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Publication numberUS2341122 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 8, 1944
Filing dateAug 19, 1942
Priority dateAug 19, 1942
Publication numberUS 2341122 A, US 2341122A, US-A-2341122, US2341122 A, US2341122A
InventorsSchmidt Henry F
Original AssigneeWestinghouse Electric & Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hydraulic brake apparatus
US 2341122 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 8, 1944. H. F. SCHMIDT HYDRAULIC BRAKE APPARATUS Filed Aug. 19, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 M Rm mm] wS a. .m E

3 RM M M H I m \1 A,

WITNESSES:

ATTORNEY e 8, 1944. H. F; SCHMIDT 2,341,122

HYDRAULIQ BRAKE APPARATUS Filed Aug. 19, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I Y .a

M 3 9 3 INVENTO Y FTQ. 6. HENRY F SCH, T.

" ATTORNEY Patented Feb. 8, 1944* f f"; 7':

Henry F. Schmidt,.Lansdowne,'Pa., assignor tov Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturingpompany, East Pittsburgh, --Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application August 19, 1942, Serial No. 455,294

' 19 Claims. (01. 188 90) In my application Serial No. 454,887, filed August 15, 1942, I have disclosed and claimed a hydraulic brake suitable for moderate or low speeds and it has the advantages of stability, self -regulation, and self-pumping.

The present invention relates to apparatus of the above character and it has for an object to provide a brake having the aforementioned advantages and which is more suitable for high speeds.

A further object of the invention is to provide a hydraulic brake of the self-pumping type Wherein the pumps or pressure-developing devices are so arranged that their inlets are-disposed adjacent to the glands to assure of liquid pressure imposed on the latter not exceeding that at the pump or device inlets.

A further object of the invention is to provide interfitting rotary and stationary ring members having buckets formed in adjacent faces to define a pair of annular rows of circulation chambers and wherein the stationary ring member has passages formed therein to provide for discharge of liquid from the circulation chambers.

A further object of the invention is to provide a hydraulic brake, having a pair of annular rows of circulation chambers disposed in opposed relation and defined by cooperating buckets formed in adjacent faces of a pair ofrotary ring memincluding vanes carried at the outer sides of rotor v ring members cooperating, with an intervening stator ring member to provide a pair of annular rows of circulation chambers supplied by the pumps and wherein an atmospheric pressure condition is maintained in the annular inlet chambers and centrally of the circulation chambers.

These and other objects are effected by the invention as will be apparent from the following description and claims taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, forming a part of, this application, in which: M Fig. 1 is an elevational view of the improved brake showing the constant-level liquid supply tank in section;

Fig. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of'ithe .1...

brake shown in Fig. 1;

Figs. 3, 4 and 5 are transverse sectional views taken along the lines IIIIII, iv-iv and v v, respectively, of Fig. 2, and viewed in the direction of the arrows;

Fig. 6 is a view, partly in longitudinal section, showing a modified form of brake; and,

Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the pressure-balancing feature.

The brake comprises a stator or casing, at 9, and a rotor, at Ill. The rotor includes a spindle l l and a pair of axially-spaced ring members'IZ unitary with the spindle. The stator or casing 9 is provided with a ring member I3 extending between the ring members [2, the adjacent faces of'ring members l2 and It being formed with laterally-open buckets l4 and 15 which cooperate to providea pair of annular rows of circulation chambers, at I6. As the stator buckets face outwardly and the rotor buckets faceinwardly, the

hydraulic thrust developed by one row of circulation chambers is balanced by, that of the other. a

As shown, the stator or casing, at'9, is made in'upper and lower halves l1 and I8 connected bybolts l9 and it provides a cylindrical chamber '20' for the ring members, the stator ring member l3 preferably fitting in an annular groove or countersunk seat 2| formedin the interior cylindrical wall of the chamber so as, to be firmly attached to the casing stator in order to resist any tendency to lateral or 'rotary displacement thereof relative to the latter.

The casing or stator, at 9, has trunnions 22 fitting bearings 23; preferably of the antifriction type, carried by the pedestals 24. The rotor is supported by journals 25 fitting bearings 26 housed in and supported by the trunnions 22-. At one end, the spindle has a portion 21 extending beyond the adjacent trunnion to provide for coupling of the brake rotor to a suitable machine. Assuming liquid to be supplied to the circulation chambers, at I6, and the rotor to be rotating, then the stator and the rotor tendto be clutched together by means of the circulating liq-'- uid in the circulation chambers; and, if rotation of the statorv is restrained, a braking effect or re sisting torque 'is applied to the rotor, As the braking effect is'a factor by means of which'the power of a machine connected to the rotor may be determined, the stator has an arm bearing on the scale 29 used-to weigh the forceexerted thereon by the arm., f'i j y Liquid; for example, watenis suppliedfrom an elevated'constant level tank}! 'by a conduit '32 and liquid discharges from -the-brake througha bers, at l6, and, as the annular chambers are,

therefore, relieved of high pressure, leakage through the glands 31 is minimized.

