US 2345489 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Mar. 28, 1944 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE- ANATOMICAL MODEL Frederic P. Lord, Hanover, N. H.
- Application April 10, 1943, Serial No. 482,602
The present invention relates to anatomical models and especially to a type of model which permits demonstration of the changing relation of two organs or structures which are connected by a third, sheet-like structure.
The present inventor has felt for a long time the difficulty of inducing students of anatomy to visualize such changes as are for example taking place in the peritoneum paralleling the changes in the abdominal gut. The model according to the present invention is based on actual teaching experience and was found to be very well suited as an aid in overcoming this difficulty.
The principal object of the invention is to provide an indefinitely extensible sheet-like body, representing for example the primitive 'mesentery, capable of manipulation so as to demonstrate changes therein, as for example the supbral column in the midline, that is, without any mesentery. from esophagus to rectum; then, step by step, the changes in the gut and its dorsal primitive mesentery as they-take on the final adult shape and position. It demonstrates the rotation of the intestinal loop about the superior mesenterlc artery; the changes that this brings about in the duodenum, its blood supply and that of the rest of the loop; the adult true mesentery; the modified persisting, and suppressed, mesocolons; the final arrangement of the dorsal mesogastrium; the great omentum, its acquired relation to the transverse colon and mesocolon, and the o-mental bursa so far as it is derived from the dorsal mesograstrium. At any stage this process of development may be stopped, reversed and recommenced at the convenience of the demonstrator.
These and other objects, aspects and features will be apparent from the description, by way of example of the genus of the invention, of a practical embodiment thereof, the description referring to a drawing in which Fig. 1 is a perspective View of a model according to the invention;
Fig. 2 a top view of the thread box of the according to Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 a vertical section through table and thread box of the model;
model Fig. 4 a top view of the table;
Fig. 5 a section on line 5-5 of Fig. 4; and
Fig. 6 a perspective similar to Fig. 1, showing the thread sheet in expanded position.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 6, the model according to the invention may conveniently be mounted on a cabinet I of a height suitable for dem onstration under the conditions at hand, supported by a framework 2 and topped by a board or table 3. The table may be hinged to the cabinet at 4, so that it can be tilted up and retained in that sometimes better observable position by prop 5.
The table 3 may be painted or otherwise provided with a representation ll of the spinal column and adjacent parts of the skeleton, such'as ribs [2 and pelvis l3, and of outlines indicating the position of major organs, as kidneys 14.
In the pelvic region, table 3 is provided with a cutout 2B and a board or bracket 2| receding into that cutout. Instead, the pelvic region could protrude from the plane of the table andthe-board 2| be in that plane; in either case the relative inclination of pelvis and spine will be indicated. Along the center line of the spinal colrunn is arranged a slot (Figs. 1, 3 and 6), preferably edged by reenforcing and friction reducing metal rods 26. The ends of slot 25 are closed, for example by metal clamps 21, 28.
The abdominal alimentary tract is simulated by flexible elongate elements made for example of rope covered with leather, representing (Fig. 6) esophagus 3|, stomach 32, small intestine 33, vermiform appendix 34, caecum 35, and large intestine 36.
The mesentery is represented by a series of strong threads or ribbons 40 sewn to aline running along the alimentary tract, as best shown at Fig. 6. These threads pass through slot 25 and end in weights 42 guided in weight compartments 43 (Figs. 2 and 3) of a weight box 44 fastened by means of braces 45 to the cabinet frame 2, as indicated in Figs. 1 and 3. The top of the Weight box is provided with a grillwork of smooth metal or glass rods 46 distributing, and reducing the friction of the threads running from the gut through slot 25 of the spinal column and peritoneum table 3 to weights 42 eachin its weight compartment 43. r i
In order to permit fixation of the loosely movable elements representing the alimentary tract, holders or braces can be detachably aflixed to table 3. Such a brac is for example shown at 5| of Figs. 1, 4 and 5; it consists of heavy wire having two pin-shaped ends 52, 53 which can be inserted into and easily removed from correspondin holes of the table, and a loop 54 holding in place a portion of the movable element, for example a shownin- Fig. 5, the ascending portion of the large intestine. For the sake of clarity, the threads are not shown in Fig. 5. Similar supports may be provided for holding any one or several movable elements in any desirable position relatively to table 3.
