US 2343903 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 14, 1944. F, HAMMAND AUTOMATIC SHUT-OFF NOZZLE Filed Nov. 18, 1941 IN V mu QR Patented Mar. 14, 1944 (Granted under the act of March 3, 1883; amended April 30, 1928: 370 0. G. 757) 2 Claims.
The invention described herein, if patented, may be manufactured and used'by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.
The present invention relates to fluid dispensing nozzles and more particularly to a gasoline dispensing nozzle including an automatic shutoff mechanism whereby the flow of fuel will be shut ofl responsive to immersion of the nozzle tip in liquid.
Numerous attempts have been made in the prior art to provide an automatic shut-ofl nozzle To overcome these objections, the present invention contemplates an improved type of'shutoff mechanism, and a novel structural arrangement for the entire nozzle sl'iut-ofl' mechanism including the pressure operated diaphragm, pressure reduction linkages, and latch mechanisms whereby the automatic mechanisms are so positioned and correlated as to present a nozzle of compact arrangement and streamlined appearance, not differing materially from the exterior appearance or external dimensions of conventional dispensing nozzles now in use.
whereby the flow of liquid would be automatically discontinued as the liquid level in a container being filled approached its upper limit, but insofar as these devices are known to the applicant they have been unsatisfactory in practical use.
Most of the prior art devices have been objectionable in that they included unnecessarily complicated andexpensive mechanisms, failed to operate uniformly under diifering conditions of fluid pressure, or because their design and construction was such that the entire nozzle structure was bulky and awkward to handle. The prior art structures known to the present applicant have also been objectionable in that they have been extremely uncertain in operation. Since devices of this character ordinarily utilize relatively small forces as, for example, the buoyancy of small floats or variations of atmospheric .pressure operating on diaphragms or pistons, it
is essential that the design and construction of the devices be such that the small forces permit positive operation of the mechanism.
In automatic shut-oil. devices of the prior art It is, therefore, the principal object of this invention to provide a dispensing nozzle including a valve and pivoting valve operating lever, together with a diaphragm or other pressureresponsive element so arranged that when the tip of the dispensing nozzle spout is submerged in fluid, the pivot of the valve-operating lever will be released to close the valve.
Another prime object of the present invention is to provide an automatic shut-ofl dispensing nozzle whereby the-relatively large forces controlling the shut-ofi valve may be positively operated and controlled by relatively small forces incident to the pressure variations within the nozzle.
known to the applicant, the dispensing nozzles have been characterized by unusually bulky and complicated constructions of design and proportion extremely divergent from the conventional types of apparatus in use in the gasoline dis-' pensing field. This is regarded as a distinct disadvantage for any commercial adaptation, first, because it makes the operation of the dispensing nozzle inconvenient and difficult for operators accustomed to conventional nozzle devices; sec- 0nd, because the complicated nozzle structures do not-present a neat and streamlined compact appearance and are objectionable as a matter of. external design and, third, because nozzles cannot be used for replacement in gasoline pumps or other associated equipment having nozzle racks, nozzle hooks, or locking devices arranged and dimensioned to accommodate nozzle structures of the conventional types now known in I the art.
A further object of the invention is to. provide a novel and improved mechanical movement constituting a latching structure adapted ,to maintain itself against a relatively great force and to release said force responsive to forces of extremely small magnitude.
A further object of the invention is to provide a latching mechanism constituting a series of latches wherein the primary latch maintains the mechanism against release and a secondary latch prevents release of the first, the arrangement being such that the primary latch is unstable in that it is not self-maintaining and will automatically release unless maintained in position by the secondary latch.
A further object of the invention is to provide in an automatic shut-off nozzle a series of latches including a primary unstable latch and a secondary latch together with force-reduction levers whereby the secondary latch has a mechanical advantage over the primary and whereby the latch actuating means has a mechanical advantage over the secondary latch.
A further object of the invention is to provide a mechanical movement including a series of latches having an unstable primary latch in combination with a secondary latch and actuating means for the primary latch arranged to com currently release the primary latch andapply force to assist in its releasing movement.
A further object of the invention is to provide pressure actuated diaphragm or equivalent pressure responsive element located between the outlet passageway of the nozzle and the pivotal mounting of the valve handle to provide a nozzle of neat appearance and compact mechanical arrangement. g I
Another object of the invention isto provide a vide a guide for the upper end of the valve stem. It is contemplated that the valve 22 is to be opened manually, and to this end a valve operating lever 32 is pivoted on a pivot pin 33 positioned somewhat forwardly of the lower extremity 24 of the valve stem. The valve operating lever 32 is oilset-at 34 so that the handle portion remote from actuating lever 321s protected against accidental opening or damage by a lever guard 35 secured venient means, and including arelatively straight portion 3'! spaced apart from the valve body and gasoline dispensing nozzle including a handleportion and discharge spout, together with a shutoff .valve arranged at an acute angle to the axis of the spout with the automatic shut-'oif mecha-' nism positioned wholly within an acute angle between the spout and the valve to provide an automatic nozzle of compact mechanical structure and neat appearance.
