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Publication numberUS2344120 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 14, 1944
Filing dateApr 21, 1941
Priority dateApr 21, 1941
Publication numberUS 2344120 A, US 2344120A, US-A-2344120, US2344120 A, US2344120A
InventorsBaker Reuben C
Original AssigneeBaker Oil Tools Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for cementing wells
US 2344120 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 14, 1944. c, BAKER 2,344,120

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CEMENTI-NG WELLS Filed April 21, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Q7 37- 3 3a F ""37 14 i1] 14 15 Q l 35 if I i 35 '3: I 12 12 INVENTOR:

" fizz/BEN C. EAKEQ,

'BY 16 I I Q; M ATTORNEY 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 R. c. BAKER Filed April 21, 1941 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CEMENTING WELLS March 14, 1944.

a a a m a w z :2 J 5 RE i 2 H 5 M m r I I :A O T a a 6 QA A W N u E 5 w 4 1 4 m m 5 M 25% a a z 5 z 5 1 0 2 A 5 1 A 3 5 J 3 1 Y 1 w/, I 4 B.... .N. .7, ywb en h 1: g \V l I. 4. 1 u. ,1 I E. H, u." a g z a a 7 2 zur/vv/ 4 I III] a l w 4V a 5 i a M22 2 g a Patented Mar. 14, 1944 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Reuben C. Baker, Coalinga, Calif., assignor to Baker Oil Tools, Inc., Vernon, Cali1'., a corpora tion of California Application April 21, 1941, Serial No. 389,591 17 Claims. (o 166-1) This invention relates to devices employable an upright and an inverted basket by use of a in well bores, and is particularly concerned with tubing string and connected mandrel, because devices capable of forming an annular bridge or of the fact that the latter members must be posibarrier between a well casing and the wall of a tioned below theinverted barrier and within a confining bore hole. Apparatus of this general 5 ported collar adjacent the upright barrier to character are disclosed in my prior Patents perform the washing operation, and in passing 1,561,768 and 2,117,538, and also in my applicathrough the collar carrying the inverted basket, tion, Serial No. 343,584, filed July 2, 1940, for its release has been efiected, allowing its expan- "Casing bridging devices, Patent No. 2,275,936. sion into engagement with the formation and In the drilling and completion of oil and similar precluding passage of circulating and washing wells, it is common practice to cement a casing fluid upwardly along the casing beyond the basor liner string in the well bore. In some ink t- S a esult. it has been difllcult to p operly stances, one or more annular barriers are pt'ocondition the confined well space for reception vided between the casing and wall of the bore of cement slurry. hole to confine cement slurry to a particular Accordingly, it isafurther object of the invenregion along the casing. It is desirable for such tion to provide a casing barrier or cement basket barriers to be in retracted position while the arrangement which canbe held in retracted posicasing is being run in the hole, in order to avoid tion as long as desired, and without regard to frictional contact with the hole wall and damage the passage of cementing or other tools through to the parts of the device. Some annular barriers the casing. By means of .the invention, it is posnow used are of generally frusto-conical form sible to maintain an inverted annularcasing when in expanded condition, and may include barrier in retracted position until after the drilla petal basket, as described in my Patent ing or other fluid has been flushed from the well 2,117,538. An upright basket of this type, or one bore. Following the washing operation, the indiverging in an upward direction, can be lowered verted basket may be released hydraulically, as in the casing in its inherently expanded condiby employing a tubular string and mandrel, and tion, since the petals will readily slide over. the cementitious material deposited behind the the wall of the bore hole without damage. Howcasing along the locations defined by the baskets. ever, the petals of an inverted basket, or one In this connectiomif a series of locations sepadiverging in a downward direction, may dig into rated longitudinally by Sets O upright and the hole wall upon lowering of the casing string, verted barriers or baskets is employed, washing and may produce failure of the basket parts, of each location or zone, release of its inverted besides breaking down the wall of the well bore. barrier, and cementing of the zone preferably Accordingly, it is an object of the present inventakes place in upward sequence, to avoid restriction to provide an apparatus in which a casing tions to the upward passage of circulating fluid barrier or basket arrangement can be held in by an upper, previously released, basket.

retracted position while the casing is being low- This invention is also concerned with an imered in the bore hole, release of such basket proved method for washing and cementing a being effected hydraulically whenever desired. formation zone defined between annular casing Although particular reference has been made to bridges or baskets by' sh u Z0118 Prior the holding of an inverted barrier in retracted o expansion of its upper annular brid e, rele sposition while lowering the casing in the hole, ing i e, and n depositing the Cement an upright basket may also be held retracted slurry in the zone or location bein operated and released hydraulically in a similar manner. upon.

