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Publication numberUS2336745 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 14, 1943
Filing dateDec 20, 1941
Priority dateDec 20, 1941
Publication numberUS 2336745 A, US 2336745A, US-A-2336745, US2336745 A, US2336745A
InventorsFred W Manning
Original AssigneeFred W Manning
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for making unwoven and composite fabrics
US 2336745 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

FABRICS Dec. 14, 1943. F. w. MANNING METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING UNWOVEN AND COMPOSITE Filed Dec. 20, 1941 Sheets-Sheet 1 F. w. MANNING 2,336,745 I METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING UNWOVEN AND COMPOSITE FABRICS Filed Dec. 20, 1941 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Dec. 14, 1943. w, MANNlNG 2,336,745

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING UNWOVEN AND COMPOSITE FABRICS Filed Deb. 20, 1941 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 woven fabrics that stretch, and additional Patented Dec. 14, 1943 METHOD AND UNWOVEN AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING COIWPOSITE FABRICS Fred W. Manning, Palo Alto, Calif.

Application December 20, 1941, Serial No.

26 Claims. (Cl. 18-8) My invention relates to the manufacture of unmay be used for: sanitary napkins, surgical dressings, wearing apparel, filtering purposes, leather substitutes, blankets, draperies, rugs, upholstering, insulating, and for most purposes for which woven fabrics are now used. This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending application Method and apparatus for spinning unwoven fabrics, Serial No. 414,809, filed October 13, 1941.

Heretofore, it has been the practice to spin a plurality of filaments, twist the filaments into a yarn, and weave the yarn into a fabric. It is the primary object of this invention to spin a fabric directly by the deposition and induration of disrupted filaments in a promiscuous and interan elastic fluid and/or an electrostatic field, during or after which the filaments may be moistened with an atomized solvent or adhesive; a thin stream of viscous fluid may be dispersed into a multiplicity of broken or continuous filaments and deposited in a disrupted condition by means of an elastic fluid and/or an electrostatic field; or a viscous fiuid may be spun into disrupted filaments by pump and/or centrifugal force, and the disrupted filaments deposited by an elastic fluid or an electrostatic field. Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description.

In accordance with one aspect of my invention, latex compositions, cellulose and petroleum derivatives, polymeric amides, protein-base materials, etc., may be modified by other materials, such as pigments, resins, plasticizers, solvents, etc., to form a viscous volatile solution that may be spun, stretched while still plastic, and indurated by evaporation of the solvent. Such viscous materials may be spun directly on a. moving support which preferably travels at a speed considerably greater than that at which the filaments are spun, thereby giving substantial strength to some materials during deposition and induration of the filaments. The deposition is accomplished preferably at an acute angle, or tangentially to, the surface line of an approaching support in order to obtain maximum stretch for the filaments. This, of course, has a tendency to parallelize the fibres, which may be avoided in various ways, such as by oscillatory movements of the depositing apparatus, or reciprocating movements of the u of oxygen for air-drying petroleum derivatives, hot air for heat reactive phenol-formaldehyde and glycerol-phthalic anhydride resins; and any suitable spinning and curing opera- The moving support may be an endless foramto which they may be bonded 2 may be positioned adjacent to the nozzle and endless wall, and the latter may be a non-conductor of electrical energy; and either or both electrodes may be movable to cause disrupted filaments, or continuous filaments that are thereby disrupted, to be deposited uniformly in the promiscuous, intersected, and overlapping condition necessary to give a fabric strength. Any suitable source of electrical energy may be used that will impart an electrical charge of high potential of 5,000 volts or more, such as a pulsating direct current obtained from an alternating or multiphase current with the aid of a rectifier. Different spinning solutions may require different electrical potentials, and the charge of one electrode may have a higher potential than the other to get the best results.

The invention is exemplified in the following description, and a preferred arrangement is illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic sectional view of one form of apparatus for carrying out the present invention.

Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic sectional view of another form of apparatus for carrying out the present invention.

Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic sectional view of still another form of apparatus for carrying out the invention.

Fig. 4 is a view of the upper portion of Fig. 2 showing a method for electrical spinning.

Fig. 5 is a view of the upper portion of Fig. 2 showing another method for electrical spinning.

Fig. 6 is a view taken on line 6-6 of Fig. 5.

