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Publication numberUS2331341 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 12, 1943
Filing dateJan 9, 1942
Priority dateJan 9, 1942
Publication numberUS 2331341 A, US 2331341A, US-A-2331341, US2331341 A, US2331341A
InventorsHertel Richard K, Nicolson Garth F
Original AssigneeByron Jackson Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Drilling hook
US 2331341 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 12, 1943.

G. F. NICOLSON ETAL' DRILLING HOOK Filed Jan. 9, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 2. 6.42m E McaLso/v Ava/A20 A. #5,? TEL,

INVENTORS BY nfizww/ Afro/away.

Oct. 12, 1943. G. F. NICOLSON ET AL ,3 4

DRILLING HOOK Filed Jan. 9, '1942 a Sheets-Sheet 2 GARTH f. /V/COL so/v, RICHARD/I. HER TEL,


Oct-"1'2, 1943. v G. F. NlcoLsoN ET AL 3 9 DRILLING HOOK Filed Jan. 9, 1942 5 Sheets-Sh'eet 5 GARTH E NICOLIO/V,

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Patented Oct. 12, 1943 DRILLING HOOK Garth F. Nicolson, Huntington Park. and Rich: ard K. Hertel, Los Angeles, Calif.,' assignors to Byron Jackson 00., Huntington Park, Ca1if., a

corporation of Delaware Application January 9, 1942, Serial'No. 426,196

7 Claims.

' .This invention relates generally to drilling A general object of the invention is to provide a hook of exceptionally rugged and durable construction and embodying improved features designed to better withstand the severe service to which rotary and casing hooks are subjected.

Another object is to provide an improved construction for releasably locking the hook member of a spring hook against rotation with respect to 'thesupporting housing. Other objects and advantages will be apparent from the following detailed description of one embodiment of the invention, reference being had to the accompanying drawings wherein:

Fig. l is an elevation of a complete hook assembly embodying the invention;

Fig. 2 is a View, partly in elevation and partly in section, taken at right angles to Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal sectional viewof the central portion of the hook, showing the swivel lock sleeve rotated through 180 from the position shown in Fig. 2;

Fig. 4- is a transverse section taken on line IV-IV of Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is a transverse section taken on line VV of Fig. 3;

Fig. 6 is an elevation of the portion of the hook shown in Fig. 3, as viewed from the right-hand side of the latter figure, with parts broken away on line VI-VI of Fig. 3;

Fig. '7 is a transverse section taken on line VII-VII of Fig. 6;

Figs. 8 and 9 are views showing the swivel locking member in two different positions from that illustrated in Fig. 3;

Fig. 10 is a fragmentary elevational view of the swivel lock housing, as viewed from the right of Fig. 6;

Figs. 11 and 12 are enlarged fragmentary sectional views of the upper portion of the hook, il-

lustrating the swivel bearing in two positions; and 3 Fig. 13 is a longitudinal section taken on line XIII-XIII of Fig. 1. I

Referring to the drawings, and particularly to Figs. 1 and 2, theinvention has been shown as incorporated in a hook comprising generally a hook body I pivotally connected to the lower extremity of a shank 2 by a'pivot pin 3, the shank 2 being yieldably supported in a housing 4. A yoke or bail 5 is connected t the upper end of thehousing for connecting the hook to the usual traveling block. In accordance with usual prac tice, the shank 2 isyieldably supported. in the housing by a coil compression spring 6 interposed between a nut 1 threaded'to the upper end of the shank and an inwardlyprojecting shoulder 8 at the lower end of the'housing. Downward moveinent-of the shank and book, as the spring is compressed under load, is limited by a stop shoulder 9 formed in the housing 4.

It-will be observed that the nut I is threadedly connected to the shank 2 by a relatively coarse left-handthread I 2, preferably of the modified Acme type, although it will be appreciated that any other type of thread may be used. The hook is most frequentlyrotated in clockwise direction, as viewed from above, as when making up the joints between sections of drill pipe or casing, and

hence the provision of a left-handthread tends to cause the nut to tighten instead of loosen during rotation. The thread is of the straight type, rather than tapered, and the nut is made up against a shoulder 13 on the shank 2. The nut l .is securely locked inengagement with the shoulder I3 by alocknut-M which is threadedly connected to a reduced extension I5 on the shank, by

a relatively fine left-hand thread l6 of less pitch than the thread l2. The lock nut is made up tightly against a flat shoulder on the upper surface of the nut l, and, due to the difference in pitch of the two threads, a powerful wedging ef fect is obtained. However, as a further safeguard against inadvertent loosening of the lock nut. a-set screw I1 is preferably threaded in the lock nut and engages the shank extension I5 above the threads I6.

