I4 which together with its anchors I5 'is pressed on to it and in it and connected to the surrounding skin 4 in a flange I6 by means of one .of the connecting methods mentioned. A depression I1 is rovided here in the floor to make possible the introduction of a pipe I8 at the lowest place, the latter being flanged on to a thicker iron plate I9 which is welded on to one of the skin plates 4 and bridges over a larger aperture in the concrete wall I which is lined by an annular casing 20. A completely sealed metallic joint of the pipe I8 to the sheet metal skin 4, I4 is obtained here and any cracking or leaking of the pipe connection is avoided by the flexibility of the plate I 9.
According to Fig. 12 a vibration motor 2| which receives its energy from an electric cable 22 suspended by a supporting rope 23 is laid with its vibration face 24 against the exterior of the concrete wall I in order to set it vibrating to tamp the concrete. Fig. 12 shows a lining being applied to an existing structure, to the original wall I of which there has been added a layer 25 of surface and being provided with bent up edges,
said sheets being positioned'adjacent to each other to form said lining and being secured together along their adjacent edges, said edges seated in said depressions, and means for securing the lining to said surface comprising anchor members extending from and secured to each sheet and embedded into the concrete forming said reservoir.