US 2335475 A
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H. W. BEALL AVIATORS SUIT Nov. 30, 1943.
2 Shets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 15, 1940 Nov. 30, 1943. H. w. BEALL 2,335,475
' AVIATORS SUIT Filed Nov. 13, 1940 2 Sheets-Shee t 2 27 glvuc/wfob HERBERT (Bf/ILL,
' walking or crouched position.
Patented Nov. 1943 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 1 2,335,475 r a AVIATOR-'8 surr Herbert W. BealL- Sumter, S. 0. Application November 13,1940, semi No. 365,543 40mm. (01. its-144) This invention relates to apparel apparatus and more particularly to apparel for use'as personal aviation equipment.
Apparel apparatus constructed and arranged in accordance with the present invention contemplates a pressure-tight suit as well as a novel arrangement of pressure producing apparatus for adapting the apparel to stratosphere, high altitude or other types of flying or aviation uses whereinit is desirable to maintain a desired pressure within the suitto counteract outside atmospheric conditions.
One important is to provide aviation apparel apparatus in the form of an aviators suit or body enclosing garment which shall permit pressure to be maintainedin the suit and at the same time permit mobility of the person in his normal operative position which may be either sitting, standing;
Another object of the invention is to provide a pressure-tight suit of the character designated including a novel form of liquid and air pressure producing apparatus iorthe suit and mechanism for regulating such pressures. 7
Another object of the invention is to provide a novel form of pressure-tight garment or suit having articulated joint structure which shall permit maximum mobility of the person while the suit and person are subjected to varying pressure conditions;
' Another object of the invention is to provide apparel apparatus of the character designated which shall include fluid-tight inner and outer body coverings in which the inner parts are constructed and arranged to hold a fluid pressure producing liquid and the outer garment including bellows members in the regions of the joints of the body, of the person so as to permit maximum mobility of the person while wearing the suit.
Another object of ainovel term of air circulation and ventilation apparatus for the helmet and body portions of the suit. A further object of the invention is to provide a novel form of helmet and connections for attaching the same to the body portion of the suit. These and other objects 01 the invention will be more manifest from the following specification and drawings and particularly set forth in the claims. i In the drawings: Fig. l is a view in elevation of aviation apthe invention is to provide object of the present invention parel apparatus constructed and arranged in accordance with the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a front view partially in section, of the V apparatus shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view of the helmet attaching mechanism;
Fig. 4'15 a fragmentary sectional view of the quick opening device for the helmet;
Fig. 5 is a detail view of the liquidsupply valve;
Fig. 6 is a view in elevation of a modifledform of articulated joint; 3 l
Fig. 7 is a sectional view of,the device shown in Fig. 6; and
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings, there is shown a pressure-tight aviators suit or garment constructed and arranged in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention.
In this embodiment of the invention the numeral i0 indicates an outer body covering garment which may be made of any suitable woven pressure-tight water-proof material such as ordinary rubberized fabric designed to fit the body of a person. Secured to the outer covering in is an inner body fitting suit portion I I. This inner suit is also made of flexible water-proof fluid-tight 1 material which shall provide a liquid compartment between the inner and outer garments as more fully hereinafter described.
The outer body garment I0 is provided at appropriate places. corresponding to the articulated sections of the persons body, with conveniently located mechanical articulated joints indicated by the numeral 13. These joints are preferably of the restrained foldable material or bellows type. Furthermore, these flexible suit joints may be individual units separably attached to the suit parts and may be made of fabric or light gauge sheet metal as well known in the art, so as to insure the desired mobility of the person while in any natural operative position. The extremity of each end of a bellows in the suit is attached to the fabric'of the outer garment by clamping the same to a ring element formed integral with the bellows, or other suitable fluid tight material. Whichever method is employed it is contemplated that the joint shall be sealed so as to provide a pressure-tight joint or connection at these several points.
One of the important features of the present.
invention is to provide a bellows joint which shall permitthe desired freedom of unidirectional or Fig. 8 is a modified form of liquid supply de- It will be understood that when the suit is subjected to internal pressure, the arm and leg portions tend to balloon" or straighten out and it is necessary to restrain the bellows joints to permit mobility of the person while wearing the suit. Therefore, when an aviator is in a natural sitting operative position as shown in Fig. 1, certain bellows joints in the arm portion must permit directional motion and other joints must permit universal movement. The same applies to the leg parts of the suit. When it is desired to impose restraint on the bellows which shall permit movement of the body portion in one direction, the bellows will have diametrically opposite link connection members i l-l4 which are coextensive with the bellows. In other words, this construction enables the bellows to hinge with the movement of the body parts, by the pivotal end connections -45.
