US 2335968 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 7, 1943. L 2,335,968 4 Dec. 7, 1943. R. B. sAwTELL 2,335,968
l INSULATION Filed June 1e, -1s 41 5 sheets-sheet s Dec. 7, 1943. R. B. sAwTELL 21,335,968.
INSULATION Filed June 16, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Dec. 7, 1943. R. BSAWT'ELL INSULATION Filed Juileflr, -194'1 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR.
Patented Dec. 7, 1943 INSULATION Richard B. Sawtell, Neenah, Wis., assignor to Paper Patents Company, a corporation of Wisconsin Application June 16, 1941, Serial No. 398,311
My invention relates generally to improvements in building insulation, and it has particular relation to the insulation of walls, floors, ceilings, roofs and like structures. Y
The importance and advantages of better insulation of buildings has become more fully recognized in recent years, and a great deal of attention is now given to this item in present day building construction. From a commercial viewpoint, -the insulation material used must be reasonably inexpensive and readily available in large quantities, it must be thermally emcient, it must be easily and readily installed with a minimum of equipment and without the aid of special training, and it must be capable of providing an installation of permanent nature that will last for many years without requiring attention.
The object of this invention, generally stated, is to provide an improved load supporting and transmitting arrangement for insulation which is especially desirable and satisfactory in respect to its low cost, ease and convenience of installation, and permanence.
In carrying out my invention I prefer to utilize insulating material which comprises multi-ply blankets or pads formed by superposing a plurality of similarly arranged sheets of thin. creped, cellulosic tissue. The superposed sheets may be held together in permanent relationship either by stitching reinforced and anchored in place by adhesive, by adhesive-impregnated rows of scoring, or by adhesive-impregnated dimples, as will appear hereinafter. In addition to securing together the individual sheets of the pads or blankets of insulation, the stitching, scoring, or dimples, also serve as a part of the supporting network or webA in cooperation with other support elements which are tied in with or secured to the structure being insulated. Since the reinforced stitching, scoring, or dimples, are alreadyin place in the blankets of insulation material as they are supplied, part of the supporting structure for the insulation is already completed on installation and the remainder ofthe support structure may be completed in a very easy and convenient manner as will appear hereinafter.
For a more complete understanding of the nature and scope of my invention reference may be had to the following detailed description thereof taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a multi-ply stitched blanket of superposed cellulosic sheets which may be used as one form of insulating material in connection with the present invention;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view showing certain details ofthe blanket oi' insulation shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a plan view. drawn to the same scale as Fig. 1 showing the stitched blanket of Fig. 1 in the compressed condition in which it is shipped and marketed Fig. 4 is a perspective view of a portion of a blanket of insulation similar to that of Fig. l, but with rows of adhesive-impregnated scoring 1o serving to tie the sheets together instead of the stitching of Fig. 1; y
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a portion of a blanket of insulation in which adhesive-impregnated dimples serve to secure the superposed type sheets together;
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary perspective view showing one manner in which the blankets of stitched insulation of Figs. 1 to 3 may be supported in place by cross strips betweenvthe rafters of a roof Fig. 'I is a diagrammatic view showing the load supporting and transmitting network for the blankets of insulation as installed in Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary perspective view similar to Fig. 6 showing how the blankets of stitched insulation of Fig. 1 may be installed between the rafters of a roof with wire lacing stapled to the rafters serving as the supporting element therefor; i
Fig. 9 is a perspective View showing an alternate manner in which wire lacing may be used to support blankets of insulation of the type shown in Fig. 4 in place in between the rafters of a roof or like structure;
Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic view showing the load supporting and transmitting network ior the insulation arrangement of Fig. 9;
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the manner in which blankets of insulation of the type shown in Fig. 4 may be supported in place in a roof or like structure by cross strips nailed between the rafters or like members;
Fig. 12 is a diagrammatic view showing the manner in which the dimpled blankets of insulation of the type shown in Fig. 5 may be supported in place in a roof or like structure;
Fig. 13 is a perspective view of the corner of a room showing the three different types of blankets of insulation of Figs. 1, 4 and 5 installed between the struts and joists ofthe walls and ceiling, with a number of cleats nailed sidewise to the rafters and joists to hold the insulation in place; and
Fig. 14 is a sectional view taken on line l4|4 of Fig. 13.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, a low density blanket I0 of insulation of multi-ply, stitched construction is shown. 'I'his blanket is of low unit density and formed by a number of e0 superposed sheets of thin, creped, cellulosic tissue dinarily, a blanket having a thickness of ti to 2l or 3 inches, or more, will be satisfactory in most instances. The individual sheets may have a basis weightof from 4 to 9 pounds for 480 sheets 24 x 36 inches in the iiat uncreped state.