Another object of the invention is to provide an automatic shut-on nozzle structure including a valve body and a valve handle and a valve handie guard extending longitudinally of and substantially parallel with the handle portion and having its forward end formed to include a pair of opposed side-walls defining a central cavity arranged to receive a housing automatic shutoff mechanism whereby an automatic shut-oil. valve or-neat, convenient and streamlined appearance and compact mechanical arrangement is provided.
A still further object of the invention is to provide an automatic shut-01f nozzle including a relatively few parts of rugged construction and simple mechanical operation and adapted to economical methods of manufacture.
Referring now more particularly to the draw- Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a gasoline dispensing nozzle constructed in accordance with the teachings of the present disclosure.
Fig. 2 is a fragmental longitudinal sectional view of a modified form of the invention.
The nozzle structure illustrated includes a valve housing or body portion generally indicated at In consisting of a tubular handle portion II, including an inlet passageway l2 and a neck portion |3 including an outlet passageway |4 having a restricted Venturi section l5 and terminating in a forward and constituting a mounting collar I6 for the dispensing spout H. The valve body is provided with a valve seat 2| interconnecting the inlet passageway I2 with the outlet passageway and arranged to be closed by a valve 22 havinga valve stem 23 arranged to extend exteriorly of the valve body l0 so that the'lower extremity 24 of the valve stem will be outside of the valve body and adapted for manual actuation. Preferably, a gland or other suitable sealing structure (not shown) is arranged to be tightened around the stem 23 by means of the sealing cap 25. The valve 22 is normally forced into firm engagement with the valve seat 2| by a relatively heavy coiled compression spring 26 having its upper end supported by the threaded closure cap '21 and havihgcits lower end bearing directly against the valve 22. The closure cap 21 is threaded into the valve body and is preferably provided with a sealing gasket 28 and drilled at 29 to proextending forwardly in a position more or less parallel with the handle portion The forward curved end 33 of the handle guard is arranged to be secured to the lower side of the valve neck |3 by a plurality of cap screws (not shown), which extend through the flange 39. The forward portion of the handle guard 35 is provided with a pair of relatively wide side walls 4| spaced apart from each other to define a cavity 42 in the forward portion of the valve guard in front of the valve stem and before the neck l3 and outlet passageway H for purposes to be hereinafter described. I
The lower portion of the forwardly extending neck l3 of the valve body is widened to provide a rarified air chamber 45 over which a flexible fabric diaphragm 46 is clamped by a suitable flange 41. The diaphragm 46 may be of any resilient material but is preferably formed of multiple thicknesses of thin cloth treated in such a manner as to make it impervious to air and commonly known in the trade as airplane cloth." The diaphragm 46 is circular in shape so that it entirely closes the lower side of the aperture 45. It is provided with a pair of center plates 48 to reinforce the fabric diaphragm and to provide a mounting for a post 49 to which the latch release mechanism is attached.
The rarified air cavity 45 is interconnected with the Venturi l5 by suction ports 50 and 5| so that the flow of liquid through the discharge passageway of the nozzle will withdraw some of the air from the air chamber 45 of the valve body. When the device is in use, the air sucked from the chamber 45 through the suction ports will be replaced by air entering the side port 52 of the nozzle spout l1.
In the present structure, the port 5| is plugged at its rear end by the tapered plug 52 and communication with the interior of the chamber 45 is established by the port 50 extending angularly from the port 5| to a point adjacent the lower forward edge of the diaphragm 45. With this arrangement the suction action of the Venturi tube l5 will remove any accumulation of liquid gasoline within the chamber 45, so that any quantities of gasoline drawn upwardly through the tube 58 will be immediately ejected through the ports 50 and 5| and into the stream of liquid, in order that the passageways will always be open for the free. venting of air to the chamber 45.
The air from the port 52 enters through the orifice 53 in the block secured on the inner circumference of the spout, and passes thence through the vent tube 58 which extends upwardly The block 54 is provided with an annular valve seat 55 and a screw-threaded adjusting screw 58 is arranged with a needle valve 51 adapted to be adiustably moved toward the valve seat 55 to ,provide an adjustment for the restriction of the vent passageway. It will be noted that the block 54 is positioned entirely within the nozzle spout H and is therefore entirely protected against accidental damage, but the screw 56 is parallel with the axis of the nozzle spout and may be easily reached by inserting a screw driver in the open lower end of the spout. By this arrangement, the restriction of the air inlet to the cavity 45 may be adjusted so that the device will be readily responsive to specified changes in pressure.
