US 2334688 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
O. C. NORTON INTERNAL JOMBUSTION ENGINE AND STARTING MEANS THEREFOR Filed NOV. 21, 1.941.
OR To/v 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
Patented Nov. 16, 1943 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND STARTING MEANS THEREFOR Orlo C. Norton, Erie, Pa., assignor of twenty-five percent to Norman L Book, Kenmore, N. Y.
Application November 21, 1941, Serial No. 419,862
a 8 Claims.
This invention relates generally to internal combustion engines and more particularly to compression ignition, internal combustion engines.
All devices of this character made according to the teachings of the prior art and with which I am familiar have had high frictional and inertia losses because of bearings, crank shafts and other mechanical connections which caused high frictional and inertia losses. These prior engines required a particular type of fuel for eflicient operation. These prior engines could not be operated efficiently at part load. In the multicylinder types of prior engines, mechanical connections required precision machining operations, and the mechanical connections necessary made frictional and inertia losses very high.
It is accordingly an object of my invention to overcome the above and other defects in internal combustion engines, and it is more particuarly an object of my invention to provide a compression ignition, internal combustion engine which is simple in construction, efficient in operation, economical in manufacture and economical in cost.
Another object of my invention is to provide a compression ignition type ofinternal combustion engine in which the air charge is constant, and the fuel charge is variable.
Another object of my invention is to provide a unifiow pressure gas-type engine in which inertia forces are utilized to permit and provide compression sufficient to prevent initial condensation or cooling and which adjusts itself automatically to various back-pressures without the use of outside valves, clearance pockets, etc.
Another object of my invention is to provide a compression ignition type of internal combustion engine in which the energy of each stroke is accumulated so as to lengthen the stroke and raise the compression pressure high enough to assure ignition with a lower gas pressure.
Another object of my invention is to provide a prime mover which may be built in multicylinder types and which can be balanced by connecting the intakes to a common opening without mechanical connection.
Another object of my invention is to provide a compression ignition type of internal combustion engine having no clearance losses.
Another object of my invention is to provide accumulative energy action in starting.
Another object of my invention is to provide a compression ignition type of internal combustion engine in which the output is governed by the length of the stroke of the piston.
Another object of my invention is to provide a compression ignition type of internal combustion engine having'a high-temperature pressure range because of the absence of excess air or fuel at partial loads.
Other objects of my invention will become evident from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a vertical section taken through my novel compression ignition type internal combustion engine and my novel fluid compressor directly connected thereto.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of the upper end of a modified form of my novel invention. f
Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view of an other modified form of my novel invention.
Fig. 4 is a vertical cross-sectional view of an electrical starting and generating system for use with my novel invention.
Referring now to the drawings. Fig. 1 shows a cylinder 1 having a flange 2 and exhaust openings 3 and an admission port 4 in the head-end of the cylinder i. The lower end of the cylinder 1 is open at 5 to receive a fuel mixture from a fuel line 6 enclosed in a casing I. The fuel line 5 leads upwardly to the head-end of the cylinder I to the admission port 4. A spring-urged valve 8 admits air from the air line 9 and fuel from the valved fuel line Ill to the passage II and fuel line 6. A carburetor or any other suitable means may be used to mix the air and fuel. A valve 12 having a stem 13 movable in an aperture M in the cross-member i5 is urged to a closed position by spring [6. A piston member I! mounted on the opposite end of the stem 13 to the valve I2 moves in a bore l8. Groove IS in the side of the bore l8 permits passage of the gas mixture when the valve 12 is in a closedposition as shown in Fig. 1. s
A separate line 21 leading from the fuel line 6 leads to the top side of the piston member [8 attached-to one end of the valve stem 13. This pro vides a predetermined amount of pressure on the top side of the piston member I8 thereby maintaining the valve l2 in an open or a closed position in accordance with predetermined conditions. A valve 22 in the passage 2| increases or decreases the pressure on the top side of the piston member l8, thereby maintaining the valve in an open or a closed position according to predetermined conditions. A piston 23 having a piston ring 24 and along skirt 25 is mounted on a piston rod 26. The piston 23 only uncovers the exhaust port 3 on the downward stroke.