Each device, at 39, is comprised by relatively wide runner vanes 40 attached to the outer faces of the rotor ring members l2 and by the chamber end walls 4| defining loose clearances with respect thereto. The peripheries of the rotor ring members [2 are spaced from the interior cylin- "dlrical wall of the chamber 20 to provide annular passages "42 for supplyingiiquid from the devices to the circulation chambers.

In Fig, 2, communication of the annular passages with the'c'irculation chambers is effected both byth'e radial 'annular'spaces '43 between the adjacent rotary arid stationary ring members and by the inclined ports 44 formed in the stator ring r'nmb'e'r l3, whereas, in Fig. 6, there is provided can the radial annular spaces 43 serving this purpose. 'Liquiddischa'rgin'g from the circulation chambers enters an annular passage 45 formed by a p'ripnerargioove 4B inthe ring member l3 and covered by the stator creasing 9. The discharge l conduit'33 communicates with the annular passage. In Fig. 2, the'stat'or ri'ng'has ports '47 providing for discharge'of liquid from the circulaltion chambersto'the annular passage 45,'whereas, ih'Fig. 6, discharge occurs through the annular ream spaces 48 defined between adjacent'rotary and stationary ring members and annular "passages 49 -lo'etizs'le'en the rotor and the inner'periph- 'ery of'the statorring [3 to the annularspacellll 'fdfr'fiedby an inner groove 5| in the stator ring, thefsta'tor ring having radial ports 52 providing rornow'rrom'tnes ace 5D to the annular passage in'Fig. 2, the radial spaces48 and the connect- :irigannula'r passages 490. function to maintain hydraulic balance between the two'ro'w's of circulation chambers.

Stability'an'd self-regulation of the brake'are assured'by providing for an atmospheric pressure condition centrally of the circulationchambersgat l6,'and in'the inlet chambers 36. Also, as the constant level tank 3| provides for a constant'supply head for the brake, the valves 54 and 55 make possible'adefinite'andcontrolled fiow contributing to stability and certainty of -operation.

As'shown in Figs. 2 and 5, the annular inlet chamber 36 for each pressure-developing device has "an "atmospheric pressure condition maintained "therein by a circumferential series of radial pipes 55 extending through the stator or ca in wall. Preferably, the stator is provided with deflector rings 5'I'having annular'lips 58 extending inwardly. along the chambers 35, and which are curved in transverse section to provide concave grooves'59, the groovescooperating with annular ribs 60 on the stator'to form-annular passages "6| of ;approximately U-shapedsection providing for gradual and'ea'sy change in' direcradius. wide runner vanes 40 and liberal clearance tion of flow for discharge to the pump inlets with a substantial outward radial component. Each of the rings 51 defines an annular space 62 with respect to the rotor and the inner ends of the pipe 56 extend through the lip 58 and communicate with such space. Thus, it is assured that liquid at each pump or pressure-developing device entrance is subject to atmospheric pressure without the means-providing therefor interfering with flow to the device or operation to provide a rotating column of liquid.

An atmospheric pressure condition is maintained centrally of the circulation chambers, at IB, by passages 63 formed in the webs 64 separating the buckets I5, the passages communicating with the circumferentially-extending space 55 formed in the stator ring member [3. As shown, the annular passage or circumferential space 65 is provided by a counter groove 66 in the stator ring member I3 and covered by the plate ring 6'! Welded at its edges to the stator ring, the plate ring separating the circumferential space from the outer'annular discharge passage 45. A circumferential ser-ies of radial :pipes 68 extending through the casing wall and the ring plate 61 provides for maintenance of an atmospheric pressure condition in the circumferential space 65. As both the casing or stator 9 and its ring member l3 are made in halves to facilitate assembly, the space 65 is not a complete annulus, itbei-ng interrupted by end closure plates 69 adjacent to the joint.