Longitudinally separated upright and inverted This invention has other objects that will beopposed barriers or baskets are employed to prom app r nt from a n i era i n f the emvide confined annular spaces around the 'casing bodiments shown in the drawings accompanying in which cement may be deposited. This arand formin part of the present specification.

rangement may be used for only a single stage These forms will now be described in detail, but cementing operation, or for several longitudiit is to be understood that such detailed descripnally separated locations along the bore of the tion is not to. be taken in a limited sense, since hole, as where more than one oil bearing strata the scope ot-the invention is best defined by the is encountered and it is desired to separate such claims appended hereto.

strata by cementitious seals. It has heretofore Referring to the drawings: been cliflicult to properly'wash the area between Figure 1 is-a longitudinal section through a 'll and petals portion of a well bore and a liner or casing con- Figure 3 is a partial longitudinal section one an enlarged scale showing the upper basket in retracted position;

Figure 4 is a view similar to" Figure l of another form of the invention, employing apparatus such as described in my Patents 2,187,480 and 2,187,483;

Figure 5 is a longitudinal section similar to Figure 4 disclosing the cementing mandrel on the lower end of a tubing string in operative position for releasing the initially retracted, inverted cement basket; and

Figure 63s a longitudinal section similar to Figure 4 illustrating the ejection of cement from the cement mandrel and the lower cementing collar after the inverted basket has been released.

'As disclosed in the drawings, a casing or liner string III is positioned in a well bore, carrying one or moreannular barriers ll, I! for'forming a bridge between'the casing and wall of the bore hole. In the present instance, an upper inverted barrier ll. of the peta type. described in my Patent .No. 2,117,538, is secured to the exterior of a casing section or collar l3, the basket consisting. of leaf springs l4 secured to the exterior of overlapping basket petals l5, with'the ends of these members attached to a ring l6 welded or otherwise mounted on the collar. The springs I4 and petals l5 inherently tend to assume. an expanded, generally frustoconical or bucket shape.

The inverted basket ring i6 is fastened to an upper collar l3 with its attached-depending peta and springs heldinitially in retracted position against the casing. As shown in the drawings, the skirt ll of a retainer sleeve l8 encompasses the leaf springs l5, extending downwardly from this point along an outwardly projecting collar flange or piston l9, and terminating in an inwardly directed sleeve head initially secured shear screws 2|.

seals for preventing leakage of sleeve and collar. Such seals may consist of round elastic rings 22, 23 positioned in oppositely tapered grooves 24, 25 formed in the flange and head, the rings having slidable sealing e gagement with the inner surfac of the skirt l1 and the collar exterior, respectively.

When expansion of the inverted basket I l into the formation is to be permitted, pressure point within the collar l3 to the fluid in the annular cylinder space 26 formed between the piston l9, skirt I], head 20 and collar, thisfluid entering the cylinder space through one or more lateral ports 28 in the collar between the piston and head. Upon increase in the fluid pressure to the proper magnitude, the shear screws 2| are disrupted and the sleeve l8 then shifted downwardly along the collar from engagement with the leaf springs l4 and petals" l5, permitting their inherent outward expansion into contact with the wall of the bore hole. The extent of this downward shifting is limited by a stop ring 25 secured to the collar 9, sufficient distance below the initial position of the retainer sleeve 18 to allow its upper end to move from engagement with the piston seal 22 and open the lateral ports 28 to the passage of fluid between the interior and exterior of the casing.

As disclosed in Figure 1, the fluid under pressure necessary for tripping the retainer sleeve and releasing the upper inverted basket can be supplied through a suitable perforation cementer or mandrel 30 secured to the lower end of a tubing string 3|. This cementer includes opposed packing members or swabs 32, 33 adapted to slidably seal with the wall of the casing for confining the fluid pressure to the interior of the casing between the packing members. Fluid can exit from the cementer mandrel 30 through the lateral cementing port 34 between the packing members 32, 33.