In operation, the piston 23 is initially moved by external starting means as will hereafter be described. When the piston 23 is moved upwardly from its lowermost position, a mixture of fuel and air is drawn into the fuel line 6 and through the opening in the lower end of the cylinder I. Upon the downward stroke, the mixture drawn in through the port 5 into the lower end of the cylinder I is compressed and forced through the fuel line B and through the admission port 4 in the head-end of the cylinder I. The pressure of the mixture moves the valve |2 against the force of the spring l6, thereby opening the admission port 4 for the admission of the mixture to the upper end of the cylinder The valve |2 remains open until the piston 23 moves upwardly to some point in its stroke when part of the mixture in the upper part of the cylinder is forced out through the admission port 4 until the valve I2 is closed, enough charge being retained to carry the given load. This charge in the upper part of the cylinder is then compressed until it reaches the ignition temperature when it explodes and forces the piston downwardly. The air and fuel charge are both variable. When the engine is operating, the mixture entering the admission port 4 displaces the burned gases which pass out through the exhaust port 3. By adjustment of the valve 22 in the passage 2| leading to the top side of the piston member I1, the pressure on the top side of the piston member I1 is increased or decreased thereby closing the valve l2 at different points inthe stroke of the piston 23. The power output is therefore varied by means of valve 22.
Fig. 2 shows a scavenging cyclinder 40 similar to that shown in Fig. l with the exception that it is mounted on the side of the cylinder rather than on the end thereof. By mounting the scavenging cylinder 40 on the side of the main cylinder 4|, there is a space provided in the upper end of the main cylinder 4| to cushion the head of the main piston. The scavenging cylinder 40 has a bore 42, a piston member 43, a valve 44, and a valve stem 45 connecting the valve 44 and piston member 43. A separate passage 46 leading from the fuel line 41 permits the gas mixture under pressure on the top side of the piston member 43 to control the opening and closing of the valve 44. A valve 48 in the passage 46 controls the pressure on the top side of the piston member 43. A groove 49 in the side of the bore 42 permits passage of gases when the valve 44 is in a closed position. The operation of this scavenging cylinder is the same as the scavenging cylinder shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 shows a construction of my novel compression-ignition type of engine in its simplest form. The cylinder 50 has an admission port 5| and an exhaust port 52 intermediate the ends thereof and an opening 53 for gases in the lower end thereof. With no scavenging valve, as in Figs. 1 and 2, this type of construction would merely operate as a two-cycle internal combustion engine except that it would be of the compression-ignition type. When my novel engine is operated without the scavenging valve, as shown in Fig. 3, the quantity of air admitted is constant and the fuel admitted is controlled to carry any given load. In the constructions shown in Fig. 1, the output of the engine may be controlled by means of the operation of the valve 22 which controls the back-pressure on the piston member I! attached to the spring-urged valve l2 which opens and closes the admission port 4 in the head of the piston bore 14.
the cylinder, thereby admitting a greater or lesser amount of fuel mixture to the upper end of the cylinder by controlling the opening and closing of the valve I2.
Disposed in opposed relation to my novel engine and prime mover is a fluid compressor comprising a cylinder60 having a flange 6| attached to a flange 62 and secured to the top flange 63 and the flange 2 of the cylinder by bolts 64. The cylinder 50 has admission ports 65 and 66 for air, the lower port 65 having a spring-urged valve 51 seated therein for controlling the initial admission of air to saidcylinder on the upstroke of the piston 68. A piston valve casing 69 is disposed on the side of the cylinder 60 and has admission ports 10 and ll leading to opposite ends of the cylinder 50. The piston valve casing 69 has oppositely-disposed pistons 12 and 13 which reciprocate in the bore 14. Air passages 15 and 16 are disposed on opposite ends of the piston valve bore 14 and lead to an intermediate point in the side wall of the cylinder 60. Stop members TI and 18 are mounted. on the piston valve rod 19 for engagement with a spring-urged reciprocating locking member 80. An air supply line 8| for a source of air under pressure leads to an opening 82 in the side of the piston valve casing 59. Another air line 83 leads from the piston valve casing 59 to a port opening 84 in the bottom portion of the cylinder 60 for initially moving the piston 68. A check valve 85 is disposed in the air line 83. Exhaust openings 86 and 51 are disposed in opposite ends of the piston valve casing 69. A discharge opening 88 having a check valve 89 disposed therein leads to a discharge line 90 for discharging compressed air from the cylinder 50.