Referring to the drawings more specifically by reference characters:

A bundle of filaments I is drawn downward from the spinneret 2, through the ring 3, and around the guide rod 4, by the draw roller 5, around which the filaments move. The filaments are then drawn through an inner cone 6, of an ejector and disrupted by a blast of air from pipe 1 passing through the annular space betweenthe inner cone and outer cone 8, and the dispersed filaments deposited as a fabric 9 on the perforated aluminum foil or other foraminous base medium 10 running from the roll H to roll l2, and conveyed through the fabric spinning chamber 13 by the endless belt 14, which is carried over the pulleys l5 and 16. The deposited filaments, which may have been moistened by a solvent vapor conveyed in the elastic fiuid or an adhesive sprayed thereon after deposition, are irdurated by a hot air current entering at [1 and passing upward in a direction counter to the movement of the belt and through the foil and belt, and after removing the solvent escapes through pipe 18 to a condenser not shown. After induration of the filaments the spun fabric is carried around pressure roll [9, stripped from the foil, and then wound upon roll 20. Flexible strips 2| and 22 at the top and bottom, respectively, of the fabric spinning chamber prevent egress of the heated air or solvent vapors. If the base medium is imperforated the gases are carried off by pipe 23, which is controlled by valve 24.

Fig. 2 shows a modification of Fig. 1 in which a fibrous material 25, deposited on a scrim 26, is carried by the endless belt under a compression roll 21, and after entering the spinning chambeer is bonded by a structure of promiscuously intersected filaments. After induration, the scrim is stripped from the bonded fibre sheet and wound upon roll 28. The fabric is run between rolls l5 and I9 and, if desirable, may be made impervious by means of a spray of suitable adhesive 29 from nozzle 30 within the enclosure 3|.

Fig. 3 shows an arrangement in which disrupted filaments are spun directly by means of a spinneret tube which consists of cylinder 59, cylinder end plate 51, fluid motor 52, pipe 53, ball bearings 54, a centrifuging spinneret head 10 55, and a connection 56 for compressed air required for driving the motor and spinneret and conveying and depositing the dispersed filaments.

A hood 51 encloses the spinning chamber over a portion of the foraminous drum 58, the compressed air passing through the section of the drum between stationary division plate 59 and arm 60, and escapes through the opening 61 and outlet 62 to a condenser. Asbestos fibres from roll 63 is fed in the form of a web 64, between a top feeder roll 65 and plate 66 into the card 61,

which disperses it into fine particles. Simultaneously, cotton fibre from the roll 68 is moved in the form of web 69 by a bottom feeder roll into the card. Blower 10 creates a current that conveys the disintegrated fibre mixture past regulator 11 into the depositing chamber 12,

through the semi-circular screen 13, where any large particles are broken up by the rotating brush 14, and deposits the dispersed fibres on the surfacing screen 15, where they are uniformly sifted through suitable openings therein by a reciprocating movement of the brush 16 in conjunction with the air pressure, and deposited on the freshly spun filamentous structure. Induration is accomplished by passage of the air through the deposited filaments and foraminous drum, the air being constrained by the division plate to pass into the hub of the drum through openings 11 and out of the hub through the opening 18, from whence it may be conveyed through pipe 19 to the blower. After the fibre deposition is complete the fabric 80 passes between the compression roll 81 and the drum and is wound upon roll 82. As in Fig. 1, a non-adherent foraminous base material may be interposed between the endless conveying wall and the deposited filamentous structure, which in this case may be a pervious sheet 83 taken from a roll 84 and after passing around the drum is stripped from the newly made fabric and wound upon roll 85. v

Fig. 4 shows a modification of Fig. 2 in which a fine stream of spinning fiuid 86 from a, source of supply 81 is fed through the nozzle 88 into a high electrical potential field between suitably insulated electrodes 99 and 90, which are positioned adjacent to the ejector, and connected by wires 91 and 92, respectively, to a source of high electrical energy 93. The repulsion between the electrodes causes the stream to be dispersed into filaments 94, which may be drawn together, into and through the ejector, and disrupted and deposited, as described above in connection with a continuous filament.

Fig. 5 shows another modification of Fig. 2. In this arrangement the endless belt passes between the electrodes 95 and 9B and through the high electrical potential field, the relative position and potential of each electrode causing the fine stream of spinning fiuid 91 to be dispersed into filaments 98 and deposited as shown. The spun fabric may be stripped from the endless belt, which is a non-conductor of electricity, after the latter leaves the influence of the electro- 75 static field. In order to obtain uniform distribution on the belt of the disrupted filaments, the nozzle may be oscillated by a sleeve 99, which is moved back and forth by means of eccentric rod I00, eccentric i! and driving shaft I02.

It will be obvious from the foregoing description that plastic binder fibres may be deposited in an integral adhesive web and in mixture with secondary fibres that have no adhesive properties, or the secondary fibres may be deposited in pressure.

I claim as my invention:

1. The method of making a composite fabric a spinning material to produce a plurality of filaments; depositing the said filaments on a foraminous retaining wall to form a web of promiscuously intersected filaments thereover; dispersing a fibrous material in a conveying fluid; and passing the said fluid through the said web and retaining wall to deposit the dispersed fibres on the said web.

of making a composite fabric form a web of promiscuously intersected filaments thereover; dispersing a fibrous material in a current of elastic fluid; and passing the said said web and retaining wall to deposit the dispersed fibres on the said web.

