US 2332639 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
HAIR DRIER Filed Dec. 30, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Oct. 26, 1943. w H N 2,332,639
HAIR DRIER Filed Dec. 30, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 65 75422 INVENTOR.
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Patented Oct. 26, 1943 UNITED HAIR DRIER I William L, Hudson, Chicago, Ill. Application December 30, 1940, Serial No. 372,264
' 14 Claims. (01. 3 4-48) The present invention relates to hair driers and to controls for the operation of hair driers.
Many difficulties are experienced in the operation of hair driers'where patrons having difierent likes and dislikes have available to them the control of the various functions of a hairdrier which particular time.
is serving themv at any In some instances, a patron hurrying to keep I an appointment, and seeking to hurry matters effect of evaporation.
will endeavor to increase the heat or .hold the heat at too high a sustained temperature for satisfactory results with the accompanying waste of electrical current. While other patrons unable to stand the intense heat caused by the drier operating at its highest temperature will set it at medium and as a result will remain under the drier an extra long period of time which will cause delays in taking care of subsequent appointments.
Although it is not generally known, the wave set employed by beauticians for a patron's hair relies to a large extent upon .oxidization for its successful function. However, in order to handle the material it is mixed to have a large water content to render the set plastic while the operatoris placing thewave in a patrons hair.
After that, the excess of water content has to be removed as quickly as possible and the wave set tempered and hardened for a period of time in the presence ofoxygen. The life of a wave in the hair is prolonged by "the proper oxidization and thorough drying of the hair before it is "combed out after drying.
To hurry the setting and drying may result in the hair wavenot lasting; or the hair being burned and made brittle by too much heat, the water content of the set being soreduced that it provides little orno cooling protection which is the If the so-called drying process, sometimes referred to as a hardening process, is extended too long, the discomfort of the patron is multiplied and no added advantage is gained. In
either instance the disadvantages-of a period too 1 short or too long make it desirable to provide a drier which will follow a predetermined curve of performance. automatically, and remove from tampering the controls, which, if unskillfully managed, would provide unsatisfactory results.
One of the objects of the invention is to provide an improved control which does not invite or lend itself to tampering. Further, having re-, moved the hair drier from whims of individuals, another object of the-invention is to provide an improved control which regulates the heat content of the air circulated over and through a patron's hair.
In this connection, it may be well to point out a that most wave sets are hardened by oxidization,
the heat supplied to the air merely controls the dew point of the air and thereby regulates the rate of evaporation taking place in conjunction with oxidization.
This being one of the objects, a further object of the invention resides in adapting a hair drier .controlwhich has suflicient'range of performance to take care of local conditions which may require a variation from a set cycle of operation, some operators being able to work with a more viscous wave set while others desire one quite thin.
Another purpose of the invention is found in the fact that only a singlecontrol is required,
,thereby assuring correct performance even in the hands of unskilled operators.
- It will be noted also that under no circumstances will it be possible to burn a patrons hair even though the temperature is left at its highest point, particularly in the modification wherein gradual reduction of the temperature is controlled manually.
One of the features ofthe invention permits a full 'rate of oxidization to take place at all times regardless of temperature control and the temperature is controlled as the only remaining variable to assist oxidization according to acceptable practices.
A further object is to provide a hair drier which is simple in construction, easy to assemble, operate and repair, and safe to'use under all expected conditions.
Referring now to the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of the preferred embodiment of the invention showing the relative location of the several elements;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal section of the rear end of the embodiment shown in Fig. l as disposed when out of operation;
Fig. 3 is a section taken upon F 2? a Fig. 4 is a schematic drawing of the electrical circuit employed in the invention;
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 2 showing another form of the invention;
Fig. 6 is a plan view of the manual control employed with the invention;
Fig. '7 is a section taken in Fig. 5; and
the line 3- inpon the line 1-1 portion l as carried by a pan |5 upon the rear side of which the motor I6 is mounted'by studs l1 and rubber washers 8. The shaft 2| of the motor extends forwardly through a central air opening 22 in the pan I5 and at the front of the pan is mounted the spider 23 that carries the guard screen 24 and the heater elements 25 and 26 where they may be disposed in or close to the mouth 21 ,of a blower wheel 28 driven by the motor shaft 2 I.
Air inlets 3| are provided at the rear of the shell l8 and the blower 28 draws air from the interior of the shell along the line 32 (Fig. 1) and forces it outwardly and forwardly with a high velocity, the swirl 33 being supplied by the fresh air at the edge 34 of the blower from the inlets 3| through the opening 22.
Deflectors 35 are mounted upon the rim l2 at an angle reclined in relation to the air swirl 33 and serve to deflect the swirling air radially inward towards a patrons head (not shown) received in the rim, so that the air is returned to the blower after it passes over the heaters 25 and 26. The deflectors obstruct the escape of air and the only air permitted to escape past the vanes is air forced out by static pressure in the shell, and the velocity of this air is quite low.
