US 2336021 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
D 7, 1 T. A. LA BRECQUE 2,336,021
RECLAIMING APPARATUS Filed May 24, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 l l I- I INVENTOR 'fle'mare ,Breryae ATTORNEY Filed May 24, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 lNVENT-OR fl da g ,4 g? Bre yue BY WW M ATTO RN EY Dec. 7, 1943.
T. A. LA BRECQUE RECLAIMING APPARATUS Filed May 24, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 1 4 M" u"? 1 my; E W W W 151;? 1 a g1 g7 92 l W, #1 .v 74 W w 95 96 E i 76- 7a l' ;d 78
INVENTOR ATTORNEY Patented Dec. 7, 1943 nncmmmd APPARATUS Theodore A. La Brecqne, Elmira. N. Y., assignor to The Hilliard Corporation, Elmira, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application May 24,1939, Serial No. 275,361 6 Claims. (01. 210-134) This invention relates to a structurally and functionally'improved oil reclaiming apparatus and also aims to teach a new method of reclaim-,
ing which may be practiced by such apparatus.
It is a primary object of the invention to fur-' nish a substantially continuous reclaiming method such that apparatus constructed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention may be coupled to a unit as, for example, 9. Diesel motor and will serve to continuously filter, clean, and otherwise reclaim the oil so that without interruption of operation the motor can continue to function long periods of time with freedom from all difllculties. v
In certain respects the present application may be regarded as a continuation in part of my prior applications; one entitled Refining apparatus and method" filed by me under Serial No. 734,500 on July 10, 1934, and the second entitled "Reclaiming apparatus flled by me under Serial No. 110,847 on November 14, 1936.
A further object of the invetnion is that of furnishing an apparatus by means of which the present novel method may be practiced and which apparatu will function to remove from the oil or other liquid water, gasoline, heavy ends. etc., which may be present in the oil. Moreover, by
' means of the present invention all foreign solid matters will be removed from the oil and likewise there will be removed from the oil all of the materialswith which it may come in contact in order to achieve the foregoing results.
A still further object is that of providing an apparatus which will be entirely safe in use in thatonly small quantities of oil will be under treatment at any given moment. Thus, the use of a hazardous method and apparatus is avoided.
Another object of the invention is that of furnishing an apparatus which may run substantially continuously and with minimum of manual effort, such apparatus embodying relatively few parts, each individually simple and rugged in construction and capable of being sold at a relatively nominal figure.
With these and further objects in mind, reference is had to the attached sheets of drawings illustrating practical embodiments of the invention, and in'which:
Fig. 1 illustrates diagrammatically a system provided in accordance with the teachings of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a sectional side view of one of the units of apparatus which may be employed such system; 1
Fig. 3 is a sectional side view of a further unit which maybe so employed;
Fig. 4 illustrates somewhat diagrammatically a layout of apparatus which may be utilized in substitution of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is a side elevation of the apparatus as I shown in Fig. 4; and
Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view taken along the lines 6-6 and in the direction of the arrows as indicated in Fig. 5.
Refen'ing primarily to Figure 2, the numeral l0 indicates a tank which may be mounted upon suitable supports II" and provided with an intake pipe l2 positioned to one side of a partition I3. To the other side of the partition 8. flexible conduit 14 may extend-within and through the tank, and have its upper end coupled to a float l5 so that such upper end will, at all times, remain adjacent the upper level of a body of fluid within the tank.
Moreover, the tank is preferably provided with a valve controlled drain l6 conveniently extending from its lower-most point and through which deposits accumulating in the lower end of the tank may be withdrawn. To'facilitate such as.- sembly of foreign materials and liquids, the lower face or faces of the tank may be flared downwardly. As a consequence'it will be appreciated that if dirty oil is discharged into the tank shown in Figures 3, 4, and 5, it being under stood in connection with both of the illustrated types of apparatus that the tank as illustrated in Figure 2 might be dispensed with. However, it is preferred that this tank or its functional equivalent be employed in that by utilizing such a structure most of the readily removable materials and liquids may be initially eliminated without any effort except that of periodically withdrawing them through tube or pipe l6.