3. The method of making a composite fabric comprising: disrupting a spinning material to produce a plurality of filaments; depositing the said filaments in a plastic state on a foraminous retaining wall to form a web of promiscuously intersected filaments thereover; dispersing a fibrous material in a conveying fluid; and passing the said fluid through the said plastic web and retaining wall to embed the dispersed fibres in the web and indurate the said filaments.

4. The method of making an unwoven fabric comprising: passing an attenuated spinning material into a high potential electrical field to disrupt the said material into a plurality of filaments; dispersing the said filaments by a current of elastic fluid; and depositing the dispersed filaments to form an integral web of promiscuously intersected filaments.

5. The method of making an unwoven fabric comprising: passing an attenuated spinning material into a high potential electrical field to disrupt the said material into a plurality of filaments; dispersing the said filaments by a current of elastic fluid; depositing the dispersed filaments to form an integral web of promiscuously intersected filaments; and passing an indurating fluid through the said web.

6. In an apparatus for producing unwoven fabrics from a spinning material, the combination of: a spinneret; an ejector through which a filament extruded from the spinneret is caused to pass; an endless foraminous wall; and means for supplying an elastic fluid to the said ejector to disrupt the said filament into a plurality of filaments; and means for passing the said fluid through the foraminous wall to deposit the said plurality of filaments and form an integral homogeneous web thereupon.

'I. In an apparatus for producing unwoven fabrics from a spinning material, the combination of: a spinning nozzle; a disrupting ejector; a pair of spaced electrodes forming an electrical field therebet een; means for projecting the said material from the spinning nozzle into the said field whereby a plurality of filaments are formed: and means for passing an elastic fluid through the said ejector, whereby the said filaments are drawn therein and dispersed.

8. In an apparatus for producing unwoven fabrics from a spinning material, the combination of: a spinning nozzle; 9. disrupting ejector; a pair of spaced electrodes forming an electrical field therebetween; a foraminous support; means for projecting the said material from the spinning nozzle into the said field whereby a plurality of filaments are formed; and means for passing an elastic fluid through the said ejector and foraminous support, whereby the said filaments are drawn within the ejector and dispersed, and the dispersed filaments are deposited in an intersected condition on the said support.

9. The method of making a composite fabric comprising: depositing natural fibers in a discrete condition to form a primary web; disrupting a plastic spinning material to produce a plurality of discontinuous filaments; depositing the said webs being deposited in superposed relation to the other said web; and bonding the said webs together.

10. The method of making a composite fabric comprising: depositing natural fibers in a discrete condition to form a ing a plastic spinning material to produce a pludition to form a secondary web over the said primary web; and bonding the said webs together.

12. The method of making a composite fabric a plastic spinning material to produce a plurality of discontinuous filaments; depositing the said filaments promiscuously intersected condition to form a primary web; depositing discrete fibres to form ments; depositing the said filaments in a promiscuously intersected condition to form a primary web; depositing natural fibres in a discrete condition to form a secondary web, one of the said webs being deposited in a superposed relation to the other said web; and subjecting the said webs to heat and pressure whereby the said natural fibres are bonded together by the said plastic filaments.

14. The method of making a composite fabric comprising: disrupting a plastic spinning material to produce a plurality of discontinuous fila- I sufficiently plastic to adhere to one ments; depositing the said filaments in a promiscuously intersected condition while they are sumciently plastic to adhere to one another to form an integral primary web; depositing natural fibres in a discrete condition to form a secondary web; and bonding the said webs together.

15. The method of making a composite fabric comprising: disrupting a plastic spinning material to produce a plurality of discontinuous filaments; depositing the said filaments in a promiscuously intersected condition while they are another to form an integral primary web; depositing natural fibres in a discrete condition to form a secondary web; and bonding the said webs together while the primary web is sufficiently plastic to adhere to the secondary web.

16. The method of making an unwoven fabric comprising: disrupting a continuous traveling filament in a plastic state to produce a plurality of plastic filaments; and conveying the said filaments by force fluid stream moving in a controlled path in such manner as to cause the filaments while they are still sufficiently plastic to adhere to one another, to intersect and unite into an integral web.

17. The method of making an unwoven fabric comprising: disrupting a continuous traveling filament in a plastic state to produce a plurality of plastic filaments; conveying the said filaments by force of an elastic fluid moving in a controlled path; and depositing the said filaments while sufiiciently plastic to adhere to one another, upon a retaining wall in such a manner as to cause the filaments to intersect and unite into an integral web. I

18. The method of making an unwoven fabric comprising: disrupting a plastic spinning material to produce a plurality of filaments; conveying and dispersing the said filaments by force of a fluid stream; and passing the said stream through a foraminous retaining wall to deposit the dispersed filaments in an intersected condition thereupon while the filaments are sufiioiently plastic to adhere to one another to form an integral web.

