US 233634 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Oct. 26, 1880.
G. B. MORSE. Axle for Railroad Cars.
CYRUS B. MORSE, OF RHINEBEOK, NEW YORK.
AXLE FOR RAI LROAD-CARS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 233,634, dated October 26, 1880.
Application filed July 14, 1880. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, OYRUs B. Mouse, of Rhinebeck, in the county of Dutchess and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Axles for Railroad-Oars and other Vehicles, and in the process of manufacturing the same, of which the following is a specification.
The object of my invention is to produce a strong, light, cheap, and durable hollow wrought-metal axle.
I am aware that heretofore hollow metallic axles have been made; but such axles do not possess the peculiar characteristics of my axle, hereinafter set forth.
In the accompanying drawings, which rep resent my axle in the -various stages of its manufacture, as well as apparatus for forming it, Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of the cast ingot from which the axle-tube is made. Fig. 2 represents the ingot after it has been drawn out by hammering and rolling into a tube of the requisite length and thickness. Fig. 3 represents the tube after it has been subjected to the first swaging operation, its center being reduced in diameter. Fig. 4 represents the tapering mandrel upon which the center of the tube is formed. Fig. 5 represents the complete axle, partly in section. Fig. 6 represents the mandrel on which the ends or journals of the axle are formed, and Figs. 7 and 8 represent sections of the recessed dies or anvils in which the ingot and axle are swaged into shape.
In manufacturing my improved axle I first cast a hollow cylindrical ingot, A, of the grade of steel desired. I then take the ingot thus formed, and by drawing it out by hammering on a mandrel while it rests in the die or anvil B, and then rolling on a mandrel, as is well understood, work it into a tube or axle-blank, O, of a diameter equal to the greatest diameter of the axle to be made. This tube, being slightly shorter than the axle desired, is then reduced in diameter at its middle, as shown at 1), Figs. 3 and 5, by hammering or swaging upon a mandrel, D, one-half at a time, or all at once if two mandrels are inserted from opposite ends so as to meet in the center. The bodyE of the axle is now complete, and it will be observed that the metal is of about equal thickness at all points, that the smallest diameter is at the middle, and that the diameter gradually increases toward the ends until it reaches the wheel-seat a0-the point of greatest diameter. The next step is to form the journal F and dust-guard F of the axle. This is done by swaging upon a tapering mandrel, G, in the die or anvil B. The diameter of the journal being less than that of the dust-guard or wheel-seat w, in reducing the diameter and forming the dust-guard and journal there will be an excess of metal that will thicken and strengthen the axle at H, which is the point in the axle where the greatest strain occurs, and where the greatest strength is required. These swaging operations will elongate the tube to the required length of the axle.
The dies or anvils shown in Figs. 7 and 8 have inclined sides 1 g, forming a triangle in connection with the hammer-head, so that the tube is swaged under the hammer at three equidistant points. -When it reaches the bottom h of the die the axle will be of the proper size.
In the operation of swaging and forming my axle by the use of mandrels and these dies or anvils, the tube is to be turned a little after each blow, either by hand or suitable machinery, whereby the metal will be forced to a common center at each blow, and thus steel axletubes can be wrought into shape with ease and rapidity and in the most perfect manner without waste of metal.
As hereinbefore stated, I am aware that, broadly speaking, hollow metallic axles are old; but such axles, so far as I am aware, have been made either by casting them of the shape desired or by welding an iron tube and then forging it out, or by boring out solid metal; but so far as my knowledge extends an axle similar in structure to mine has never heretofore been produced. These methods are each objectionable because they fail to produce axles of suflicient strength and lightness at the same time, and the last is also objectionable, as it only makes a hole of equal diameter throughout, and as being too expensive. Steel tubes cannot be welded, and hence tubular wrought-steel axles have not been made of welded tubes.
.in general use.
The axle herein described is a seamless wroughtsteel hollow one formed from a malleable cast-steel ingot, and its exterior shape is that of the standard solid railroad-axle now It is designed especially as a railroad-car axle, but is applicable for vehicles of all kinds, its form and size being properly varied; and it will be observed that it is of great strength and durability.
By constructing my seamless hollow axle so that the interior wall shall conform in general outline to its exterior, I not only secure the necessary elasticity requisite at the center, where the diameter is reduced and the amount of metal decreased, but also produce a correspondingly lighter and cheaper axle. Its shape is that best adapted to resist the strains to which it is subjected, and the metal so distributed as to be thickest atthe points of greatest strain and least in weight and section at the points of least strain, so as to be in structure architecturally correct, and to combine at once minimum weight with maximum strength.
Axles made as above set forth of steel have more resiliency than other axles, and are not, therefore, liable to fracture from sudden strains. Their use for railroad-cars results directly in a material economy, not only over solid axles, but over any other species of hollow axles known to me.
I purpose makingflle recessed dies or an vils and the methodof reducing or drawing tubular metallic bodies by simultaneously swaging them at three equidistant points the subjectmatter of another patent, and therefore disclaim herein such subject-matter so far as this patent is concerned.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. The hereinbefore described seamless wrought-metal hollow axle, the interior wall of which conforms in general outline with its exterior shape, there being about a uniform thickness of metal at all points except at the dust-guard, where the wall of the axle is the thickest.
2. The method of forming seamless hollow metallic axles herein described, which consists in taking a tubular malleable ingot and first drawing it out over a mandrel to the requisite length of an axle-blank of uniform diameter and thickness; second, reducing it at the middle by swaging it over a tapering mandrel and elongating it, as described third, and then reducing the ends over another smaller mandrel to form the journals and shoulders.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name this 23d day of June, A. D. 1880.
CYRUS B. MORSE.
G. G. LEEDS, H H. MORSE.