It has beenmentioned previously that one of the objects of the invention has been to provide a novel and improved release mechanism for the pivot pin on which the valve control handle is mounted in order that the relatively small atmospheric force actuating the shut-off diaphragm may be utilized to release the comparatively large force of the coiled compression spring 26 and force the valve 22 into closed position, and in firm engagement with the valve seat 2!. To accomplish this result, the valve pivot pin 33 is mounted in a pair of slots 6! provided in each of the side walls M of the linkage cavity 42 so that when not maintained by mechanism hereinafter describedthe forward end of the valve operating lever 32 may snap outwardly responsive to the outward force of the valve stem, so that the valve 22 will be in closed position notwithstanding the fact that the rear end of the valve operating lever 32 is moved toward the handle portion H of the valve body.
The hand lever pivot 33 also extends through a shiftable pivot retainer 62 adapted to partially encircle a roller 63 rotatably mounted on the cross pin 64 extending between the two side walls 4! of the linkage cavity 42. The upper end of the pivot retainer 62 includes a latching surface 65 arranged to engage and be secured by a latching surface 65 formed on the latch release lever Bl. The lever 67 is pivotally mounted on a stationary pivot 68 extending between the walls 4| of the linkage cavity 42 and has its outer end ward released position may be readily overcome by a very'light force at the upper end 65 of the latch retainer. Thus, the effective pressure between the latching surfaces 65 and 66 will be extremely small and the latching may be easily released by the operation of the diaphragm 48 even though the pressure difierential on the opposite sides of the diaphragm is comparatively small.
' The operation of the device is as follows:
The normal position of all parts of the structure are as shown in Fig. 1 of the drawing and, to operate the device, the operator will grasp the nozzle by the handle portion H and draw the rear end of the valve-operating lever 32 inwardly to bear against the lower portion 24 of the valve stem and raise the valve 22 from-the seat. The
. liquid will then be free to fiow through the paspivotally mounted on the diaphragm post 48 by a pivot pin 69. The pin 69 also carries one end of a coiled compression spring 1| which extends downwardly and has its lower end secured to a side projection 13 formed on the latch retainer 82. The curved surface 14 of the latch retainer 62 partially encircles the roller 63 to provide an unstable roller type latch, the arrangement being such that while the roller 63 and its mounting pin 64 restrain the latch pivot 33 against downward movement in the slot 6!, yet, the angle of engagement between the roller 63 and the curved surface 14 of the latch retainer is such that the force of the compression spring 26 will exert a definite bias on the latch retainer, tending to move it to the right as viewed in the drawing, unless this movement is prevented by some outside means. It will be understood, however, that the magnitude of the force tending to. bias the latch to released position will be very small as sageway l2 into the passageway 14 through the Venturi tube l5 and outwardly through the nozzle spout l1 and into the container. During this time the action of the Venturi tube IE will withdraw airfrom the air chamber but, inasmuch as the air chamber 45 is vented through. the air inlet 52 and vent tube 58, the pressure within the air chamber45 will not be substantially reduced and the diaphragm 45 will not be caused to operate. However, when the level of the liquid in the container being filled rises to a point above the end of the spout I1, the liquid will close the orifice 52 or the restricted needle valve 57 and, since the fiow of liquid through the restricted orifice will be far less than'the flow of air through the same orifice, the vent 58 will be, to all intents and purposes, closed by the rising level of the liquid. When this occurs, the continued action of the Venturi tube I5 will continue to withdraw air through the suction ports 50 and 5! and cause a substantial reduction of pressure in the air chamber 45 so that the atmospheric pressure of the surrounding air (which is in communication with the lower surface of the diaphragm Mi through the linkage cavity 42) will force-the diaphragm 46 upwardly against the comparatively light resistance of the spring H. The cross pin 68 acts as a pivot for the anchored end of the pressure reduction lever 81, so that when the outer end of the lever 61 is drawn upwardly the latching notch 66 i disengaged from the upper end 65 of the retainer 62. It will be noted, in passing, that the latching notch 66 is positioned at a point less than half of the distance between the pivot pin 68 and the diaphragm post pivot 69 so that the-movement of the diaphragm has a decided mechanical advantage over the latching surfaces and a very small efiort on the diaphragm is sufiicient to overcome the friction inci- 1 dent to the engagement of the latch, so that the release operation of the mechanism will be en tirely positive, notwithstanding the fact that the pressure difierential on the opposite sides of the diaphragm may be rather small.