In initially starting my novel prime .mover, fluid under pressure is admitted through the port 82 to the bore 14 in the piston valve casing 59. The air pressure moves the reciprocatingplunger member against the force of the spring thereby releasing the piston rod 19 for movement in The air under pressure passes through the air line 83 past the check valve to the bottom of the cylinder 60 forcing the piston 68 upwardly past the admission port 1|. Fluid under pressure is admitted to the cylinder 60 through the admission port until the piston passes port 16 when the air passes through port 16 to move the pistons 12 and 73 in the bore 14 to uncover the admission port 10 in the opposite end of the cylinder 50, thereby providing fluid under pressure for reversing the pistons 12 and 13. After the piston moves downwardly past the port 15, the fluid passes through port 15 to force the pistons 12 and 13 to their original position shown in Fig. 1, thereby opening the opposite admission port I0. When the piston 68 travels past the port 1|, the air trapped in the lower part of the cylinder 60 is compressed, the compressed air stopping and returning the piston 68 in such a manner as to accumulate the energy of each stroke to raise the pressure of the fluid in the lower part of the cylinder 60 as well as the fuel mixture in the upper part of the cylinder in the prime mover to the ignition point of the mixture. When explosions take place in the upper part of the cylinder in the prime mover in regular sequence, the air under pressure is released, allowing the piston rod 79 to center itself where it is locked by plunger 80, thus closing both admission ports 10 and H. When compressing fluid in the cylinder 50, the charge is drawn from a fluid source first through the valved admission port 65 and then through the opcn admission port 60 upon the passing of these ports by the piston 60 on its upward stroke. This fluid is vcompressed on-the downward stroke. part of I04 common to the piston rods in my novel compression-ignition type engine. Two sets of windinggs I05 and I06 and I01 and round each end of the-sleeve I02. A brush I09 extends through aperture H in the sleeve I02 to change the flow of current in the windings IOI. The brush I00 is made of insulating material and has contact members III and II2 disposed on opposite sides thereof connected to contact members H3 and H4 through flexible leads H5 and I10. Switch contacts In and H8 are connected to a battery H9 through wires I and I2I. A cylindrical contact member I22 surrounds the windings IOI on the piston I00 for engagement with the brush I09. Non-conducting rings I23 and I24 are disposed on each end of the cylindrical contact member I22. A piston ring I25 is disposed on the bottom end of the piston I00 to cushion the piston I00 on its downward movement in the sleeve I02. A rheostat I26 is provided to control the voltage in the coils I01 and I08. A handle I21 serves to move the contact members In and H8 into engagement with the contact members H3 and Ill and also holds the brush contacts I II and II2 in a secure position after tilting (not shown).
In starting my novel compression-ignition type engine, the contact members II! and H8 in circuit with the battery IIS 'are placed into engagement with the contact members H3 and H4. This closes a circuit from the contact members H3 and IM through the exciting coils I05 and I00 as follows: contact member II3, wire I28, coil I05, wire I29, coil I06, rheostat I26, contact member II4, contact member II8, wire I2I, battery II9, wire I20, contact member II'I, back to the contact member H3. The coil IOI surrounding the piston I00 is also energized with a circuit starting at the contact member II3 as follows: contact member II3, flexible wire II5, contact member III, cylindrical contact member I22, coil IOI, cylindrical contact member I22, contact member II2,'flexible wire IIG, contact member H4, and through the battery circuit as previously described.