While the pressure-developing devices, at 39, resemble centrifugal pumps, they operate only incidentally as pumps, the principal function thereof being to provide a rotating column'of liquid whose centrifugal force is balancedby that of the circulation chamber column, as may be seen from; Fig. '7. The radial dimensionA of the centrifugal device column is greater than the radial :dimension B of the circulation chamber column, for the reason that the radius R of the it being remembered that centrifugal forcevaries asthe square of the velocity and inversely as the As each centrifugal device has relatively thereof with respect to the wall .surfaces4l, as atmospheric pressure is maintained centrally of each pressure-developing device and of the circulation chambers, and as the inner. portions of the spaces 'betweenirunner' vanes are never filled with'liquid, it is assured that the device will operate as 'a'loadbalancing or equalizing one. The

rate'at'which liquid is supplied to the runner and 'the vane width are such that liquid enters as a spray. Therefore, the device functionsas'acentrif-uge to separate air, this action being aided by the liberal clearance. 'While the centrifugal device functions incidentally as a pump, such -i'11ncti0n ing'is not essential so far as load=balancing or equalizing is concernedror it will 'be apparent "that the apparatus will provide balanced columnsirrespective of how litiuid is supplied to' form' the latter.

The valves 54- and ss edjacentto the brake and m the supply and discharge-conduits provide bers 36 for the pumps.

asarnzz Both the' head of ;'the centrifugal pumps, at 39, and the head of the circulation chambers, at l6, increase, as any tendency of the centrifugal pump column to increase is accompanied by an increase in the radial thickness of the circulating streams in the associated circulation chambers, and vice versa, so as to maintain equilibrium of pressures due to centrifugal force of liquid in each, pump and in the connected circulation chambers; and the cen-. trifugal heads will continue to increase'until the increase in centrifugal head of the circulation chambers is suflicient to provide a pressure difference across the discharge orifice defined by the discharge valve to equalize in-flow and out-flow of liquid. However, as the centrifugal heads increase, the braking effort is increased, with the result that the rotor speed is reduced. I Hence, if it is desired to ascertain the power of amachine at a given speed and having a tachometer to observe the machine speed; then the flow of liquid is adjusted by relative adjustment of the valves and 55 until the machine speed is at the desired point, and then the magnitude of the resisting torque is ascertained by means of the scale 29.

The provision of an atmospheric pressure condition at each pump inlet assures that the pressure of liquid supplied to the associated circulation chambers is entirely due to the pump, w-ith the result that the apparatus is self-regulating; and, by having both the pump inlet space and the circulation chambers subject to atmospheric pressure, a balanced relation is maintained, with the result that operation is stable, the resisting torque being varied by relative valve adjustment and being maintained uniform at any selected adjustment. Furthermore, as shown in Fig. 2, the two rows of circulation chambers are equalized or placed in hydraulic balance bythe connecting passageway constituted by the radial spaces 48 and the annular passage 49a.

From the foregoing, it will be apparent that, by having one row of circulation chambers in opposed relation to the other, the hydraulic thrust of one is balanced by that of the other. The design is such that structural material may be selected and disposed for operation at high speeds and to withstand high pressures. Furthermore, the maintenance of anatmospheric pressure condition at each pump inlet and centrally of the circulation chambers and the provision of centrifugal pumps, including runner vanes attached to the rotor, assures of a hydraulic brake which is self-pumping, self-regu lating, and stable.

While the invention has been shown in several forms, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that it is not so limited, but is susceptible of various other changes and modifications without departing from the spirit thereof, and it isdesired, therefore, that only such limitations shall be placed thereupon as are specifically set forth in the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. In a hydraulic brake, a casing, a rotor within the casing, a pair of axially-spaced ring members unitary with the rotor, a ring member interposed between the rotor ring members, and fixedto the interior of the casing, a pair of annular rows of circulation chambers formed by complementary buckets provided at opposed faces of casing and rotor ring members, means for supplying liquid to the circulation chambers and mcluding centrifugal devices comprising runner vanes connectedito the rotor ring members at the outermost sides thereof, and means including passages formed in the casing ring member and providing for discharge of liquid from the circulation chambers.

2. In a hydraulic brake, a casing, a spindle, a pair of axially-spaced ring members carried by the spindle, a ring member carried by the casing and interposed between the spindle ring mem bers, a pair of annular rows of circulation cham-r bers formed by complementary pockets provided in opposed faces of the casing and spindle ring members, centrifugal devices including runner vanes. carried by the spindle ring members at the outermost sides thereof, and means including annular passages defined between the peripheries of the spindle ring members and the interior of the casing for connecting said devices to the circulation chambers.