'Ihe individual super-posed sheets in the blanket Il are similarly arranged. that is with the creping running in the same direction, and are stitched or tied together by rows of stitching as shown in Fig. 2. Although several different types of stitching may. be used, it has been found that stitching of the chain type as shown is very satisfactory, and may be carried out at a high rate of speed. Although the stitching I I is shown running in parallel rows. it will be understood that it may be criss-cross in different forms or outlines as desired. l
After the plies or individual sheets of the blanket Il have been stitched together by the rows of stitching il. this stitching is anchored in place by applying to 'each of the rows thereof a narrow line i2 of suitable liquid,v adhesive, anchoring material. 'I'he vadhesive is preferably applied to the looped side if chain stitches are used,asshowninFig. 2. The adhesivsm'aybe laid over or applied to the rows of stitching il by means of a plurality of narrow printing rollers (not shown) suitably supplied with adhesive from supply rollers. The adhesive i2 impregnates the loops of stitching I i at il and when in set condition locks the individual loops Il and prevents their closing or pulling out.
In the uncompressed condition as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the blankets of insulation Il are much too bulky to be economically shipped and handled. It has been found that these blankets may be laterally compressed in a direction at right angles to the creping as indicated by the arrows Il in Fig. 1. and thereby converted into relatively low bulk, high density products. Or-
dinarily, the compression will be of an amount sumcient to reduce the length of a blanket to,
about Vs tors, or'in extreme cases to tn, of its original length. The' compressed product is designated as il. in Fig. 3, this ligure being drawn to the same scale as Fig. l. When it is desired to use the compressed product for insulation purposes, the compressed blanket il. may be readily restored to its original length and original low density condition by simply reversing the compression operation. That is. by stretching out the blankets i0. to original length. Thus, the insulating material may be economically shipped in its compressed low bulk condition asshowninFig.3,andmayberestoredtoits high bulk, low density condition when desired for use. The stitching ii serves to reinforce and support the blankets i during the compression and restoration thereof. The reinforcing rows of stitching in addition act as guides for indicating to a workman when the proper degree of expansion of the compressed unit has been reached.
Several diner-ent requirements must be met by the adhesive anchoring material i2 in addis,sss,ses
choring or attaching of the stitching to the adiacent plies of the blankets. Since the stitched blankets of insulation are nrst compressed and subsequently reexpanded before use, the adhesive material i2 must also be of such a nature that it will not stick together or co-adhere when the stitched blankets are compressed, or otherwise interfere in any way with the free compression and reexpansin of the stitched blankets.
After extensive investigations, it has been found that a sa actory adhesive material comprises a mixture of a relatively high melting point asphalt and a parailln wax having a melting point which is substantially lower than the melting point of the asphalt. Reasonably satisfactory4 results have been obtained with various mixtures of Select Gilsonite type asphalt and paramn waxes having a melting point within the range of 105' F. to 160 F. Mixtures of these materials exhibit a dull. waxy, non-tacking surface and possess a high softening point. Gilsonite is the trade name for that group of asphalt substances which are characterized by a relatively high fusing point. i. e., within the range of about 270 l". to 400 F. and which must be maui well above that temperature to become Particularly satisfactory results are obtained through the use of equal amounts, by weight. of gilsonite type asphalt having a ball and ring fusing point within the range of about 270 F. to 300 F.. and a parailin wax having amelting point of approximately 123 l". In this connection it should be noted that the proportions of this optimum mixture were found to be quite critical. A 46-54 mixture and a 56-44 mixture were found to be not nearly so satisfactory as the exact 50-50 mixture.