A sturdy and compact swivel locking arrangement has been provided, for' releasably locking a splined connection between the shank and a lock sleeve l9. As seen most clearly in Fig. 5, the lower portion of the sleeve l9, below the stop shoulder 8 on the housing 4, is provided with 'a square opening 20 closely fitting the square portion of the shank. The sleeve extends upwardly around thedower cylindrical portion; of the housing 4, and-is rotatably supported thereon by a split clamp ring 24 (Figs. 3, 6 and 7).

' As shown-in Fig; 3, the outer wall of the housannular rib 29 housed within the recess 28 and providing a rotatable interlocking connection.

between the lock sleeve and the clamp ring. The

lock sleeve is thus mounted on the housing. 4 for rotation with the shank 2 and hook body t, but is constrained against axial movement with respect to the housing.

In order to releasably lock the shank 2- against rotation with respect to the housing 4, a releasable locking connection is provided between the housing and the lock sleeve [9. As shown. most clearly in. Fig. 4, a plurality of circumferehtially spaced slots 32 are formed in the lower portion of the housing 4, and a locking member 33 ispiy-v otally, mounted on and enclosed within; a laterally projecting housing 34; formed integral with the lock sleeve 19, the member 33 being movable radially into or out ofengagement with a selected one ofthe slots 32; The locking member isrsuitably keyed to a rock shaft 35 journaled in the housing 34:, and for this. purpose the centraliportion of the rock shaft is provided; with a pair of oppositely extending ribsor keys 36 and 3;! which engage similarly shapedkeyways 38 and 38ginthe hub of the locking member. To enable therock shaft 35 to be manually oscillated about its axis, and thus movethe-locking member into or out of engagement with one of the slots 32, one end of the rock shaft projects through the wall, of the housing 34' and: is provided with an enlargedahead on. which are formed a pairof hook-shaped projections4 t and 42., as shown in Fig. 10. When the locking'member-33 is in. the-locking position shown in Fig. 3, the head 4!) assumes theiposie tion indicated in solidlines in- Fig. 10. Ifr it is desired to move the lockingmember to its-released position (Fig. 8), a downwardpull: is exerted on the projection 4 lby means of the usual shepherd's hook provided for that purpose; to rock the shaft in counter-clockwise direction; as viewed in Fig. 10; the head-40 then assuming the dottedline position indicated in the latter-figure. Similarly, a downward pull on the projection 42 causes the locking member'to move from released to locked position.

A spring toggle mechanism is associated with therlocking member 33 'for'yieldably maintaining thelockingjme'chanism in either looking or released position. As shown most clearly in Figs. 3,

'6, 8 and 9, a double-faced cam 45 isformed integral with and projects outwardly from the hub of the locking member, and is provided with oppositely directed cam faces 46 and 41'. One

cam face or the other. is adapted to be selectively engaged by a roller 48 mounted on the freeend of a rocker arm 49 journaled on a pin on bolt 50 mounted in the housing 34. and extending parallel to the rock shaft 35. The rocker, arm. is yieldingly urged in a counter-clockwise direction, a s viewecl in Figs. 3, 8, and 9, by a torsion. spring 5] having one end thereof engaging an abutment 52 onthe housing;34 and the other end engaging an abutment 53 on the rocker arm.

Thus. when the locking member is in, thelocking position shown in Fig. 3, the roller 48 engages the cam face 41 and urges it in counter-clockwise direction, thus yieldingly maintaining the locking member in this position. As the rock shaft 35 is rotated to move the locking member to its released position, the cam face 41 forces the rocker arm downwardly against the action of the spring 51, until the roller passes the apex of the cam and engages theother cam face 46. Thereupon the rocker arm urges the locking member in clockwise direction, moving it into the released position indicated in Fig. 8.

t will be observed, with particular reference t,o;Figs. 3; and 9, that the locking member 33 is pnoizidedi with. two angularly disposed faces 55 and 58- on the side thereof facing the housing 4.