To effect release of the retracted basket II, the cementing mandrel 30 is run in the casing on the tubular string 3| until its opposed packings are in sealing engagement with the casing on opposite sides of the collar ports 28. Pressure v fluid within the tubing, and this will be transmitted through the fluid in the confined space members 32, 33 to the interior of the sleeve l3, disrupting the shear screws 2| and lowering the sleeve sufllciently to free the ends of the basket and permit its expansion against the wall of the hole, in the manner heretofore described.

Although specific reference has been made to release of an inverted barrier or basket, it is apparent that an upright member 12 could similarly beheld in retracted position, and its release effected in the same manner as the inverted basket H. The identical collar with retracted basket attached need only be reversed so that the free ends of the basket face in an upward direction.

The hydraulically releasable inverted basket H can be employed in conjunction with a spaced upright basket l2 to isolate a formation zone Elong a specified distance. This arrangement is made up on the casing string with the inverted basket ll secured to its upper collar l3 and the upright basket l2 mounted on a spaced lower collar or casing section 35 below a suitable cementing collar 36 having lateral ports 31 through which fluid may be ejected into the bore surrounding the casing. These ports are closed by a suitable back pressure valve, which sleeve 38 secured at one end collar 36 and with its free end adapted to be forced outwardly by fluid under pressure within th casing against the action of circumferentially spaced leaf springs 39, whose lower ends are attached to the collar 36. Cement slurry or other fluid issuing from these ports 31 will travel upwardly along the casing toward the inverted basket l|,'its return flow being prevented by snug engagement of the rubber sleeve 38 against the exterior of the ported collar area. a

The string of casing I0 is run into the well bore until its longitudinal section between the upper and lower baskets H, I! is positioned opposite the formation zone along which the cement seal is to be provided. The perforation cementer 30 on the end of the tubing string 3| is lowered into the casing until its opposed packing members 32, 33 ar disposed on opposite .sides of the cementing ports 3'1. Circulation may then be established through the tubing for outward passage through the cementing port 34 between the packings, and through the casing. or collar ports 3! for upward passage along the casing beyond the inverted basket II. This circulation will effectively wash the wall of the bore hole and condition the well for the cementing oper. ation.

After washing has been completed, the cementer 3!] is elevated within the casing until its opposed packings 32, 33 are disposed on opposite sides of the lateral releasing ports 28. Pressure built up in the tubing string and mandrel 30 is confined to the casing space between the packing'cups, being transmitted to the fluid within the sleevecylinder l8 to shear the screws 2| and shift the sleeve downwardlyto its fullest extent against the stop ring 29, in which position the sleeve clears the piston packing 22 to open the releasing ports 28. Upon release of restraint, the petals" and springs of the inverted basket inherently expand into engagement with the wall of the formation, so as to preventfiuids and other material from moving upwardly alongthe casing beyond the basket.

Following release of the upper inverted basket, the cementer 38 is lowered in the casing until its opposed packings 32, 33 are again disposed on opposite sides of the cementing collar ports 31, and the proper amount of cement slurry ejected through the mandrel ports 34 and cementing ports 31 into the annular space between the upper and lower baskets |2. The Washing fluid contained between these baskets precedes the cement in its upward movement for passage through the open releasing ports 28 and into the casing for delivery to the surface of 'the well bore. Any excess cement also passes through these upper ports or passages for flushing from the casing. After suiflcient cement has been disposed behind the casing between the baskets l2, release of pressure within the cementing tool 30 and tubing 3| allows the rubber sleeve 38 to seal over the ports 31 and prevent return flow or the slurry into the casing.

I? more than one casing section is to be cemented, the tubing string is moved to the new location in the casing, and the aforementioned operations repeated. That is, washing of the formation and casing exterior is followed by release of the inverted basket after which the cement is deposited along the specified zone through the lower cementing collar 36. It is preferred that such multiple stage or series cementing operations be performed in upward sequence, to prevent an upper, previously released basket from interfering with the washing of a lower zone.