The invention may be practiced with several diilerent forms of blankets of insulation. In Fig. 4 of the drawings one alternate form of blanket of insulation il is shown which is similar to the blanket il of Fig. l, but which has the rows of stitching il replaced with rows of scoring Il. The rows of scoring II run longitudinally of the blanket Il (only a small section thereof being shown in Fig. 4l and may be impregnated with a suitable adhesive. such as asphalt. When impregnated with asphalt and compressed to relatively high density. the rows of scoring I8 serve to permanently secure the superimposed creped, cellulosic sheets together at spaced apart intervals. The blanket I1 may be longitudinally compressed for shipping and later expanded for use in the same manner as blanket Il of Fig. 1.
In Fig. 5 of the drawings another alternate form of insulating blanket is shown. The blanket i! is similar to blankets Il and il of Figs. 1 and 4, but has adhesive impregnated dimples 2l to hold the individual sheets together instead of the rows of stitching il or rows of scoring i8. The dimples 2| may be impregnated with suitable'adhesive such as asphalt. and compressed to a relatively high condition so as to permanently quilt or secure the loose cellulosic sheets l together at spaced apart intervals. The blanket il may be longitudinally compressed for shiption to its locking of the threads of stitching together so as to prevent individual stitches from as the blankets il of'Fig. 1.
A number of different arrangements for installing the blankets of insulation shown in Figs. 1 to 5 of the drawings are illustrated in Figs. 6 through 14. Referring particularly to Fig. 6, one manner of installing the blankets of insulation illustrated in Figs. l, 2 and 3 onto the unbuildings,
derside of a roof, is shown. The roof may be of the usual construction and comprises a number of rafters 20 across which are nailed roof boards 2|. A number of compressed, stitched blankets of insulation 22, such as the blankets- I0. of Fig. 3, are first expanded and then inserted between the rafters 28 as shown. The blankets 22 extend from the oor 23 to the peak of the roof.
Although the rafters 20 will ordinarily be a fairly standard distance apart, there may be some variation in spacing in different houses and Accordingly, the blankets of insulation 22 are supplied in such width as to adequately ft the widest spacing which will normally be encountered. lIn cases where the full width of the blankets 22 is not needed, the edges of each blanket may be conveniently turned down against the sides of the rafters as indicated at 24. In order to support the blankets of insulation 22 in place in between therafters 29 of the roof, a number of cross strips 25 are nailed between the rafters 20 at intervals, as shown. The cross strips 25 are preferably formed of inexpensive, compressed breboard. To obtain the maximum support and rigidity, the strips 25 are turned up on their edges so as toengage the reinforced rows of stitching 21 of the blankets 22. The cross strips 25 may be bent in at the opposite ends ,asindicated at 28, and these ends or tabs 26 are nailed into the rafters 28. It will be noted that the ends 26 fit against the turneddown edges 24 of the blankets of insulation 22, and when nailed to the rafters 20 as shown, serve to hold the edges 24 in place.
The novel features of the supporting network or arrangement for the blankets vof insulation 22 between the rafters 20 may be better understood by reference to the skeleton or outline iigure shown in Fig. 7 of the drawings. Referring to Fig. 7, it will be noted that the cross strips 25 and rows of stitching 21 are drawn in full lines, while the roof structure, rafters 20 and the blankets of insulation 22 are drawn in outline. As shown, the rows of reinforced stitching 21 pass in loops through the superposed sheets of -the blankets 22 and serve to tiethe same together. The narrow edges of the cross strips 25 embed into the rough creped sheets and stitching of the blankets 22 so as to bear thereagainst and particularly to engage the reinforced rows of stitching 21. The cross strips 25 are secured to the roof structure by being nailed or stapled at their ends 26 to the sides of the rafters 20, as described. Thus, the rows of stitching 21, the cross strips 25, and rafters 20 serve to provide a load supporting and transmitting network or `web for firmly and securely maintaining the blankets of insulation in place. The additional function of the reinforced rows of stitching 21 in strengthening the structure and tieing together the loose,` individual superposed, creped sheets, and aiding in the proper and improved expansion of the compressed blankets, has been described above in connection with Figs. l, 2. and 3'. 1
In certain instances, it may be desirable to use other forms of cross support means than the flbreboard strips 25 of Figs. 6 and 7. Accordingly, in Fig. 8 of the drawings the stitched blankets of insulation 22` are shown installed between the rafters 28 on the roof with wire lacing 29 serving as the cross support means instead of the cardboard strips 25. The side edges of the blankets of insulation 22 are turned in against the rafters 23 as indicated at 33, and the wire lacing 29 is stapled into the inner faces or sides of the rafters 28, as indicated at the points 3l. The wire lacing 23 may be conveniently installed in a rapid manner and provides an excellent support for the blankets of insulation 22. The wire lacing 29 engages the reinforced rows of stitching 21 in much the same manner as the cross strips 25, Figs. 6 and 7. The rafters 28, the wire lacing 29, and the rows of stitching 21 form a supporting network or load transmission web for the blankets of insulation 22 in Fig. 8 which corresponds to the supporting network or load transmission web described in connection with Fig. 7.