Theupper-faoe 55 is so disposed that, when the locking member engages one of the slots Hi, the face 55 extends parallel to the axis of the shank 2 andflush with the inner wall of the housing, a pair.- of, laterally extending wings 5,1 and 58. (Fig. 6) being providedlonthe locking member to limit its inward movement, The lower face 55 is angularly disposedwith respect to the upper face 5,5, so that if the locking member should be rocked inwardly but. should not align with one of' the slots l9, the face 56 will extend parallel to the outer wall of the housing 41 whenit engages the latter, as indicated in,Fig. 9. It will be observed that ln.tl1i. .PO l n of the lock n e ber,, h roller 4.8..engases the. nner am, a IandIuIs s the locking member toward, locking position. It will thereforebe evident that if the hook body l and shank, then rotated, slightly, to align the nextadjacent slot,3 2 with the locking member, the latter will. automatically snap into. the slotun'der the action of the spring 5|, This arrangement dispenseswith the necessity of, maintaining a. downward manual. pull on, thc projection 42 while, the, hook. is. being, rotated, to align a slot. 32, with, the locking, memben,

Itwiil be understood. by those familiar. with rotary and. casing hooks that. the spring. 5 is only of sufficient strength to, support a single standvof, drill pipe, and that when the entire drill string is suspended from the hook the spring compresses and allowsthe hook body and shank to descend until the stop shoulder isengaged, thus transferring, the load. directly, from the shanknut T, to, the stop shoulder. It hasbeen customary. to interpose an anti-friction bearing between the shank nut and, the stop shoulder to provide free swivelling of, the hook body nder full load when this is desired, In, prior constructions the same bearing has alsobe n so. arranged as to; beinterposed between, the upper extremity of the spring and thejlower faceof the shank nut, in order to provide free swiveling of the shank and nutwith, respect tothe spring.

s n l arin crp sed between. the. shan nut and b h he Shrine and. the s p. shoulder s, how r, b ec ionabl for. h f lg nsfieason:

Durin the drill ng. operat n. hexwcisht of the drill' string is. transiferred' from the hook shank, to. he m sing. throu th hank. nut and the bearing. The hook is locked against rotation during drilling, and hence for long periods of time each of the bearing balls or'rollers occupies a fixed position with respect to the bearing races, and the vibration and'the gyratory motion transmitted to the'hook from the drill string during drilling often causesthe bearing members to wear grooves or indentations in the bearing races. It is obvious that the presence of a seriesof indentations in the bearing races interferes with the freedom of rolling action when it is desired to rotate the hook, and this is particularly noticeable when the hookis rotated manually to orientthe elevator.

In order to overcome the aforementioned dif-" fi'culty, we have provided a bearing construction incorporating a main bearing 60 (Figs. 11 and 12) interposed between the shank "nut '1 and the stop shoulder 9, and an auxiliary bearing 6| interposed between the shank nut and the upper end of the spring 6. Since the spring 6 is always maintained under an initial pre-compression, the auxiliary bearing is retained thereby in engagement with the nut l and moves vertically with the nut during compression and expansion of the spring. It is also deemed preferable to mount the main bearing in such 'amanher that it also movesvertically with the "nut. To accomplish this, a dual bearing retainer 62 is provided, and it will be observed that this retainer not only maintains the races and balls of each bearing is assembled relation, but also serves to support the main bearingBO from the auxiliary bearing 6|. j

The retainer comprises a one-piece structure which may be pressed to shape from sheet stock, with the upper and lower extremities initially straight to permit the auxiliary bearing 6| to be inserted from the upper end and the main bearinglii] to be applied from the lower end. After the bearings are assembled on the retainer, the upper edge is rolled inwardly to form a lip 63, and the lower edge is rolled outwardly to form a lip 64, to securely retain the hearings in place. Attention is directed to the fact that the retainer issupported by the upper race 65 of the bearing 6|, and that a clearance is provided between thelower race 66 of that bearing and an upwardly facing inclined shoulder 61 on the retainer. In a similar manner, the spacing of the lower outwardly bent lip 64 and the downwardly facing shoulder 68 on theretainer is such as to provide clearance between one of these shoulders and the respectivera'ce 69 or 10 of the bearing 66. These clearances are exaggerated in Figs. 11 and 12 of the drawings, for illustrative purposes, and in actual practice may be only a few thousandths of an inch.