When a universal bellows connection is desired, this is obtained by prdviding a pair of diametrically opposite connection links l6-l6 on the bellows parts which shall pivotally connect only half the bellows, and then provide another pair of links l'l-ll extending over the remainder of the bellows folds and disposed at right angles to the first set of restraining members.
The restraining link devices for the bellows folds may be made of any suitable non-extensible material such as light metal or fabric if desired.
To further provide for mobility of the person and the suit when itis under pressure and the.
aviator desires to stand erect, a flexible joint I8 is provided at the knee portion, for example, which may be expanded or contracted by means of an adjustable fastening member such as a strap and buckle indicated by the number l9. This arrangement permits the joint to be contracted or expanded as desired to relieve tension on the adjacent knee bellows members l3 and i4 when subjected to internal pressure. For. example, when the aviator is in sitting position the strap can be left out or expanded as indicated and thereby permit comfort in this position, or any other normal operative position.
Another important feature of the present invention is the arrangement of the-fluid-tight inner receptacle or suit portion II.- This inner suit may be in the form of a liquid-tight complete body encircling liquid containing suit portion, or
it may be in the form of fluid compartments.
' Whichever form is employed, one of the important features isthe provision for filling and draining the suit as desired.
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention, the suit is filled at the bottom portion so that the liquid may be supplied under pressure and drained by gravity. The liquid for filling the suit may be water supplied from a convenient source indicated by the numeral 20. This source is preferably a collapsible reservoir having a capacity substantially equal to the suit compartment and may be in the form of an ordinary rubber bag. The liquid is transferred from the reservoir by means of a conduit 2| including a pump 22 and a controlled check valve indicated by the numeral 22', Fig. 5. The check valve includes a spring pressed valve member 23 which, permits liquid to flow in one direction. When it is desired to drain the suit, the valve 23 is released by a manually operated lever indicated by the numeral 24. The lever 24 is pivotally mounted at 24' and includes an arm 23 which engages the valve 23 to release thesame and permit fluid flow from the suit back to the reservoir.
the form of a bellows having rigid end wall members 25-26 and flexible side walls 21. The bellows is actuated by a bell crank lever 28 pivoted at 29 and connected to a movable bellows end member 25 by a link 30 and a valve rod' 3| extending through a packed joint in the wall 25. The valv rod 3| i yieldably connected to the member 25 by a spring 32 and bracket guide 33, so that the fluid containing bellows reservoir may be yieldably collapsed to force the fluid into the suit compartment. The lower extremity of the rod 3| is provided with a alve element 34. A valve seat 35 is provided in the lower wall 26 and is in communication with the conduit 2! leading to the pump and suit compartments. Also associated with the lower wall 26 and conduit 2! is a by-pass 36 provided with a check valve 31 opening toward pipe 2 I.
The operation of device .enables the bellows reservoir 21 to also act as the pump for forcing a predetermined quantity of liquid into the suit. For example, as the lever 28 is pushed down, the wall 25 is collapsed and the valv 34 yieldably engages the valve seat 35. In order for all the liquid to leave the reservoir while under pressure of the lever 28, by-pass and valve 36 and 31 are provided. The valve 34 also positively holds the liquid pressure in the suit. It will also be noted that as the lever 28 is depressed, the toggle link 30 passes over center as shown in dotted'line 38 and therebylocks the supply reservoir collapsed.
While I have shown the pump and valve mechanism as manually controlled, it is obvious that automatic electrical controls may be employed.
- surrounding this ring and connected thereto by diametrically opposite pivots 4040 is another ring member 4|. The outer ring members 4l-4l of a joint are connected by a pair of diametrically opposite rigid link members 42-42 pivotally connected to the rings as indicated by the numerals 43-43. This connection in eflect provides a universal restraining mechanism which permits the freedom of movement of the person in all directions.