3. The combination as claimed in claim 2. with mean for maintaining an atmospheric pressure condition at the inlet space of each centrifugal device, and centrally of each of the circulation chambers.

4. In a hydraulic brake, a casing providing a cylindrical chamber having radial end walls, a rotor having a pair of integral and axially-spaced ring members disposed in the chamber, a ring member fixed interiorly to the casing and extending inwardly between the rotor ring members, circulation chambers formed by buckets provided at adjacent faces of the rotor and casing ring members, runner vanes formed on the outermost faces of the rotor ring members and cooperating with said end walls to provide centrifugal pressure-developing devices, means for supplying liquid to the inlets of the devices, means including annular passages defined between the interior cylindrical wall of the casing and the peripheries of the rotor ring members for supplying liquid from the outlets of the devices to the circulation chambers, and means including passages formed in the casing ring member providing for discharge of liquid from the circulation chambers.

5. In a hydraulic brake, a casing, a rotor within the casing and comprising a spindle and a pair of axially-spaced ring members unitary with the latter, a ring member fixed to the interior of the casing and interposed between the first ring members, a pair of annular rows of circulation chambers formed by complementary rows of buckets provided at opposed faces of the rotor and casing ring members, the buckets of each row being separated by partitions, means for supplying liquid to the circulation chambers including centrifugal devices comprising runner vanes connected to the rotor ring members at the outermost sides thereof, said casing and rotor cooperating to provide annular chambers open to the inlets of said devices, means including passages formed in the casing for supplying liquid to said annular chambers, means providing for discharge of liquid from the circulation chambers and including an annular passage formed by an annular groove provided in the casing ring member and covered by the casing, means providing for the maintenance of an atmospheric pressure condition in each of said annular chambers, and means providing for the maintenance of an atmospheric pressure condition centrally of the circulation chambers and including a circumferentially-extending space formed within the casing ring member and communicating with passages formed in the rotor partitions and opening into spaces which are central'with respect to the circulation chambers.

6. In a hydraulic brake, a casing, a'ro'tor'within the casing and Comprising a spindle anda pair of axially-spaced ring members unitary with the latter, a ring member fixed to the interior of the casing and interposed between the first ring members, a pair of annular rows of circulation chambers formed by complementary rows 7 of buckets provided atopposed faces of the rotor and easing ring members, the buckets of each row being separated by partitions, means for supplying liquid to the circulation chambers including centrifugal pumps comprising runner vanes connected to the rotor ring members at the outermost sides thereof, said casing and rotor cooperating to provide annular chambers open toth'e pump inlets. means including passages formed in the casing for supplying liquid to said annular chambers, means providing for discharge of liquid from the circulation chambers and includin an annular passage formed by an annular groove provided in the casing ring member and covered by the casing, means providing for the maintenance of an atmospheric pressure condition in each of said annular chambers, and means providing for the maintenance of an atmospheric pressure condition centrally of said circulation chambers and including a circumferentially-extending space formed within the casing ring member and passages formed in the partitions separating the casing ring member buckets for connecting said space to spaces which are central of the circulation chambers.

7. In a hydraulic brake, a casing providing an interior cylindrical chamber,-a spindle in the easing, glands for sealing against leakage from the interior of the casing toward the bearings, a pair of axially-spaced ring members in said chamber and unitary with the spindle, a ring member carried by the casing and extending inwardly between the rotor ring members, said casing cooperating with the spindle to provide annular chambers opening into said cylindrical chamber through the end walls thereof, runner vanes carried by the outermost sides of the rotor ring members and cooperating with said end walls to provide centrifugal pumps whose inletsare open to said annular chambers, means including annular passages formed between the peripheries of the motor ring members and the interior cylindrical wall of the chamber for connecting the pump outlets to the circulation chambers means for. supplying liquid-to the-circulation chambers, and means providing for the dischargerof liquid from the circulation chambers.

8. The combination as claimed in claim 'lwith means providing for the maintenance .of an atmospheric pressure condition in the annular chambers and centrally of the circulation chambers.