When the latch 65 disengages the upper end of the retainer 62, the force of the coiled compression spring 26 of the main valve 22 will act on the unstable latch 63-44 to release the pivot 33 compared with the force exerted by the spring 26.
' forces tending bias the latch retainer v62 toand snap it to the lower end oi the slot 6|, to close the valve. This action will be readily understood when it i recalled that the latch 63-- I4 is unstable. Thus, when the lever 32 is operated, the force of the compression spring 26 will urge the pivot pin 33 downwardlyin the slot BI and will tend to bias the latch toward its released position. It will be understood, of course, that the force tending to bias the latch to its released position will be extremely small as compared to the total force ofthe spring 28, but it will nevertheless permit the mechanism to release when the secondary latch 85-88 is disengaged. As this operation takes place, it is obvious that the spring 28 will instantly close the valve 22- and shut off the flow of liquid in time to prevent the container being filled from overflowing.
n the flow of liquid through the Venturi tube 15 is discontinued, the pressure on the opposite sides of the diaphragm 45 will automatically equalize, and the spring 1| will draw the diaphragm l8 outwardly and downwardly to the position illustrated in Fig. 1.
On release of the lever 32 the coiled spring 11 will draw the latch retainer 82 upwardly and,
diaphragm 88 becomes suflicient to overcome the downwardforcs of the spring 8|.
A return spring 82 is mounted on the cross pin 88 and secured to a side pin 84 on the latch retaining element 8| and is arranged to lift the' I prevented.
inasmuch as the outer extension 13 of the latch retainer 82 is a considerable distance from the pivot 33, the spring will tend to move the upper end 85 of the retainer inwardly to the left until it engages the notch 88, at which time the spring 1| will move the lever downwardly so that the notch will prevent return movement of the latch 85, thus, the single spring 11 serves the multiple functions of drawing the diaphragm downwardly, returning the latch 88 to position, drawing the pivot 33 and latch retainer upwardly and swinging the pivot latch retainer 82 to the left about the pivot 33 to cause engagement of the latched surfaces 85 and 88. In this manner, the single spring 11 comprises springmeans for accomplishing four separate functions, though it 'will be understood that it is a matter of simple mechanical skill to provide separate springs to ac complish each of the aforementioned functions.
The device illustrated in Fig. 2 is similar to that shown in Fig. 1 with the exception that the latch retainer 8| is provided 'with a latching surface 82 comprising an inclined cam surface at an obtuse angle with respect to the direction of release movement of the latch and the latching surface 82 is arranged to engage an inclined cam surface 83 on a stationary latch block 88.
This structure constitutes an unstable latchwherein a downward force on the latch pivot 88 will tend to bias the retainer toward its released position and will release the latch unless otherwise secured. The upper end of the latch is otherwise secured, however, by the latching engagement between the inclined cam surface 85 of the latch retainer and a corresponding inclined cam surface 88 of the latch lever 81 mounted on the cross pivot 88. The inner end of the lever 81 is mounted for pivotal movement on a pin 88 extending between the side walls 4| of the linkage cavity and the outer end of the lever is connected to the diaphragm post 49 by a pivot pin 89. In this construction it will be noted that the primary latch comprising the latch surfaces 82 and 83 cooperate to form an unstable latch which will be biased towardreleased position and will release unless maintained by an external force, and that the secondary latching surfaces 85 and 88 are similarly arranged. Accidental release of the secondary latch is prevented, however, by a light coiled compression spring 9| positioned within the air chamber 85 and arranged to urge the diaphragm 88 and lever '81 downwardly. The arrangement is such that the spring 91 is suflicient to overcome the extremely small force tending to bias the latch 85-88 to released position and the unstable characteristics of this latch only tend to provide foreasy and positive release whenever the pressure differential on the It has been previously mentioned that the latching structures 83-14 and 82-88 are so arranged that they are biased toward released position by the force of the spring 28. It is desirable that the magnitude of the force component acting as a bias be quite small, in order that the friction incident to the release of the secondary latches be as small as possible but it will also be appreciated that if it is too small the friction between the cooperating surfaces of the primary latch may cause the latch to fail to release.
