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Publication numberUS2346170 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 11, 1944
Filing dateMay 29, 1939
Priority dateMay 29, 1939
Publication numberUS 2346170 A, US 2346170A, US-A-2346170, US2346170 A, US2346170A
InventorsRudolph Kalkusch
Original AssigneeRudolph Kalkusch
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Wall structure
US 2346170 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 11, 1944. R. KALKUscH 2,346,170

WALL STRUCTURE Filed May 29, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet l .-I F .1 o y@ #y I? n// Z1 ,29 I Wm" April 11, 1944.V

R. KALKUSCH WALL STRUCTURE Filed May 29, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Jga Patented Apr. 11, 1944 UNITED' STATES PATENT oFFlcE WALL STRUCTURE Rudolph Kalkusch, Chicago, lll. Application May 29. 1939, Serial No. 276,360

4 Claims.

The present invention relates to wall structures, and is particularly concerned with improved wall structures adapted to be used for glass bricks or blocks, as well as ordinary brick, compressed brick, or concrete blocks. The glass bricks which are used for making decorative wall structures are particularly diil'icult to lay or install in a satisfactory and permanent manner because the glass is inherently of a diiferent character from ordinary bricks and concrete blocks.

The glass bricks or blocks are not particularly adapted to carry load, and they are not adapted to absorb moisture from the mortar or mastic used for joints in the manner that is done by ordinary bricks. Such glass blocks have been provided with roughened external surfaces adapted to engage the mortar or mastic, but the methods of the prior art of laying up such glass blocks are unsatisfactory, and even with the utmost skill it is diiiicult and practically impossible to secure uniform joints between such glass blocks and to secure a satisfactory job.

'Ihe glass block wall parts of the prior art are particularly unstable, and may be demolished with the application of very little force, as the structure does not have the strength which is necessary to sustain such a wall.

One of the objects of the invention is the provision of an improved wall structure particularly adapted for glass blocks, but equally adaptable for other bricks or blocks, by means of which a high degree of uniformity of location of the bricks or blocks and of the dimensions and characteristics of the joints is assured.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an'improved joint for wall structures, including glass bricks, blocks, or other materials, by means of which the strength of the wall is greatly increased and the load may be taken off the individual blocks and sustained by a joint structure that is peculiarly adapted to carry the load.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved method of making wall structures by means of which more uniform and stronger joints may be provided and the load of a glass brick wall may be taken by the joint structures.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved pre-cast 'joint structure for walls laid up in courses, which may be reinforced, and which may tie the whole wall together, align the blocks or bricks, sustain the weight of the individual blocks or bricks. and assure the provision sions and strength.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved wall structure and pre-cast joint structure, by means of which waste'of maof joints of uniform dimenl vision of improved aligning and spacing devices of which the spacing of the joints is automatically predetermined and uniform joints are assured.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved wall structure including uniform pre-cast joints, by means of which the prevent the separation of the facing from the rest of the wall.

Another object of the invention is the provision reinforcing and broken joints between the pre-cast joints and the blocks or bricks of which the wall is composed.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved wall structure, including pre-cast reinforced joint members in which the horizontal joint members are adapted to act Yto tie the bricks or blocks of the wall together longitudinally of the wall, and the vertical joint members are adapted to act as load bearing struts for taking the load olf the blocks, if blocks are employed which are not adapted to bear a heavy load,

Other objects and advantages of the invention following description and the accompanying drawings, in which similar characters of reference indicate similar parts throughout the several views.

Referring to the two sheets of drawings,

Fig. 1 is a fragmentary view in perspective of a glass block wall provided with simple precast concrete joints constructed according to the invention;

Fig. 2 is a full sized fragmentary elevational view of the intersection of two joints as shown in Fig. 1;

walls are laid up according` member of the type of the outer surface Fig. 3 is a sectional view, taken on the plane of the line 2-3 of Fig. 2, looking in the direction of the arrows;

Fig. 4 is a view in perspective, partially broken away, to show the reinforcement of a horizontal pre-cast joint member;

Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. l of a modied joint and wall structure in which the horizontal joints are provided with means for aligning the blocks in a vertical direction;

Fig. 6 is a front elevational view, in partial section, of a part of the wall of Fig. 5;

Fig. 7 is a top plan view of the wall structure, showing a modification of a vertical joint, by means of which the facing is tied into the backing wall of brick;

Fig. 8 is a sectional view, taken on the plane of the line 89of Fig. '1, looking in the direction of the arrows, and showing the pre-cast joint member acting as a tie;

Fig. 9 is a view in perspective of a vertical joint employed in Fig. 8.

Referring to Figs. l to 4, 20 indicates in its entirety a wall structure which is made up of glass blocks 2| to 28 and a plurality of pre-cast concrete joint members.

The concrete joint members comprise horizontal joint members 29 and verticaljoint members 30, which are similar in structure, but different in size. For example, a horizontal joint member is shown in Fig. 4, and it may comprise a pre-cast concrete slab of predetermined thickness, such as one-eighth inch, one-fourth inch, three-eighths inch, one-half inch, or any desired thickness.

The slab or joint member 29 is -as wide as the depth, front to back, of the glass blocks 2l to 28. It is preferably as long as the space taken by the width of two or more glass blocks and the intervening joints.

In the example given, the horizontal joint member 29 is 4long enough to span two glass blocks and the intermediate joints, but it may -be made long enough to span any number of joints, or from one to a dozen. The limit in length is determined by thickness and strength oi'the slab. The shorter slabs are preferred on account of ease in handling, packing, and shipping; and if the joints are made llong enough to span two blocks, the horizontal parts of the wall can be effectively tied together by means of such joints.