As disclosed in Figures 1 and 2, it is possible to perform single stage or series washing and cementing operations, and also effect release of retracted baskets or annular casing barriers at will by means of a tool capable of sealing within an unrestricted casing, and of proper positioning opposite its various sets of lateral ports. A second form of the invention is disclosed in Figures 4 and 6, in which the same basket arrangement as was heretofore described is employed, but in which the releasing collar for the inverted basket I is modified in order to provide a restriction in the casing and permit the use of the cementing mandrel and collar design specifically described in my Patent 2,187,483.

Essentially, this mandrel, 40 consists of a plurality of retractable latches 4| and a pair of sealing rings 42, 43 disposed on opposite sides of mandrel cementing ports 44. The latches 4| are adapted to seat upon the upper end of a stop sleeve 45 secured in the upper collar |3a adjacent its outer ports 28 for the purpose of positively locating the mandrel sealing rings 42, 43 on opposite sides of the stop sleeve ports 46, which will direct fluid under pressure from the mandrel outlets 44, through the stop sleeve openings 46 and outer collar ports 28 into the retainer sleeve cylinder 26, producing shearing of the screws 2| and shifting of the retainer sleeve |8 to basket releasing position. The stop sleeve 45 is suitably secured in spaced relation to the inner surface of the collar l3, as by upper and lower flanges 41, 48 On opposite sides of its ports 28, which are engageable with upper and lower annular cement plugs 49, 50 anchored to the collar to hold the stop sleeve against longitu-: dinal movement in either direction within the casing.

Although the stop sleeve 45 is of materially reduced diameter when compared with the internal diameter of the'casing or collar, th cementing mandrel 40 is able to pass, completely through this sleeve when its latches 4| are retracted. As explained in Patent 2,187,483, these latches are initially held retracted in a positive manner until the cementing mandrel passes through all of the restricted collars within the casing, whereupon the latches are released to permit their retraction against the force of a spring 5| only upon moving upwardly into engagement with the tapered undersides 52 of the restricted collars. However, after having once been released, these latches 4|, do not retract to permit movement of the mandrel downwardly through the restricted collars, but seat upon the tapered shoulder 53 for-med at the upper end of the stop sleeve 45 and upper cement plug49, to locate the mandrel seals 42, 43 on opposite sides of'the sleeve ports 45, in order to release the basket l, as described above.

The lower cementing collar 54 ,is of a similar construction to the releasing collar |3a,-but addi: tionally carries a back pressure valve-in the form of an elastic sleeve 55 positioned over the exterior of the stop sleeve ports 46a. As is fully. described in Patent 2,187,483, when the released mandrel latches 4| rest on the upper end of the inner stop sleeve 45a, its opposed packing members 42, 43 are disposed on opposite sides of the cementing ports 46a allowing cement slurry or other fluids to open the back pressure valve 55 for ejection under pressure through the sleeve ports and passage through the collar ports 37a into the bore surrounding the casing.

In Figure 4, the tubing string 3| is disclosed as extending completely through both the upper and lower collars |3a, 54. When in this position, a cementing operation at a lower stage in the casing might be performed, and release of the mandrel latches 4| effected. After the performance of a;

lower cementing orother operation, or release of the latches, the tubing string is elevated, the mandrel latches 4| engaging the lower inclined portion 52 of the lower collar, which will produce their retraction and permit movement of the mandrel to a position just above this collar. Lowering of the tubing string and mandrel causes its latches 4| to seat upon the upper collar shoulder 53 and locate its packing members 42, 43 on opposite sides of the sleeve cementing ports 46a.

A washing operation can now take place, the fluid passing upwardly from the ports 31a of the lower collar along the casing and beyond the inverted basket II, which is still in its retracted position. Following the washing operation, the tubing string II and mandrel 40 are elevated through the upper collar I31; and the mandrel latches 4| positioned upon the shoulder 53 on the upper stop sleeve 45 (as shown in Figure 5) permitting release of the retainer sleeve IS in the manner aforementioned, and expansion of the inverted basket springs and petals into engagement with the formation.