Now referring primarily to the apparatus shown in Figure 3 it will be seen that tube 15' is connected to the intake and of a pump cylinder l6 which has associated with it a spring pressed valve H. -The piston I 8 moving within this cylinder is connected to a bar I8 which may be reclprocated by a pitman' 20 coupled to a crank pin 2| with a driving disk 22. The latter is revolved by means of mechanism within casing 23, such mechanism being driven by the shaft 24 of a motor 25. Also coupled to this shaft is a vacuum pump 26 and fan 21, the purposes of which will be hereinafter brought out.
A valve 28 may be interposed in tube l and as illustrated the piston may be adjusted so that its stroke will be varied in order that a single mechanism may be provided to fulfill all operating conditions which may reasonably be encountered. Additionally, there may be coupled to the discharge pipe 28 extending from the cylinder a by-pass controlled by a valve 3| so that in the event unusual pressure conditions are encountered, the oil will simply be recirculated without damage to the parts. Moreover, a pressure bulb or chamber 3| may be coupled to pipe 29 to prevent surges occurring within the latter.
Pipe 29 is continued upwardly and may be coupled to a chamber 32 or be otherwise disposed adjacent a source of heat such as electrical resistance element 33. The latter may be adjusted by a control 34 of any desired character and it is to be understood that leads (not shown) extend to this portion of the unit so as to supply current thereto. Likewise it is to be understood that in lieu of an electrical resistance element any other and proper source of heat might be utilized.
Thus, by coupling pipe 29 to chamber 32 or otherwise subjecting the fluid to heat, it will be appreciated that a preheating action occurs. The heated fluid flows through pipe 35 which may be continued in the form of a flexible tube 36. The latter passes through the cover 31 of a, casing composed of a plurality of sections 38, 39, 40, and 4|. These several sections may be retained in assembled position by means of quickly releasable securing members such as 31, and a leak-proof coupling between these sections may be assured by employing-gaskets 42, or by any suitable expedient.
Each of these sections is provided with a bed of filtering material 43. This material may be fullers earth or any other suitable substance which will restore the proper color of the oil to a greater or lesser extent, and at the same time strain from the same any foreign particles. The base 44 of each section may be covered by a layer of material 45 such as paper and/or canvas and in order to prevent this layer from in effect presenting a surface impervious to liquid, it is preferred that the upper face of the base of each section be corrugated as shown or otherwise formed with indentations so that an intimate contact between this face and layer 45 is prevented The upper sections 38 and 39 may be formed with passages 46 to one side of their center and the cover 31 is likewise formed with an aligned passage and to which a pipe 41 coupled to the inner end of pipe 36 is connected.
At, for example, a diametrically opposite point, sections 38, 39, and 40 may be formed with passages 48, it being noted that both passages 46 and 48 are connected by for example, obliquely extending passages 49 with tubes or spaces 50 and 5| which are formed in the base of each of the sections. These latter tubes are segregated from each other and each of the sections may be provided with a pedestal portion 52 serving to centrally support the sections and also to properly align the same. In line with passages 5|, the base portions are formed with perforations 53 which afford communication with such tubes or passages. Communicating with the interior of tubes or spaces 58, are passages 54.
As shown four sections provide the casing and the two upper-most sections are furnished with passages 46 while the three upper-most sections are conveniently formed with passages 48. Obviously a greater or lesser number of sections might be employed and a corresponding greater or lesser number of passages might be furnished. However, with four sections employed, it is preferred that the passages be provided as shown and described. In any event, the .lower-most section 4| should preferably not be formed with passages which provide continuations of passage 46 or 48. Also, the passage 5| formed in the base of next to the lowest section is provided with one or more openings 55 through which liquidmay fiow to the lower-most section 4|. In connection with this section it will be observed that perforations 56 conveniently extend throughout the entire base thereof, and these perforations communicate with passages or spaces 51, the inner ends of which are continued in the form of passages 58 extending through base 58 of the casing.