19. The method of making an unwoven fabric comprising: disrupting a plastic spinning material to produce a plurality of filaments; conveying and dispersing the said filaments by force of a fluid stream; passing the said stream through a foraminous retaining wall to deposit a portion of the said filaments thereupon in an intersected condition while the filaments are sufficiently plastic to adhere to one another to form an integral web; and moving the said wall at a greater speed than the speed of the said fluid stream to extend an undeposited portion of the said filaments.

20. The method of making an unwoven fabric comprising: disrupting a plastic spinning material to produce a plurality of filaments; conveying and dispersing the said filaments by force of a fluid stream; depositing the said filaments on a base supportlin such a manner as to cause the filaments while they are still sufliciently plastic to adhere to one another, to intersect and unite into an integral web; indurating the said web to make it relatively non-adherent to the said base support; and stripping the indurated web from the said base support. r

21. The method of making an unwoven fabric comprising: disrupting a plastic spinning material to produce a plurality of filaments; conveying and dispersing the said filaments by force of a fluid stream; passing the said stream through a foraminous base support to deposit the said filaments thereupon in an intersected condition while the filaments are sufficiently plastic to adhere to one another to form an integral web; passing a secondary fluid stream through the said web and base support to indurate and make the web relatively non-adherent to the base support; and stripping the said indurated web from the said base support.

22. In an apparatus for producing composite fabrics, the combination of: a device for disrupting a spinning material into a plurality of filaments; an endless travelling wall; a housing enclosing the said device and at least a portion of the said wall; and means for depositing a web of fibrous material and an integral plastic web of the said disrupted filaments in superposed relation on the said wall.

23. In an apparatus for producing composite fabrics, the combination of: a. device for disrupting a spinning material into a plurality of filaments; an endless travelling wall; a housing enclosing the said device and at least a portion of the said wall; means for depositing a web of fibrous material on the said wall; and means for depositing the said disrupted filaments in an integral plastic web over the said web of fibrous material.

24. In an apparatus for producing composite.

fabrics, the combination of a device for disrupting a spinning material into a plurality of filaments; an endless travelling wall, a housing enclosing the said device and at least a portion of the said wall; means for depositing the said disrupted filaments in an integral plastic web on the said wall; and means for depositing a web of fibrous material over the said integral web.

25. The method of making a composite fabric comprising: disrupting a plastic spinning material to produce a plurality of discontinuous filaments; depositing the said filaments in a plastic and promiscuously intersected condition to form an integral primary web, depositing natural fibres in a discrete condition upon the said plastic primary web to form a secondary web thereover; and indurating the said plastic filaments to bond the said primary web to the said secondary web.

26. The method of making a composite fabric comprising: depositing natural fibres in a discrete condition to form a primary web; disrupting a plastic spinning material to produce a plurality of discontinuous filaments; depositing the said filaments in a plastic and promiscuously intersected condition upon the said primary web to form an integral secondary web thereover; and indurating the said plastic filaments to bond the said secondary web to the said primary web.

A FRED W. MANNING.

Disclaimer 2,33G,745.Fred W. Manning, Palo Alto, Calif. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR AKING UNWOVEN AND COMPOSITE FABRICS. Patent dated Dec. 14, 1943. Disclaimer filed Nov. 20, 1947, by t he inventor. Hereby enters -this disclaimer to claims 13, 22, 23, and 26, in said specification. [Ofiicial Gazette December 16, 1947.]

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2483404 *Aug 1, 1941Oct 4, 1949American Viscose CorpProcess of making a fibrous product
US2484787 *Mar 14, 1945Oct 11, 1949Owens Corning Fiberglass CorpBattery separator
US2522527 *Oct 9, 1946Sep 19, 1950Fred W ManningSpinning gun for the production of filaments and method of making nonwoven fabrics
US2543101 *Jul 20, 1944Feb 27, 1951American Viscose CorpComposite fibrous products and method of making them
US2571334 *Aug 30, 1946Oct 16, 1951Houdaille Hershey CorpMethod of making resilient batts
US2600882 *Apr 4, 1946Jun 17, 1952Int Cellucotton ProductsCatamenial bandage and absorption control element therefor
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Classifications
U.S. Classification264/10, 264/113, 28/271, 425/174.80E, 210/505, 425/81.1, 156/501, 156/181, 264/DIG.750, 156/68, 425/82.1, 264/121
International ClassificationD04H1/56
Cooperative ClassificationY10S264/75, D04H1/56
European ClassificationD04H1/56