When the spring 6 is expanded and the main bearing 68 is out of contact with the stop shoulder, as indicated in Fig. 11, the'bearing is sup ported solely by the lower lip 64 of the retainer. During rotation of the hook body, shank and shank nut under these circumstances, the main bearing 60 obviously will rotate as a unit with the retainer 62, the nut 1, and the upper race 65 of the auxiliary bearing 6|, relative rotation taking place between the races 65 and 66 of the auxiliary bearing. The latter bearing is never loaded in excess of the compression strength of the spring 6, and hence it is not subject tothe grooving action which occurs in the main bearing during drilling. It will, therefore, remain in good operating condition for a long period of time, provided it is properly lubricated.

In Figs. 11 and 12, a lubricant fitting 72 is provided in the nut 1, to which access is had upon removal of a suitable closure plug (not shown) in the housing 4. A series of openings 13 are provided in the retainer 62 in the horizontal plane of the fitting 12, for admitting lubricant to the bearing 6| Lubricant from this fitting. will also work downwardly into the main bearing 60, and, as shown in Fig. 1, the main hearing may also be separately lubricated through a fitting 14 in the housing. In addition to or in lieu of the fitting 12, a lubricant fitting 15 (Fig. 2) may be provided in the nut I, to which access is obtained by removal of the cover plate 16 which closes the upper end of the housing 4.

7 Referring to Fig. 12, wherein the parts are shown in the position they assume when the hook is heavily loaded, it will be observed that the main bearing is now supported on the stop shoulder 9, and that clearance is provided between the lower lip 64 of the retainer and the lower race 69 of the hearing. The upper race 18 engages the shoulder 68 on the retainer, but this is not objectionable inasmuch as these members rotate as a unit with the nut l and the upper race 65 of the auxiliary bearing. The main bearing provides free swivelling between the Shank nut and the stop shoulder 9, while the auxiliary bearing" enables the nut to i rotate freely with respect to the spring 6.

Referring now to Figs. 1 and 13, it will b observed that the hook body I includes a bill providing a recess 8| for receiving a load-sustaining member such as a swivel bail, indicated in dotted lines at 82. closed by a locking arm 83 pivoted to the bill at 84, and suitable latching mechanism, indicated generally at 85, is provided for releasably latching the arm in closed position. It is preferable that the locking'arm be automatically closed as the swivel bail or other load-carrying member is inserted into the recess 8!, and for this purpose a closing finger 86 is formed integral with the locking arm and projects inwardly therefrom so as to be engaged by the bail 82 as the latter enters the recess8 l. As shown most clearly in Fig. 13, the

closing finger is of inverted U-shape in crosssection, and extends downwardly along each side of the bill 88 of the hook a sufiicient distance to.

embrace the bill when the locking arm is in open position, thus avoiding the possibility of a member of the drilling crew having his fingers caught between the closing finger and the upper surface of the bill.

The upper surface 81 of the closing finger is {convex in the plane of Fig. 13, and preferably conforms to the curvature of the under side of a standard swivel bail of the same capacity as the hook. The lower surface of the closing finger and the upper surface 88 of the bill 80 are also I convex in the plane of Fig. 13, and are preferably concentric with the upper surface 81. In the plane of Fig. 1, the surface 81 is concave, preferably conforming to the cross-sectional contour of the swivel bail 82, and the lower surface of the closing finger and the upper surface 88 of the bill are also preferably concave, and concentric with the surface 81. In this manner, the maximum bearing area isprovided between the swivel bail and the closing finger, and between the latter and the bill 80.

From the foregoing description of a preferred embodiment of the invention, it will be apparent that a drilling hook has been provided which is of very rugged and durable construction, and in which the features which, in the past, have The recess is adapted to be proved. to be most troublesome, have: been' so designed: as .to. eliminate the-mostfrequent sources of trouble.