In Figs. 6, 7, and 8, two dierent mannersof supporting the stitched blankets of insulation 22 inl between the rafters of a roof have been described. It will be apparent that these same arrangements may be made for installing the blankets of insulation 22 in between the joists of a floor or ceiling, or between the studs of a wall. 'I'he load supporting and transmitting network feature is particularly important in insulating roofs or ceilings wherein it is employed to fullest advantage. When installed for insulating a wall, the blankets of insulation should preferably be fastened at the top and bottom ends thereof for additional support.
In Figs. 9 and 10 of the drawings, the manner in which blankets of insulation corresponding to the blanket I1 of Fig.f4 may be installed in a roof or like structure is shown. Referring particularly to Fig. 9, blankets of insulation 35 corresponding to the blanket I1 of Fig. 4, and having rows of adhesive-impregnated scoring 36, are installed in between the rafters 31 of a roof structure. Wire lacing 38 is used to support the blankets 35 in place. In order that the installation may be made in a more convenient and faster manner, the wire lacing 38 is stapled back and forth between the rafters 31, and is stapled or nailed to the bottom faces or edgesthereof as indicated at 39. The stapling at thebottom edges of the rafters 31 as indicated at 39 is ordinarily more convenient than stapling or nailing on the inner faces thereof as indicated at 3|, Fig. 8. In Fig. l0 of the drawingsthe skeleton outline shows the supporting network or web for the blankets of insulation 35. The adhesive-impregnated, compressed, rows of scoring 38 and the wire lacing 3l are drawn in full lines, while the blankets 35 and the roof structure including the rafters 31, are drawn in outline. It will be seen from Fig. 10, that the wire lacing 38 and the rows of scoring 35 cooperate in supporting relationship to form a supporting web or load transmission network for the blankets of insulation 35. That is, the wire lacing 38 and the rows of scoring 36 tie in together to hold the blankets 35 in place and to transmit the weight thereof to the points of stapling 33. Asstated, the rows of scoring 36 also serve to secure the creped sheets comprising theblankets 35 in place and together.
The blankets of insulation 35 having the rows of scoring 38 may be held in place by cross strips 49 as shown in Fig. ll, instead of by the wire lacing 38 as shown in Figs. 9 and 10. In Fig. l1, the blankets of insulation 35 are placed in between the rafters 4i on a roof structure and the iibreboard strips arenailed in between in substantially the same manner as the breboard strips 25, Fig. 6. are installed. The cross strips 43 and the rows of adhesive impregnated scoring 35 serve to form and provide a supporting network or load transmission web for the blankets 4 assumes is illustrated. Blankets of insulation 45, correvsponding to the blanket I9 of Fig. 5 are inserted in between the rafters 45 of a roof structure. The blankets 45 are held in place by wire lacing 41 stapled across the bottom edges of the rafters 45, as shown. The wire lacing 41 and the ad# hesive impregnated dimples 45 of the blankets` 45 are drawn in full or solid, while the roof structure including the rafters I5, and the blankets 45 are drawn in outlines. It will be seen. the wire lacing 51 engages the blankets 45 at many places adjacent to the dimples 49. Thus, the lacing 41 and the dimples' 45 cooperate in supporting relationship to form a supporting web or load transmission network for the blankets of insulation 45. That is, the dimples 4l serva as a number of support points for the blankets 45 and the wire lacing 41 engages or ties in'with these support points. The wire lacing 41 may be replaced with cross supportstrips nailed in between the rafters 45 in the manner described above in connection with Figs. 6 and 1l.