The tubing string 3| and mandrel 40 are then removed from the well bore, and the latches ll relocked in retracted position to permit downward passage of the mandrel once again through the restricted collars. Upon reaching a position below the releasing collar l3a, the latches ll may again be tripped and released in order that they can be expanded outwardly and rest upon the lower shoulder 53 of the cementing collar sleeve "a and establish the seals on opposite sides of the sleeve ports 46a once more. The necessary amount of cementitious material may now be ejected from the mandrel, through the sleeve ports 46a and collar ports 31a for upward passage along the casing or liner toward the released and expanded inverted basket II. The fluid preceding this cement slurry flows inwardly through the open retainer ports 28 and upper sleeve-ports 48 for upward passage around the tubing to the surface of the bore hole. As was described in connection with the other form of the invention, any excess cement slurry also moves through these ports for flushing to the surface of the bore.

The arrangement disclosed in Figures 4, 5 and 6 is applicable to a single stage, and also to a plurality of stages, depending upon whether it is desirable to perform a multiple stage cementing operation along the length of the casing, or whether a series cementing operation at separated zones along the casing is necessary. Here again, as in connection with the other form of the invention, it is preferred to perform the necessary washing operation, release of the inverted basket, and

deposition of the cement slurry through each stage in an upward sequence.

Following the performance of all of the cementing operations, the tubing and cementing mandrel may be removed from the casing and the cement allowed to set and harden. The stop sleeves 45, a are made of drillable material, so that the restricted casing portions may be drilled out to provide an unrestricted and unobstructed casing bore.

From the foregoing description, it is apparent that an apparatus has been provided by means of which a retracted annular barrier or basket may be released at will, enabling the casing string to be lowered safely in the bore to the desired position. Thorough washing along any specified formation zone can occur prior to release of the inverted basket, giving greater assurance that the cement seal formed in that particular zone will be leak-proof.

I claim: 1

1. In combination with a tubular well casing, a well device mounted on said casing for bridging the annular space between said casing and the surrounding wall of a well bore, means for holding said device in retracted position, means for sliding said holding means along said casing to release said bridging device and allow its expansion into engagement with the wall of said bore hole,

and means within said casing for feeding fluid under pressure to said sliding means.

2. In combination with a tubular well member adapted to form part of a casing or liner string, a well device mounted on said member for bridging the annular space between said member and the surrounding wall of a well bore, means for holding said device in retracted position, means for shifting said holding means and device with respect to each other to release said bridging device and allow its expansion into engagement with the wall of said bore hole, said casing being provided with means for feeding fluid under pressure to said shifting means,

3. In combination with a tubular well casing, an annular inherently expansible well-bridging device mounted on said casing, means for retaining said device in retracted position, and means within said casing for producing relative sliding movement along said casing between said bridging device and retaining means to permit outward expansion of the former.

4. In combination with a tubular well casing, an annular inherently expansible well bridging device mounted on said casing, means for retaining said device in retracted position, and means including instrumentalities within said casing for shifting said retaining means to release said bridging device and allow its outward expansion.

5. In combination with a tubular well casing, a generally frusto-conical basket mounted on said casing, fluid pressure responsive means for retaining said basket in retracted position adjacent said casing, and means for feeding fluid under pressure to said means to effect its release from said basket and permit outward expansion of the latter.

6. In combination with a tubular well casing, a generally frusto-conical basket mounted on said casing, means slidable on said casing for retaining said basket in retracted position adjacent said casing, said casing being provided with means for feeding fluid under pressure to said retaining means to eifect its release from said basket and permit outward expansion of the latter.

7. In combination with a tubular well casing, a generally frusto-conical basket mounted on said casing, mean" on said casing for retaining the larger end of said basket in retracted position adjacent said casing, said casing being provided with means for feeding fluid under pressure to said retaining .means, whereby its release from said basket is effected and outward expansion of the latter permitted.

8. In combination with a tubular well member adapted to form part of a casing or liner string, a generally frusto-conical basket mountedon said member, a sleeve on said member embracing the larger end of said basket to hold it in retracted position adjacent said member, said sleeve being constructed and arranged to be slidable in response to fluid pressure, means providing a slidable seal between said sleeve and member, and means for feeding fluid under pressure to said sleeve to slide it along said member and eilect its release from said basket.

9. In combination with a ported tubular well member adapted to form part of a casing or liner string, a generally frusto-conical basket mounted on said member, a retaining sleeve on said member having slidable sealing engagement therewith on opposite sides of its ports to form an annular cylinder, said sleeve embracing the larger and of said basket to hold it in retracted position adjacent said member, whereby fluid under pressure from within said member may be fed into said cylinder to shift said sleeve from engagement with said basket and permit outward expansion of the latter.