It is to: be understood, course, that. the specifie details of construction: shown and described are subject to modification: in. various respects, and that the; invention is: not limitedptol such details: but. is: of. the fullscope of the: appended- We. claim:

1.. In a hook structure; the: combination of a housing member having, a central bore a shank member mounted in the-bore-f or longitudinaland rotary movement relative thereto, a hook. member supported by one of said-,members, resilient means housing the shank member in the: bore of the; housing, member, and means for relea-sably locking, the shank. member against rotation'relativeto the housing member, said means comprisF ing a sleeve member rota-tably supported by the housing member and having a slidable and nonrotatable connection with the shank member, and a locking. member mounted on the sleeve member and movable into and out of locking engagement with the housing member.

2'. In a hook structure, the-combination of a housing member having a central bore and; a'pair of supporting shoulders longitudinally spaced along the axis of the bore, a shank member mounted in the bore for longitudinal and rotary movement relative theretoand having a head at one end thereof, resilientmeans interposed between one of said shoulders and said'heacl, bearing means between the other shoulder and. said head, a, sleeve member rotatably supported by the housing member and having a slidable and nonrotatable connection with a portion of the shank member remote from said head, and means for ,releasably locking, the sleeve member against rotation relative to the housing member.

3. In a hook structure, the combination: of a housing, member having a bore, a shank mounted inthe bore for longitudinal and. rotary movement relative to the housing memben. a. sleeve member' rotatably supported. by the housing member and having a slidable andnon-rotatabl'e conned tion. with an integral portion of the shank, a-locki-ng member mounted on one of said members and movable into andoutot locking engagement with the other member, and 7 means yieldably maintaining said locking member in eitherl'ocked or released position.

4-. In. a hook. structure, the; combination of a housing member having, a' central bore, ashank. mounted in the bore for longitudinal: androtarv movement. relative to the housing: member, said shank having an integral portion. 05 non-circular cross-section, a sleevemember rotatably, support ed bythe housing. member and having a. non.- circular opening therein. slidably' andnon-rotate ably receiving the. non-circular portion of the. shank, and, means for releasably locking the sleeve member against. rotation relative. to the housing member.

5. In a hook structure. the combination of a. housing member, a shank member supported thereby: for longitudinal: and. rotary movement relative thereto, a. sleeve member rotatabl y supported by the housing member andhaving a slidable and non-rotatable connection with the shankv member, a locking member carried by the sleeve member and movable into and out of look.- ing engagement with the housing. member, and spring toggle means: yieldablvmaintaining the looking member in eitherlocked or releasedposition.

6. In a hookstructure,- the combination of a housing member, a shank member supported thereby for longitudinal and rotary movement relative thereto, a sleeve. member surrounding a portion of the housing, member and having a slidable and I'iOIl lOllflilflblB connection. with the shank member, said housing.v member having. an externalshoulder, an element. supported on. the shoulder and supporting the sleeve member. for rotation relative to the housing. member,, and means for releasably loclsing. the sleeve member against rotation relative to the housing. member.

7 In ahook structure, a housing. member having a central bore, a pair ot internal shoulders and an external shoulder on said, member, a shank insaidbore. and. having, a. pair of abut.- ments, resilient.meansinterposed between oneof said internal shoulders, and one of said abutments, bearing means interposed between the other, internal. shoulder and. the other abutment, an; element supported. on the. external shoulder, a sleeve member supported by said; element for rotary movement relative'to thehousing member andhaving; a sl-idableand, non-rotatable connection with said shank, and means. for releasably locking the sleevemember against rotation rel'ative. to the housing member.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2732244 *Dec 5, 1950Jan 24, 1956 Hook positioner
US2814522 *Nov 12, 1952Nov 26, 1957Web Wilson Oil Tools IncConnector-hook
US2980400 *Feb 5, 1957Apr 18, 1961Armco Steel CorpHook-block assembly
US3612596 *Oct 16, 1969Oct 12, 1971Dresser IndHook lock for traveling block
US4498698 *Apr 18, 1983Feb 12, 1985Varco International, Inc.Drill rig hook
EP0124467A1 *Mar 16, 1984Nov 7, 1984Varco International, Inc.Drill rig hook
U.S. Classification294/82.16, 294/82.1, 24/601.5, 24/598.4
International ClassificationE21B19/04, E21B19/00
Cooperative ClassificationE21B19/04
European ClassificationE21B19/04