In certain instances it may be desirable to use cleats nailed to the sides of rafters, studs, or.`
loists to support blankets of insulation, instead y of using the crosswise ilbreboard strips or the wire lacing. In Fig. 13 of the drawings, the manner in which such cleats may be used in connection with the three dierent types o! blankets of installation is shown. Blankets o! insulation 50 corresponding to blankets I1 of Fig. 4, and having rows of adhesive-impregnated scoring 5| are shown installed between the joists 52 of a ceiling. The side edges are turned downA or in against the sides of the joists 52 and cleats 53 are nailed to the turned down edges so as to secure the blankets 50 in place, as shown.
In one of the side walls of Fig. 13, blankets of insulation 55 ofthe dimpled type, correspond.-` ing to the blankets I9 of Fig. 5 are used for infsulation. The top and bottom ends of each blanket 55 are secured in place by cleats 55, and the edges of the blankets 55 are turned in against the studs 51 as shown-in Fig. 14. It will be seen that the blankets 55 are spaced out from the wall 55 and in from the front of the studs 51. Sid cleats 59 nailed through the turned in edges serve to hold the blankets 59 in place in this particular spaced relationship. When plaster or other material (indicated in broken outline at 50) is placed across the studs 51, two dead air spaces 5I and 52 will be formed, as shown. These dead air spaces 5l and B2 together with the blankets of in sulation 55 provide a very elcient insulating arrangement.
In the other side wall of the corner shown in` Fig. 13, stitched blankets 55, corresponding tol the stitched blanket Il of Fig. 1, are used for insulation. The vblankets 55 are secured in place by cleats 55 at the tops and bottoms thereof, and
side cleats 51 nailed to the turned in edges thereof. The cleats 51 maintain the turned in edges against the studs 5l. The blankets 55 may be spaced out from the wall so as to form a dead air space therebetween as described in connection with Fig. 14.
In each of the foregoing installations, and particularly those wherein wire lacing or crosswise support strips are used, the reinforced rows of stitching, adhesive-impregnated rows of scoring, or adhesive-impregnated dimples, depending upon the particular type of blankets used, serve both to secure the loose component creped sheets together, and also as part of a supporting network or load transmission web for the blankets of insulation. Thus, a more rigid and permanent insulation arrangement is provided which may be conveniently installed in a rapid and convenient manner. The diiierent insulation arrangements may be made in accordance with this invention without the use of special equipment or training on the part of the workman. l Since certain further changes and modiflcations in the foregoing insulation installations may be made, and diiferent embodiments of the invention may be used without departing from the scope thereof. it is intended that all matter described hereinbefore shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
I claim as my invention:
1. A method of installing and supporting a blanket of insulation material between frame members and in selected position relative to sheathing extending across said frame members, which consists in distending the blanket o! insulation material between the frame members with marginal portions of the blanket turned to parallel relation to the adjacent faces of the frame members, placing a support bar in the space between said frame members and against the blanket of insulation material with the ends of the support bar seated on the turned marginal portions ofthe blanket, and anchoring the ends of the support bar to said frame members through said turned margins of the blanket.
2. The method of installing and supporting a blanket of insulation material between frame members and .in selected position relative to sheathing extending across said frame members, which consists in distending the blanket of insulation material between the frame members,
placing a fiber board supporting bar having end portions bent to extend laterally from the normal plane of the bar in the space between said frame membersv and edgewise against said blanket. and anchoring thebent ends of the bar to the frame members.
3. The method of installing. and supporting a blanket of insulation material between frame members and in selected position relative to sheathing extending across said frame members, which consists in distending the blanket of insulation material between the frame members with marginal portions of the blanket turned to parallel relation to the adjacent faces of the frame members, placing a ber board supporting bar having end portions bent to extend laterally from the normal plane of the bar in the space between said frame members and edgewise -against saidl blanket with the bent ends of the