Below this casing is provided a wall 60 to define a vaporizing chamber, the base of which is furnished by a member 6| having up-standing ribs or fins 62 providing in aggregate a spiral or other tortuous passage which has its upper end disposed in line with openings or passages 58, is
inclined downwardly throughout its entire length and terminates in a passage 63. This passage is coupled to a pipe 64 in turn connected to the intake end of a. pump 65 which has an outlet pipe 66. The pump 65 is operated as shown by motor 25 and pitman 28.
Finally, it will be observed that there extends from the vaporizing chamber as defined by wall 60 a tube 61 which has a portion of its body disposed in the form of a coil 68 to in this manner, for example, provide a condenser. This tube is coupled to a tank 68 to which the vacuum pump 26 is connected. The latter discharges into a trap or receptacle 16 from which a tube H ex tends. The outer end of this tube may conveniently discharge into the atmosphere and a sec-- ond tube or pipe 12 of relatively small diameter may be coupled with tube 1|.
Considering the operation of this unit it will be understood, as afore brought out, that the filtering beds in the various sections are provided by, for example, employing layers of diatomaceous earth, fabric, etc. ,Also pipe l5 will be coupled to a source of oil. In the latter connection it will be understood that while the present and hereinafter described apparatus might be employed in numerous different associations, it is primarily intended for use in connection with the purifying and reclaiming of oil and is of especial value where it is included in the circuit of an apparatus such as a Diesel motor. To this end, the present description and illustration is not to be taken in a limiting sense but is rather to be regarded as illustrative of preferred embodiments of the invention.
With the unit as shown in Figure 3 properly set up and coupled to a source of supply, the operator will cause the heating element 33 to be energized or will otherwise produce heat adjacent and preferably below the vaporizing unit 6|. Of course, it is to be assumed that the various casing sections have been coupled in fluid-tight contact with one another, and the operator will now initiate operation. of motor 25, Thereupon, oil
will be forcedthrough pipe 28 and the preheating coil or structure 82', and will be distributed through pipe 86. The oil will be caused to flow over the top of the first filter bed assembly within section 88 and after passing through perforations 88 will flow into passage 6| and so through the-passage 49 connected by the same topassage 48. It will continue to flow through this passage until it reaches passage 48 communicating with passage or space ii of section 48, whereupon it will flow through the opening or openings 68 over the filter assembly in the lower-most section 4|. After passing through'such assembly, it will flow through openings or perforations 56 and the tubes or chambers SIand thence through tained within such fllter bed and thereupon the 1 oil will flow through tube .41 and passage 48 connected therewith and passage 48 of section 88. Thereafter flow will occur through tube or space 88 of that section, and through the opening or openings coupled therewith so that the oil will be properly distributed across the face of the second filter bed, passing through the same and thence through the perforations 53 to the tube or space SI of this section. Simultaneously, flow will occur down passage 46 and through passage 49 and tube or space. of section 88 to assure a distribution of the oil to the filter bed of the third section.
In other words, as shown, if four sectionsare employed, the first threeof the same are con nected in parallel and the flow of oil therethrough will occur in varying degrees according to the volume of oil which is flowing, and the obstruction to such flow incident to'the filtercharge of these gases and/or liquids into tank 88. The liquid within tank 88 will be of great value for specialized uses. It will be borne in mind that the remaining gases will pass through pump 28 and thence through tank or casing 18 where a certain amount of the remaining gases will condense and may be drawn oil as desired and employed for specialized purposes. casing 18 may contain lubricant for supplying pump -28 and this lubricant may intermingle with the condensate trapped within this casing. Remaininggases will discharge through pipe II to the atmosphere, but the products so lost will be mainly injurious and probably of no commercial beds becoming more or less resistant to the through passages 68 formed in plate 68 will move into the innermost convolution of the tortuous or spiral passage forming a part of the element 6|. Under the influence of gravity, the entire body of fluid will flow towards the outlet 63. Simultaneously it will be heated and the degree of heat employed will be adequate to assure vaporization of all liquid which should be segregated or removed from the oil body. It is to be appreciated that this separating action is materially enhanced incident to the vacuum which exists within the vaporizing chamber, and especially having in mind thatthe boiling point of the liquids will be reduced in proportion to the amount of vacuum existing within that chamber.