It will now be evident that threads 46 are, by their respective weights 42 in their weight compartments 43, distributed along slot 25 as if attached thereto, but nevertheless free to emerge from the slots for any length permitted by the depth of the weight compartment, and hence free to follow any position of the alimentary tract, while remaining taut and in their entirety simulating a sheet-like tissue. This general surface which is formed by threads All is free to follow any twisting or looping of the alimentary tract elements without the threads ever becoming tangled up or dangling.
It is understood that, instead of weights 12, other means as for example springs, could be used for keeping the threads taut, although the weights herein shown have been found especially satisfactory.
The model is used as follows, for example for demonstrating the changes taking place, in man and in other animals, in the alimentary tract and, the primitive mesentery, in their relationships to each other and to other important parts of the body, from the earliest embryonic, to the final, adult state.
Table 3, having been lifted into the position shown in Figs. 1 and 6, a small portion of the gut 30 is placed directly over the slot 25 in the approximate position which it has in the earliest embryonic state; then it is pulled upward, carrying with it the threads 4!] representing a primitive mesentery; by successive shifting of the gut into the positions corresponding to those assumed in the process of development it is possible to show the relationships of the different parts of the gut and its expanding mesentery. In each stage the various portions of the gut can be fixated by holders similar to brace 5!, shown in Fig. 4.
This process can be carried on until the final stage is reached with all parts in proper position 7 for the adult. At any stage the development can be stopped or retraced back to the original state.
It will be evident that models according to the present invention can be used to demonstrate other situations of anatomy and embryology which involve relative displacement of organs or structures connected by a sheet-like structure or some extensible structure, as for example, the ventral mesogastrium, to show the development of the falciform ligament of the liver and the gastro-hepatic omentum; the pericardium, to show the development. of the mesocardium; the pleurae, to show the development of the root of the lungs, the broad ligament of the lungs; the tendon sheaths, to show the development of certain connecting structures between the tendon and its neighboring structures; the yolk stalk,
chorion, ammion and umbilical cord, to show their growth and final stages; the urogenital system, to show the development of certain parts, such as the broad ligament of the uterus, the structures connecting the reproductive glands to their sites of origin; contents of certain hernia] sacs in the changes taking place in the structures connecting the hernial contents with their original sites; and to demonstrate to students, where it would otherwise be more difiicult to explain such growth to them in three dimensions, of any other organs or structures which carry a changing, connecting structure between themselves and some other part of the body.
It should be understood that the present disclosure is for the purpose of illustration only and that this invention includes all modifications and equivalents which fall within the scope of the appended claims.
1. An anatomical model permitting demonstration of the variable association of two organs or structures by an extensible connecting organ or structure, comprising a pliably manipulable elongate member adapted to represent a highly flexible organ, a second member adapted to represent another comparatively inflexible organ or structure and having an elongate opening, a series of closely juxtaposed thread-like connectors leading from adjacent points along said elongate member into one side of said opening, and means associated with said second member on the other side of said opening for retaining said connectors taut regardless of the relative position of said members, whereby said connectors when pulled through said opening, represent in appearance and flexibility a sheet-like tissue of the nature of a mesentery.
2. An anatomical model permitting demonstration of the variable association of two organs or structures, comprising a pliably manipulable elongate member adapted to represent a highly flexible organ, a rigid member adapted to represent another comparatively inflexible organ or structure and having an opening in the shape of a slot, a series of closely juxtaposed thread-like connectors leading from adjacent points along said elongate member into one side of said slot, and means associated with said rigid member on the other side of said slot for retaining said connectors taut regardless of the relative position of said members, whereby said connectors when pulled through said opening, represent in appearance and flexibility a sheet-like tissue of the nature of a mesentery.
'3. An anatomical model permitting demonstration of the variable association of two organs or structures by an extensible connecting organ or structure, comprising a pliably manipulable elongate member adapted to represent a highly flexible organ or structure, a board-like member carrying a pictorial representation of a rigid organ or structure and having a central slot outlined by said representation, a series of closely juxtaposed threads attached with one end to adjacent points along said elongate member and leading downwardly into one side of said slot of said board-like member, weights attached to the other ends of said threads, and a series of substantially vertical conduit-like guides for said weights below said board-like member, whereby said threads when pulled through said central slot, represent in appearance and flexibility a sheet-like tissue of the nature of a mesentery.
4. A model according to claim 3, wherein said