The flux created by the exciting coils I05 and I06 will draw the piston I00 upwardly in the sleeve when the polarity thereof is changed by the tilting of the brush I09 to bring the contact member II2 of the brush I09 into engagement with the cylindrical contact member I22 0n the piston I00. The piston I00 will then be alternately moved upwardly and downwardly acting as a solenoid. After my novel engine is started, the starting circuit is broken and the brush I09 held stationary for generating alternating current.
The coil IOI reciprocating with the piston I00 excites the exciting coils I05 and I06 and induces a current in the coils I01 and I08 which is drawn off through the wires I30 and Lil.
It will be evident from the foregoing that I have provided a novel compression-ignition type of internal combustion engine which may utilize one of several means for initial starting thereof and which has a high eificiency, both at full and part load operation. utilizing. the inertia of the moving parts in obtaining energy therefrom.
Various changes may be made in the specific embodiment of the present invention without departing from the spirit thereof or from the scope of the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. A compression-ignition type internal conibustion engine comprising a cylinder having an exhaust port intermediate the ends thereof and interconnected admission ports on both ends thereof; a source of ignitable fluid for admission to said cylinder, the compressed fluid in one end of said cylinder being admitted to said cylinder through the oppositely disposed admission port for compression and ignition therein; and a movable piston in said cylinder.
2. A compression-ignition type internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder having an intermediate exhaust port and interconnected admission ports on opposite ends thereof; a source of ignitable fluid; a piston movable in said cylinder; and a spring-urged valve in one of said admission ports for closing said port to the exhaust of fluid to be compressed, the compressed fluid in one end of said cylinder passing to said valve admission port for admission, compression and ignition; and means for initially reciprocating, said piston.
3. In combination with an engine having a reciprocating piston means for initially moving said reciprocating piston and for compressing fluids comprising a cylinder having admission and exhaust ports; a piston movable with the piston of said engine; a valve casing having admission ports leading to opposite ends of said cylinder and intermediate exhaust ports; a valve for alternately opening and closing said admission and exhaust ports in said valve casing to reciprocate the piston in said cylinder; a source of fluid under pressure entering said valve casing; and means for automatically closing said admission ports when said source of fiuid under pressure is shut off.
4. A means for initially moving a reciprocating piston and compressing fluid as set forth in claim 3, wherein a line from said valve casing to one end of said cylinder provides initial movement of said piston.
5. In combination with an engine having a reciprocating member, means for initially moving said reciprocating member and for compressing fluids comprising a cylinder having admission and exhaust ports; a piston movable with said reciprocating member of said engine; a valve casing having admission and exhaust ports leading to opposite ends of said cylinder for initially moving said piston; a reciprocating valvein said casing for alternately opening and closing said admission ports in said valve casing; a. source of fluid under pressure for said valve casing; locking means for said reciprocating valve adapted to be opened automatically when air under pressure enters said casing to free said valve and which locks said valve automatically when said air pressure is shut ofl.
6. A compression-ignition type internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder having an exhaust port intermediate the ends thereof and admission ports on opposite ends of said cylinder; a casing having a passage for fluid interconnecting said admission ports; a source of ignitable fluid; a long-skirted piston uncovering said exhaust port when said piston moves in the direction of said skirt; a spring-urged valve in the admission port on the end of said cylinder opposite to the skirt on said piston, said spring-urged valve admitting ignitable fluid to said cylinder compressed in the opposite end of said cylinder; and means for varying the back pressure on said spring-urged valve to vary the amount of compressed ignitable fluid passing to said cylinder.
7. A compression-ignition type internallcombustion engine comprising a cylinder having-an exhaust port and interconnecting admission ports on opposite ends of said cylinder; a casing having a passage interconnecting said admission ports; a piston movable in said cylinder adapted to open said exhaust port on the power stroke thereof; a spring-urged valve in one of said admission ports; a piston member connected to said spring-urged valve; and means for exerting a predetermined back pressure on said piston member.
8. A. compression-ignition type internal combustion engine, as set forth in claim 7, wherein said means for exerting a predetermined pressure on said piston member comprises a. casing having an auxiliary passage leading to the back side of said piston member from the fuel passage interconnecting said admission valves, and a valve in said auxiliary passage for controlling the back pressure on said piston member.
ORLO C. NORTON.