The volatile products will be drawn oil through tube 61 and will pass through the condenser structure 68. The fan 21 preferably causes a flow of air through a casing (not shown) and which encloses-the motor fan housing 2| and pump 26. This flow serves to cool the several aforementioned units. The gases which are not condensed within 0011 68, will be subjected ,to a further condensing action incident to the disvalue, it being particularly noted that any condensing action within tube. 1| results in asalvage -of liquid incident to the relatively small return P pe 12 through which such liquid may flow.
-The foregoing provides one ideal form of apparatus which may be employed in connection with the present invention. A form of apparatus which may be similarly employed has been shown in Figures 4, 5, and 6. In these views the numeral l8 identifies the pump which corresponds to the motor driven pump I 6 to I8 shown in Figure 3. Oil is received by this pump through, for example, tube I5 and is distributed within a casing I4 providing an evaporator through a pipe 15 having a series of outlets or nozzles. Within the casing there is provided a downwardly inclined deck 18 conveniently divided by partition 11 into a series of runways aligning one with each of the nozzles or outlets of pipe 15. Below deck 18a heater comprising a series of elements 18 may be disposed and a thermometer 19 may be associated with the heater compartment'to indicate the temperature thereof, while a thermostat 88 may be furnished to maintain this temperature at a predetermined level.
Adjacent its lower end casing 14 may be furnished with an outlet 8| through which liquid may be discharged. Also adjacent this lower end but preferably in th upper surface of the easing a series of intake openings 82 are furnished. The passage of air through these openings may be controlled in one of a number of different manners (not shown) but which will be obvious to others skilled in the art. The upper end of the casing is coupled to th intake end 83 of a pump 84 which exerts a suction within the casing so ating, liquid flows downwardly over deck 16 and is heated. In such flow relatively thin films will occur and these will move in opposition to the air currents so that all vaporizing products will readily discharge to a condenser 85. vThe discharge from pipe 8| occurs into a tank 86 preferablayl provided with motor driven agitating paddles Disposed adjacent tank 86 is a hopper 88 which may be charged with fullers earth. This materlal is fed as, for example, by a worm 88 motor driven as at through a tube 9| to tank 88. The speed of the motor is, of course, regulated so that a proper amount of the earth is continuously fed to tank 86 and this amount will be proportionate to the volume of oil discharged In fact,
into that tank through pipe 8|. paddles 91 or any functional equivalent structure, a thorough agitation of the mass within tank 96 occurs. To those skilleddn the art the range of substitute structures which may be employed for producing agitation will be' well appreciated and might include the use of air or steam rather than a purely mechanical unit. Consequently, a complete mixing results and the mixture is pumped continuously by means of a centrifugal pump 92 to a filter press 99.
The structure of this unit may follow one of a number of different designs but in any event it will be appreciated that all solid matter including the fullers earth is retained within the body of the same, whereas the filtered oil is discharged through pipe 94. Additionally it is preferred that this unit may be of a type such that it may quickly be opened so that the spent material may be readily removed therefrom. To this end an operating handle 95 has been indicatedin Figure 5 and by means of which unit 93 may readily be opened and its contents dumped into any suitable receptacle as, for example, a wheeled hopper 96. operation, the material within unit 93 should be dried and all oil-insofar as practicable-should be expelled from the same. Therefore, this unit is preferably coupled to a source of compressed air (not shown) by means of a pipe 91. It is consequently obvious that by interrupting the fiow of mixture from tank 86 and permitting compressed air to flow through unit 93, the material within the same will be dried. Consequently, when the press is opened, the dry cake formed in the filter may be dumped into the hopper 96. This cake may then be utilized as a fuel, or may be otherwise disposed of.