The shell is pivotally mounted upon a stand 36 by a bracket 31 secured thereto and in the embodiment shown in Fig. 1 a mercury switch 38 is mounted upon a bracket M in the shell to control the operation of the electrical parts. When the shell "I0 is down in working position, the position shown in Fig. 1, the switch contacts 42 are closed by the mercury fill 43, and when the shell is tilted back out of operative position the contacts are open.
Near or above the heaters a thermostatic control 44 is mounted by means of a bracket 45 upon the spider 23 behind the screen and comprises a Sylphon bellows 46 carried by an L- shaped spring 41 in aposition whereby the free end 48 of the Sylphon operates a, sensitive switch- 5| characterized by its short stroke and light pressure operability.
The relative position of the Sylphon 46 for its thermal responsiveness with respect to the switch is regulated by a screw 52 threaded through the bracket 45 to flex the spring 41. The screw is manually rotated throughv a flexible drive 53 by a handle 54 extending preferably through the v top of the shell "I where an indicator plate 55 is mounted by screws 56. In using-the device, the handle 54 is set at the beginning of a drying-cycle so that the thermostat 4 6-operates to maintain a temperature of about 120, and this is gradually reduced as the cycle proceeds.
Referring now to the preferred electrical circuit (Fig. 4) employed in both embodiments of the invention, the heater 25 is of the higher wattage and is connected in series with the switch 5|. The circuit thus formed is connected in parallel with the other heater 26 and the motor l6 between two leads of a house line 51.
In this way the temperature in the shell is controlled automatically by the Sylphon-solenoid control as set by the handle 54 whenever the circuit is closed.
In Fig. 1; the circuit is controlled by the mercury switch 38, whereas in Fig. 5, the circuit is controlied by the handle 54a operating an off-on switch 58 in combination with a fully automatic control which will now be described.
In Fig. 5 the thermostatic control 44 is operated automatically in relationship to an interval of time and the rate at which air is circulated by the blower.
The interval of time can be varied as a matter of original design or as a matter of selection upon the operator's part but in the preferred embodiment, the period for one wave set is approximately 30 minutes and within this period the drier of the present invention is designed to provide full blower speed for the entire period, and full heat for the first ten minutes after which the heat is gradually reduced to its lowest point shortly before the end of the period at which time a slow heat continues along with the blower until the drier isturned off.
This timing is accomplished by a lost motion pickup drive 6| driven by a speed reduction gearing connected to the motor-operating the blower.
. A single thread worm 62 is mounted axially upon the rear end 63 of the motor shaft 2| and. a bracket 64 carrying a forty tooth worm gear 65 is supported in mesh with the worm 62. The
bracket 64 is fastened or formed integrally to the motor housing 66. The worm gear 65 in turn drives a second single thread-worm 61 meshing with a second forty tooth worm wheel 68.
The axes of the respective worms and gears are arranged so that the axis of the second worm wheel extends upwardly along the contour of the shell l6 so that the bending of a flexible drive-.-
1| secured to the second wheel will be minimized.
A U-shaped bracket 12 (Fig. 7) journals the remote end 13 of the flexible shaft 1| in cars '14 and the end 13 of the shaft carries a third single thread worm 15 which meshes with a third forty tooth worm wheel I6 mounted axially with respect to the Sylphon control shaft 58.
The Sylphon control is operated in relation to the third worm wheel 16 by a linkage which permits a turning of the control 44 up or down any time'during a cycle, and starting the cycle at any determined point in the cycle.
To do this (Fig. 7), a sleeve 11 is journalled upon the free end 18 of the Sylphon drive shaft 53 to extend beyond the housing where it receives the hub 8| of the handle 54a as held there by a set screw 82. At its other end the sleeve TI is radially flanged 83 to provide a shoulder 84 against which the wheel 16, as journalled on the sleeve 11, is held in frictional drive relationship by a compression spring 85 disposed between the wheel 16 and the inner end 8|d of the hub 8|. With this arrangement there is no end thrust upon the shaft |8 although the elements just described are iournalled thereon.
The shaft 18 is driven by a lug 86 upon the flange 83 which lug operates between limits 61 and 88 bounding a circumferential recess 6| upon a collet 32 secured to the shaft 18 by a set screw 53. The lug 86 has a flange 54 which extends radially far enough to operate the'handie 56 of the off-on switch 56. The parts, other than the handle assembly and worm wheel, are held in place by a collar 8 beyond the bearing IS in which the shaft 18 is journalled. I
The sleeve 11 is free to slide outwardly enough to carry the wheel 16 out of mesh with the worm l5. 'lhisserves as a means for removing the automatic drive from operation if upon occasion such is desired. However, to prevent demeshing happening inadvertently, the drive is designed so that the worm 15 turns in the'direction indicated by the numeral 91 so that under drive conditions, the worm urges the maintenance of the meshed relationship.