10. In combination with a ported tubular well member adapted to form part of a casing or liner string and having a substantially unrestricted bore, a generally frusto-conical basket mounted on said member, a retaining sleeve on said member embracing the larger end of said basket to hold it in retracted position adjacent said member, said sleeve having slidable sealing engagement with said member on opposite sides of its ports to form an annular cylinder, whereby fl'uid under pressure from within said member may be fed into said cylinder to shift said sleeve from engagement with said basket and permit outward expansion'of the latter.

11. In combination with a tubular well member adapted to form part of a casing or liner string, a generally frusto-conical basket mounted on said member, means for retaining said basket in retraoted position adjacent said member, and hydraulically actuated means for moving said basket and retaining means with respect to each other to permit outward expansion of the basket.

12. In combination with a tubular well member adapted to form part of a casing or liner string, a generally frusto-conical basket mounted on said member, a sleeve on said member embracing the larger end of said basket to hold it in retracted position adjacent said member, and hydraulically actuated means for moving said basket and sleeve with respect to each other to free the larger end of said basket and permit its outward expansion. I

13. In combination with a tubular member having a discharge port and adapted, to form part of a casing or liner string, a tubular stop device secured therein adjacent said port and having a medial portion of reduced external diameter forming, with the wall of the member, an annular chamber with which said port communicates, said device being provided with a lateral passage communicating with its bore and with said chamber, a generally frusto-conical basket mounted on said member, a retaining sleeve on said member embracing the larger end of said basket to hold it in retracted position adjacent said member, said sleeve having slidable sealing engagement with said member on oppo site sides of its port to form an annular cylinder.

ment with said basket and permit its outward expansion.

14. The method of cementing a casing string in a well bore, which comprises establishing a barrier to bridge the annular space between the casing string and well bore, circulating fluid through the annular space above said barrier, then establishing a second barrier above said first barrier to bridge the annular space between said casing string and well bore, and cementing said annular space between said barriers.

15. The method of cementing well casing in a well bore along separated upper and lower formation zones, which comprises establishing a. barrier at the lower end of said lower zone to bridge the annular space between the casing and well bore, circulating fluid through the annular space above said barrier, then establishing asecond barrier at the upper end of said lower zone to bridge the annular space between said casing and well bore, cementing said annular space between said barriers, establishing a third barrier at the lower end of said upper zone to bridge the annular space between said casing and well bore, circulating fluid through the annular space above said third barrier, then establishing a fourth barrier at the upper end of said upper zone to bridge the annular space between said casing and well bore, and cementing said annular space between said third and fourth barriers.

16. In combination with a tubular well member adapted to form part of a casing or liner string, a generally frusto-conical basket mounted on said member, and fluid operated piston and cylinder means on said member for retaining said basket in retracted position adjacent said member, said means being responsive tofluid under pressure for effecting its release from said basket.

17. In combination with a tubular well member adapted to form part oi. a casing or liner string, a generally frusto-conical basket mounted on said member, means for retaining said basket in retracted position, and cooperable annular cylinder and piston means on said member for effecting release of said retaining means from said basket.

REUBEN C. BAKER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2429912 *Dec 29, 1944Oct 28, 1947Baker Oil Tools IncWell cementing apparatus
US2431751 *Jun 9, 1941Dec 2, 1947Hayward Landes HApparatus for cementing wells
US2460561 *Oct 13, 1944Feb 1, 1949W L GoldstonApparatus for cementing wells
US2482651 *Oct 25, 1944Sep 20, 1949Baker Oil Tools IncWell cementing apparatus
US2602511 *Aug 23, 1945Jul 8, 1952 johnson
US2602514 *Apr 23, 1949Jul 8, 1952Baker Oil Tools IncCement basket
US2603293 *Sep 20, 1944Jul 15, 1952 Lynes
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Classifications
U.S. Classification166/289, 166/290, 166/116, 166/202, 166/237
International ClassificationE21B33/13, E21B33/14
Cooperative ClassificationE21B33/14
European ClassificationE21B33/14