In conclusion, considering this apparatus, it will be observed that a float valve 91 may be associated with tank 86 and this valve may control a switch. This switch governs the operation of the motor which causes a functioning of pump 92. The capacity of the latter pump is greater than that of pump I3. Therefore, when the level of the mixture within tank 88 reaches a suflicient height, pump 92 functions and continues to operate until the level of the mixture has been diminished to a desirable point, whereupon pump 92 ceases to function until tank 86 is again filled to a predetermined level. In this manner, a more or less intermittent discharge occurs into the filter press and the oil is effectively purified. Moreover, when it is necessary to empty the filter press, the operation of the apparatus may be controlled so that the functioning of the same does not have to be materially interrupted.
Now, referring to Figure 1 it will be observed that there has been shown diagrammatically a layout of apparatus including a Diesel motor 98 from which oil discharge and oil intake pipes 99 and I respectively extend. These pipes are provided with valves IOI so that the flow of oil through the same may be controlled. A tank I02 may be coupled to these pipes and include within its body a structure such that oil passing therethrough will be effectively cooled. Moreover, valves I03 may be provided to control the flow of oil through this cooler. Pipe 99 is continued as at I04 and connected to unit I05 which may correspond in function and structure to the tank as shown in Figure 2. The numeral I00 indicates the reclaiming unit or assembly which may correspond to the apparatus shown in Figure In advance of any such dumping Due to the 3 or Figures 4, 5, and 6. Additionally any suitable arrangement of valves may be provided so that the flow through the several units may be regulated. A pressure reducing valve I01 may be additionally furnished together with a strainer I08 and a gauge I09 may provide a constant indication of the pressures which exist. Unit I08 is coupled to line I III which forms a continuation of branch I00.
With a layout of apparatus such as this, it will be understood that a constant reclaiming of the oil will occur. Dirty oil will be discharged from the crank case and impurities will be removed therefrom, such range of removal including solids as well as gasoline and heavy ends. This, of course, occurs due to the filtering and vaporizing actions which occur. Thus the oil is restored to its original specification, and moreover its color is lightened to an approximation of the original and initial color of the oil. The apparatus can function virtually without attention for long periods .of time. At such times, if it is necessary to discontinue the operation of the reclaimer, the oil may simply be by-passed through remaining portions of the system so that no closing down of the Diesel motor is necessary. While in certain respects the present equipment is ideally intended for us in connection with Diesel motors, it will be appreciated that it may be employed to equal advantage in association with other types of engines or units which require purification of lubricant.
This will be true regardless of whether the apparatus shown in Figure 3 is employed or whether the structure shown in Figures 4, 5, and 6 is utilized. In the former it is obvious that as afore brought out the oil is simply pumped from a suitable source of supply and preheated, after which it passes through a multiplicity of filtering beds. In connection with the latter, it will be understood that the oil in being discharged onto the same in the form of a stream will not destroy the effectiveness of the bed because the solids in the oil will immediately begin to build up a film or layer of resistant or somewhat impervious material, causing the oil to spread throughout products will be vaporized and these will be with- 69, 10 and/or pipe I2.
drawn and reclaimed within or through tanks These by-products are extremely valuable for specialized purposes. The main body of the oil, however, will flow through pipe 64 and be discharged through pipe 66 which may, for example, be continued in the form of pipe I I0 or else connected with a suitable storage receptacle should the apparatus not be hooked up within a Diesel circuit.
In theform of apparatus shown in Figure 4 the oil simply flows through the channels between partitions I1 and all volatile products are vaporized and removed. These again may be reclaimed. Within tank 86 the oil is subjected to clarification and all impurities in the form of solids are retained within filter press 93. All that will be necessary will be in both forms of apparatus for the operator to cause a functioning of the quick-release mechanism affording access to the interior of sections to 4|. or the interior of unit 93. Thereupon, he will be able to discharge the material within these structures.