Another important feature of the invention is the ventilation system for the suit. This includes a helmet portion 44 secured to the suit in pressure-tight relation thereto. The air ventilatin portion for the body includes a pair of conduit members 45-,46 extending from the head or shoulder portion of the body to the foot portion. One of the tubes 45 shall b for the purpose of admitting ventilation air into the body and the other tube 46 shall be the return or exhaust leading to atmosphere. This arrangement provides for a complete circulation of the air between the aviators body and the inner water-tight garment H, and thereby take care of any perspiration effect which may be caused by the wearingpf these suits.
The helmet portion 44 of the suit includes a substantially rigid flanged base portion 41, Fig. 3,
influences to which he may be subjected.
an integral annular metal collar 48 provided with a top annular flange 49 and a lower serrated portion 50. The garment I is clamped to the ring by a divided quick detachable clamping ring member the adjoining flanged ends of which are drawn together by a thumb screw and bolt indicated by the numerals 52 and 53. The lower rim of the helmet is clamped to the ring section 49 by a similar form of clamping ring 54 and an inner gasket member 55 to make a sealed' joint.
The head portion of the helmet is preferably made of a transparent plastic resin material such as Lucite." A helmet of this type permits a pressure-tight suit having a helmet, which permits full visibility for the aviator as he may turn his head within the helmet and observe in all possible directions. The helmet-portion is provided with an air inlet conduit indicated by the numeral 56 which may be supplied-from the source 45. The top portions of the helmet is also provided with a relief valve indicated by the numeral 51. An important feature of this construction is the air inlet tube 56 constructedand arranged to project a sheet of air ove and along the inner front vision portion of the helthe case when the suit is worn for the purpose of preventing blackout, a condition well known in the art and more fully described in my copending ease Serial No. 357,321. I
Having thus described a preferred embodiment of a pressure-tight aviators garment it is obvious that various changes may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
1. In a body garment, the'combination of a fabric waterproof fluid pressure-tight outer body enclosing garment and an inner lining'of yieldable waterproof material united with the outer garment to form a liquid-tight compartment with said outer garment, flexible joint members providedat appropriate places in the outer garment met so as to prevent the collection of fog or mist I occasioned by the ordinary breathing or respiration of the aviator during normal respiration.
Another feature of the suit construction is that it may be made adjustable Within certain limits to fit different sized persons by suitable lacings, not shown The suit is closed by quick detachable fastening devices such as a zipper indicated by the numeral 58, although lacings may be employed for this purpose if desired. The interior of the garment I0 is provided with a gusset indicated by dotted lines 59. This susset makes a pressure-tight connection along the body and also at the neck portion of the suit where it joins the helmet. Regardless of whether lacings or zipper closures are employed, it is necessary to employ a gusset to insure against leakage of pressure from within the suit. These fastening means also facilitate putting on and taking off the suit.
It will be noted that the several novel features of construction cooperate to provide a pressuretight garment which shall enable a person to have complete freedom of action or mobility in any natural operative position which he may assume. Furthermore, the garment is designed to i provide maximum comfort to the wearer and enable him to manipulate the various controls which regulate the flow of the several fluidswhich flow to the suit to accomplish the desired result of aiding the aviator in counteracting the. atmospheric In some cases, the air supply may include air or oxygen or combinations of these gases, and differentiates from liquid for producing the hydroto permit mobility of the wearer when the garment is subjected to internal pressure, means for admitting and controlling liquid pressure to said compartment and means for admitting and controlling fluid pressure to the interior of the garment.
2. An articulated pressure-containing suit of non-expandable material and an inner member of fluid tight material forming a liquid holding compartment, and means for supplying liquid to said compartment at the bottom portion thereof and for maintaining the pressure of said liquid in said compartment.
3. An aviators suit of the character described comprising a fluid pressure-tight suit, a helmet portion of transparent material, means for connecting the helmet to the neckportion of the suit and in air tight relation therewith and in- I eluding a substantially rigid flanged connection pressure-tight material, comprising arm, body and leg enclosing portions and a helmet headenclosing portion detachably connected to the body enclosing portion at the neck region thereof, a joint formed of flexible material at appropriate plates in the suit to permit relative movement of the body members of a wearer, and means associated with the flexible joint for preventing elongation of the joint material when pressure is applied to the interior of the suit,
static pressure in the suit compartment which enclose the persons body. This is particularly whereby each unrestrained portion of the suit assumes a preformed normal operative, position when subjected to such internal pressure.
HERBERT W. BEALL.