In the present invention, means are provided whereby the cooperatingsurfaces of the primary latches may be unfailingly released, even though shaped to resolve the force of the spring 28 into a biasing force of far less magnitude than would be required by the structure heretofore described. I'his desirable object is accomplished by the novel combination of the structure heretofore described and a latch actuator mechanismto actively force the primary latch to release concurrently with the release of the secondary latch. For this purpose the lever 81 is provided with a short latch actuator or push-1. ofl' arm 15 so that as the latch -88 is re-.
leased the actuator 15 will strike the upper end 85 of the retainer and actively urge the primary latch 83-18 to release. In the structure illustrated in Fig. 2, the lever 81 is provided with a short latch actuator 85 adapted to function in an identical manner.
By this arrangement it is entirely feasible to shape the surfaces of the primary latch to exert a bias force that is almost, but not quite, sufflcient to overcome the friction of the latching surfaces and cause the primary latch to release. This will mean that there will be no effective force acting between the secondary latch surfaces, so these will release without friction ands ince the primary latch is already biased to release, it will require only a touch from the actuator.
From the foregoing, it will be apparent that by following the teachings of the present invention, a novel and improved gasoline dispensing nozzle may be provided having automatic shutunstable latch, but the small biasing force due to the inclination of the surfaces will tend to release the latch unless secured by additional means. The secondary latch constitutesthe additional means for securing, but since the biasing force is of extremely small magnitude, the
friction acting between-the latching surfaces of the secondary latch will be so small as to present no substantial resistance to actuation of the mechanism by the diaphragm 46. Thus, the relatively small forces exerted by the diaphragm are entirely effective to release the forces of far greater magnitude exerted by the valve spring 26 with the result that the structure may be arranged to positively respond to the small differences in pressure incident to the submerging of the nozzle tip beneath the surface of the liquid.
It has been previously mentioned that in automatic shut-off devices of the prior art, the dispensing nozzles have been characterized by unusually bulky and complicated constructions of design and proportion extremely divergent from the conventional types of apparatus in use in the gasoline dispensing field. This disadvantage is overcome in the present invention by positioning the valve axis and the axis of the mounting of the nozzle discharge spout at an acute angle as illustrated by the angle A in Fig. 1 of the drawing, and positioning the entire nozzle shut-oil mechanism including the pressure operated diaphragm, pressure reduction linkages, and latch mechanisms, wholly within the angle defined between the axis of the valve and the axisof the discharge spout so as to present a nozzle of compact arrangement and streamlined appearance not dififering materially from the exterior force or external dimensions of conventional dispensing nozzles now in use. The invention also contemplates the location of all of the automatic shut-oft actuating mechanismbetween the lower surface of the discharge passageway and the pivot on which the conventional type of valve actuating handle is mounted so that an automatic shut-oi! mechanism occupies space that is often wasted in nozzles of conventional design and so that the automatic shut-oft mechanism does not materially add to the dimensions of the nozzle and is not particularly noticeable from a casual observation.
Also, by following the teachings of this invention, it is possible to provide a mechanical movement whereby great forces. may be effectively maintained without danger of accidental release and yet may be positively and emciently released in response to forces of minute magnitude as compared to the magnitude of the original force.
Further, by the provision of an adjustable restriction at the nozzle tip, the characteristics of the device may be individually adjusted so that each nozzle may be arranged to cooperate with accompanying equipment so that individual nozzles may be separately adjusted for the highest degree of efliciency of operation with sources of liquid supply operating under different pressures.
While I have shown and described the preferred embodiment of the present invention, I am aware that it is subject to numerous modifications and variations without departing from the invention spirit and I therefore wish to be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what is claimed as new and desired to secure by Letters Patent, is: p
1. In an automatic liquid filling device of the type which has a spring-biased valve, a diaphragm, and a hand lever, the combination of a spindle on which the said lever is pivoted in abutting relation to the stem of the said valve, the device having a slot in which the said spindle is received for a limited extent of movement, a latch finger on the said spindle provided with a shoulder, a pin fixed on the device adapted to be engaged by the said latch shoulder to maintain the said spindle at one extremity of its said slot, the said hand lever being adapted in this said latched position of its spindle to actuate the said valve stem and open the valve, the said latch finger being biased in a direction to free its said shoulder from the said latch pin, a detent lever pivotally mounted on the device with its distal end articulated to the said diaphra the said detent lever having a ledge engaging the distal end of the said latch finger to maintain the finger in the said latched position, the said detent lever being efiective upon actuation of the said diaphragm to withdraw its said detent ledge from the latch finger to permit the said spindle to shift to the other extremity of its said slot, the said shifting of the spindle in its slot moving the said hand lever away from the said valve stem, whereby the spring-biased valve is permitted to close under urgency of its said spring.
2. The combination according to claim 1 wherein the said detentlever is in the form of a bell-crank, one of the legs of which being provided with the said latch ledge, and the distal end of the other leg being contactable with the LOWELL F. HAMMAND.