In the particular embodiment illustrated, less than one turn of the shaft 18 is provided to accomplish the cycle and the actuation of the Syl- -phon setting beyond certain limits is controlled by an elongated set screw ill carried by a collar I02 that strikes the bracket 45 at both limits. Any overdrive of themotor present isabsorbed by a slipp ge at the frictional en gement.
In operation, the handle is turned from "01? position to low,' in which movement the lug moves the switch arm from the position shown in Fig. 8 to a position where the switch snaps over. Further movement carries the ing into contact with the limit 87 and thereafter rotates the collet 92 and shaft I! to its high" temperature position. when the shaft I3 is in this p sition, the thermostatic control 44 is set to main- .tain the temperature of the air at approximately In the meantime the motor I6 has begun to run and when the handle is released the motor l6 having a 1750 R. P. M. gradually moves the lug back through the recess ll until it contacts the second limit 88, after which the collet is turned progressively to gradually reduce the temperature control point of the thermostatic switch.
Thus it will be seen that a structure is pro-.- vided which obviates the'obiections and difllculties mentioned at the beginning of the description.
Through the embodiment shown which illus trates the structural characteristics of the invention, certain dimensions and arrangement of parts have been indicated for the purpose of providing a clear understanding of the invention, but it will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes, further modifications, and uses may be made with regard thereto without departing from the spirit of the invention the scope of which is commensurate with the appended claims. j
What is claimed is:
-1. In a hair drier having a shell with an opening to receive a persons head, means for circulating the air in the shell, means for heating the air, automatic thermal responsive means disposed in the path of travel of the circulated air for controlling the heating means, and means controlled by the air circulating means for varying the temperature at which the automatic means is effective in controlling the heating means including a lost motion pick up connection between the-thermal responsive means and the controlled means.
2. In a hair drier having a shell with an opening to receive a persons head, means for circulating the air in the shell, means for heating the air, automatic thermal responsive means disposed in the path of travel of the circulated air for controlling the heating means, manual means for setting the thermal responsive means, and means controlled by the air circulating means operating said manual means for varying the temperature at which the automatic means is effective in controlling the-heating means.
3. In a hair drier having a shell with an opening to receive a persons head, means for circulating the air in the shell, means for heating the air, automatic thermal responsive means disposed in the path of travel of the circulated air for controlling the heating means, and means controlled by the air circulating means for varying the temperature at .which the automatic means is effective in controlling the heating means.
4. In a hair drier having a shell with an opening to receive a persons head, power means for circulating the air in the shell, means for heating the air, a control for said heating means, thermal responsive means for controlling the control means including a shaft, manual means for operating the shaft, means connected to-the power means including a slow motion element, and a frictional drive between the slow motion element and the manual means.
5. In a hair drier having a shell with an opening to receive a persons head, power means for circulating the air in the shell, means for heating the air, a control for said heating means, thermal responsive means for controlling the control .means including an actuating member, manual receive a person's head, power means for circulating air in the shell, means for heating the circulated air, adjustable means responsive to' the temperature of the circulated air for controlling the heater, means connected to the power means for controlling the adjustable means including a shaft, a slow motion device driving the shaft, and a lost motion connection between the slow motion device and the shaft.
7. In a hair. drier, a shell having an opening to receive a persons head, power means for circulating air in the shell, means for heating the circulated air, adjustable means responsive to the temperature of the circulated air for controlling the heater, and means driven by the power means for controlling the adjustable means including a speed reduction transmission and a shaft driven in slow motion by the transmission.
8. In a hair drier, a shell having an opening to receive a persons head, power means for circulating air in the shell, means for heating the circulated air, adjustable means responsive to the temperature of the air for controlling the heater, means driven by the power means for controlling the adjustable means including a speed reduction transmission and a shaft driven in slow motion by the transmission, and a lost motion connection between the transmission and the shaft.
- 9, In a hair drier having a shell with an opening to receive a persons head, a motor driving a.
10. In a hair drier having a shell with an opening to receive a persons head, a motor driving a fan to circulate air in the shell, a plurality of heating elements in the path of the air for heating the air, switches for said heating elements, a single control element, and connections between the control element and the switches for operating them successively by a continuous movement of the control element, an improvement which includes reduction gearing connected to and driven by the motor and a slip clutch connecting the reduction gearing to the control element for slowly moving the control element as the motor runs.
11. A construction as. defined in claim 10 and having a thermostat connected to control one of said heating elements.
12. A construction as defined in claim 10 and having a thermostatic element forming a part of the connection between the control element and one of the switches.
13. A construction as defined in claim 10 and in which the connections between the control element and one of the switches includes a thermostatic element for operating the switch and means operated by the control element for adjusting the thermostatic element.
14. In a hair drier having a shell with an opening to receive a persons head, a motor driving a fan to circulate air in the shell, a heating element in the path of the air for heating the air, and a switch for said heating element, an improvement which comprises a reduction gearing driven by the motor, a slip clutch driven by the reduction gearing, a manually operable control element driven by the slip clutch, and a thermostatic element adjusted by the control element and connected to operate the switch.
WILLIAM L. HUDSON.