In the case of the apparatus shown in Figure 3, he will be able to refill the sections with filtering material. 01 course, in advance of causing a functioning of the release mechanism, he will in either form of apparatu have operated the necessary valves to cause a discontinuance of oil discharge, particularly assuming that the apparatus has been employed in a Diesel motor circuit. He will also have caused an interruption in operation of any motors, should this have been necessary. Aside from these casual operations, the functioning of the apparatus and the method occurring therein will be continuous and regardless of which form of apparatus is employed.
Thus among others the several objects of the invention as specifically afore noted are achieved. Obviously numerous changes in construction and rearrangement of the parts might be resorted to and the steps of the method might also be varied, without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined by the claims.
1. In an apparatus of the class described, a body through which fluid to be reclaimed is to pass, said body comprising a plurality of sections superposed one upon the other, a base portion forming a part of each of said sections, means providing a filtering bed extending across each section and above said base portion, each section being formed with a passage underlying its bed and within the area of its base portion, the passage of one section terminating in an opening communicating with the adjacent area of an underlying section and means for conducting fluid to said passages.
2. In an apparatus of the class described, a body through which fluid to be reclaimed is to pass, said body comprising a plurality of sections superposed one upoh the other, a base portion forming a part of each of said sections, means providing a filtering bed extending across each section and above said baseportion, each section being formed with a passage underlying its bed and within the area of its base portion, the passage of one section terminating in an opening communicating with the adjacent area of an underlying section, means for conducting fluid to said passages and pedestal portions extending through said beds and between the base portions of said sections for supporting the same.
3. In an apparatus of the class described, a body through which fluid to be reclaimed is to pass, said body comprising a plurality of sections superposed one upon the other, a base portion forming a part of each of said sections, means providing a filtering bed extending across each section and above said base portion, each section being formed with a passage underlying its bed and within the area of its base portion, the passage of one section terminating in an opening communicating with the adjacent area of an underlying section, means for conducting fluid to said passages and the base portion of said one section being formed with perforations underlying the filtering bed of said section and afiording communicationwith said passage.
4. In an apparatus of the class described, a body through which fluid to be reclaimed is to pass, said body comprising a plurality of sections superposed one upon the other, a base portion forming a part of each of said sections, means providing a filtering bed extending across each section and above said base portion, each section being formed with a passage underlying its bed and within the area of its base portion, the passage of one section terminating in an opening communicating with the adjacent area of an underlying section and means providing supply passages communicating with and common to the passages of said sections.
5. In an apparatus of the class described, a body through which fluid to be reclaimed is to pass, said body comprising a plurality of sections superposed one upon the other, a base portion forming a part of each of said sections, means providing a filtering bed, extending across each section and above said base portions, each section being formed with a passage underlying its bed and within the area of its base portion, the passage of one section terminating in an opening communicating with the adjacent area of an underlying section, side' walls forming a part of each of said sections, certain of said side wallsbeing formed with aligned bores and with connected inwardly extending passages communicating with said first named passages and means for supplying fluid to said bores.
6. In an apparatus of the class described, a body through which fluid to be reclaimed is to pass, said body comprising a plurality of sections superposed one upon the other, a base portion forming a part of each of said sections, means providing filtering beds extending across said sections and above said base portions, each section being formed with separated passages providing throughout the different sections separated passage sets, each passage of one set underlying the bed of the section of which it forms a part and being disposed within the area of the base portion of said section, each such passage terminating in an opening communicating with the adjacent area'of an underlying section, said sections being formed with fluid-conducting bores supplying fluid to be reclaimed to said passages, the passages of the other set being also disposed within the area of the base portion of the section Of which they form' a part, said latter passages being continued in the form of openings extending in the direction of and communicating with the bed associated with their section and said sections being formed with further fluid-conducting bores connected to said latter set of passages to receive reclaimed fluid therefrom.
THEODORE A. LA BRECQUE.