9. In a hydraulic brake, a casing providing an interior cylindrical chamber, a spindle in the casing, bearings at the ends of the casing :for, s pporting the spindle, glands for sealingagainst leakage from the interior of the casing toward the bearings, a pair of axially-spaced ringmembers in said chamber and unitary with the spindle, a ring member carried by the casing and extending inwardly between the rotor ring members, said casing cooperating with the spindle to provide annular chambers opening into said cylindrical chamberthrough the end Walls thereof, runner vanes carried by the outermost sides of the rotor ring members and cooperating with said endwalls to provide-centrifugal pumps, said vanes havingt'heir inner ends approximately at the outer boundaries of the annular chambers,

means including radial passages formed in the casing for supplying liquid to the annular chambers, ringscarried by the casing and having annular lips which extend-along the annular chambers and having their inner .ends disposed adjacent to theoutermost sides o'fthe rotor ring members, said lips being curved in cross section to provide, withrespect to the casing, annular passagescommunicating with said radial passages and to provide for gradual change in direction of liquid receivedifrom the last-named annular passages so'that liquid is supplied to the spaces between runner vanes with an outward component ofdirection, andmeans providing for discharge of liquid from circulation chambers and including an annular passage formed by an annulargroove provided in the casing ring and coveredzby the casing.

10..In .a hydraulic brake, a casing providing an interior cylindrical chamber, a spindle in the casingfloearings at the ends of the casing for supportingthe spindle, glands for sealing against leakage from the interior of the casing toward the bearings, a pair of axially-spaced ring members in said chamber and unitary with the spindle,.a ring member carried by the casing and extending inwardly between the rotor ring members, said casing cooperating with the spindle to provide annular chambers opening into said cylindrical chamber through the end walls thereof, runner vanes carried by the outermost sides of the rotor ring members and cooperating with said endwalls to provide centrifugal pumps, said vanes having their inner ends approximately at the outer boundaries ofthe annular chambers, means including radial passages formed in the casing for supplying liquid to the'annular-chambers, rings carried Ibythe casing and having annular lips which extend along the annular chambers and having their inner ends disposed adjacent to the outermost sides of the rotor ring members, said lipsbeing curved in cross section to provide, with respect to the casing, annular passages communicating with said. radialpassages and to provide for gradual change in direc-. tion of liquid received from the last-namedannular passages so that liquidzis supplied to the spaces between runner vanes with an outward 1 component of direction, means providingfor dischargeofv liquid from the circulation chambers and including an annular passage formed by an annulargroove provided in the casing ring and covered by the casing, means providing for the maintenance of an atmospheric pressure condition in each of said annular chambers and including a circumferential series of tubes whose outerends communicate with the atmosphere externally of the casing and whose inner ends extend through the :curved lips and communicate with the spaces between the latter and the spindle, and means providing for'the maintenance of an atmospheric pressure condition centrally --of eacheof said circulation chambers and including a circumferentially-extending space formed within thecasing ring member and a circumferential series of radial tubes whose outer ends communicate with the atmosphere and whose inner ends communicate with the circumferentially-extending space.

HENRY F. SCHMIDT.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2498572 *Sep 8, 1947Feb 21, 1950O'leary Charles MHydrokinetic brake
US2618175 *Apr 8, 1946Nov 18, 1952James B BruceAutomatic fluid brake governed speed regulating transmission
US2716339 *Aug 30, 1943Aug 30, 1955Clayton Manufacturing CoHydraulic dynamometer
US2790518 *Nov 3, 1951Apr 30, 1957Us Spring & Bumper CoHydrodynamic brake with rotor pumps
US2870875 *Oct 12, 1951Jan 27, 1959Clayton Manufacturing CoHydro-kinetic brake device
US2976960 *Aug 28, 1957Mar 28, 1961Heenan & Froude LtdDynamometers
US3032258 *Sep 4, 1958May 1, 1962Nash Engineering CoVacuum pumps
US3166161 *Sep 5, 1961Jan 19, 1965Parkersburg Rig And Reel CompaHydrodynamic torque transmitting apparatus
US3383910 *Jul 27, 1965May 21, 1968Seishi TanakaHydraulic dynamometer
US3608681 *Feb 24, 1969Sep 28, 1971Teves Gmbh AlfredHydrodynamic brake
US4164994 *Sep 13, 1977Aug 21, 1979Firma Carl Schenck AgHydraulic eddy brake
DE1134903B *Nov 30, 1956Aug 16, 1962Gen Motors CorpHydrodynamische Bremseinrichtung, insbesondere fuer Kraftfahrzeuge
DE1213270B *Sep 7, 1956Mar 24, 1966Applic Mach MotricesHydraulische Talfahrtbremse fuer Motorfahrzeuge
Classifications
U.S. Classification188/296
International ClassificationF16D57/04, F16D57/00
Cooperative ClassificationF16D57/04
European ClassificationF16D57/04