Both of the joint members, horizontal and vertical, are preferably rectangular in form so that they may b'e fitted together, as shown in Fig. 1. The vertical joint members 30 are preferably slightly higher than the blocks 2| to 28 and as wide as the blocks 2l to 28 are deep.

With regard to the depth of the blocks and the width of the joint members, the present pre-cast joint members may be utilized for making any kind of joints, including flush` joints, raked joints,

suitable reinforcing wire or wire mesh fabric or expanded metal.

The method of laying up a wail of the type shown in Fig. 1 is substantially as follows: The pre-cast vertical joint members 39 and horizontal joint members 29 are manufactured in advance at the factory or suitable plants, and have been set and cured priorto the installation of the wall. They are of the size and characteristics previously described, and adapted for the particular installation.

'I'he lowermost horizontal joint members 29 are laid upon a flat foundation wall 35, after first placing upon the wall a thin bed of mastic 36. This mastic may consist of a Porland cement grout or a suitable thin Portland cement and lime mortar, without sand; or it may consist of any initially plastic asphaltic compound which is adapted to provide a uniform and even bed between the lower plane surface of the horizontal joint members 29 and the upper plane surface of the concrete foundation 35.

The mortar, grout or mastic fills up the uneven spaces between these rough surfaces, and provides for uniform support of the weight of the superstructure.

Where the joint members engage glass blocks, the adhesive asphaltic or pitch composition mastic is used between the glass blocks, and the vertical and horizontal joint members 29 and 30, as at 31, 28.

After the first joint member 29 is laid on the foundation 95, it may be covered 'with a very thin layer of mastic, and the blocks 2li-#28 may be laid in such manner as to break the joints and locate the vertical struts 30 in between the blocks, with mastic on each side of each joint, and between each part of the block and the joint.

The first course of blocks 25-28 is then covered with the next thin layer of mastic 39, up to a point which is flush with the upper ends of the vertical struts 30, and the next horizontal layer of joint members 29 is laid, preferably with the joints of these joint members broken with respect protruding joints, -or joints which are later p pointed.

In the embodiment illustrating the invention, the width of the pre-cast joint members locates the outer surface 3| of the joints slightly inward 32 of the blocks so that the joint surface 3l :is approximately at the inner termination of the curve 33, which is provided at the corners of the blocks. Both of the joint members 29 and 30 are provided with metallic reinforcing 24, 34', fully embedded in the concrete, and the reinforcing may consist of any not onl to the blocks, but to the courses of joint members above and below.

It should be noted that the layers of mastic used between the pre-cast concrete joint members andthe glass blocks are so thin that at certain points the glass blocks may be n direct contact with the j uint members, and the mastic is used only to provide an even bed and adhesive contact between the concrete joints and the glass blocks.

The lowermost horizontal joint members 29 rest on the foundation. The next succeeding upper horizontal joint members 29 rest on the intermediate vertical struts 30. The glass blocks rest in the rectangular receptacles provided for them between the vertical struts and the horizontal joint members. J

In effect, each glass block is supported upon a horizontal joint member, which in turn is carried by vertical struts. l

As distinguished from the walls of the prior art, the glass blocks carry no weight except the individual weight of each block. Furthermore, the vertical and horizontal joints are all reinforced with metal reinforcing, and the entire assembly of pre-cast joints fits together in such manner that an extremely rigid assembly is provided.

The joints between the blocks are perfect in their regularity. depth. and formation. There is no waste of time in waiting for one joint to set before laying'another course of blocks. An installation of blocks may be made in a fraction of the time taken according to the methods of the prior art and with a'minimum waste of material, and a better job is assured.

The strength of the assembly exceeds by far that of any of the glass block walls of the prior art, and the mastic between the pre-cast concrete joints and the glass blocks permits the expansion and contraction of the glass blocks without causing destruction of the wall.

The slight amount of contraction and expansion which takes place in each block is ,taken up in its own receptacle by the elastic action of the mastic compound on all sides of the block.

Referring to Figs. and 6, this is a modification in which the glass block wall 40 is backed up by a brick wall 4l, and the horizontal joint members 42 are preferably provided on the top and bottom with vertically extending spacing flanges 43 for predetermining the position of the vertical joints.

In this embodiment the vertical anges .43 accurately locate the vertical joints and serve to maintain the vertical alignment of the struts one above the other.

It will be seen that the glass wall may be backed up by a brick Wall and tied to the brick wall according to any of the conventional methods.

Referring to Figs. 7, 8, and 9, this is a modification of the invention in which the vertical struts 44 are provided with rearwardly extending tongues 45, having apertures 45A, extending into the joints between the bricks of the backing wall 4|, to tie the facing to the backing wall.

AIn most cases it will be suicient to provide anchor members 'I6 or 'I9 at predetermined intervals, or to provide tongues of metal lath 83, which are integrally joined to the metal lath 80 and extend into the joints of the back wall.

In effect, the structure of Fig. is similar to that of Fig. 5, except the mortar joints are not pre-cast. In every case where my pre-cast mortar joints are provided with protruding lugs or ribs at 43v or anchors 45 or extensions 10, 41, or 12, these lugs or extensions, are provided with reinforcing extensions of the metal lath or other reinforcing which is employed in the pre-cast joints. Thus there is no danger of the lugs breaking 01T because they are firmly attached to the body of the pre-cast joint by reinforcing.

It will thus be observed that I have invented an improved glass wall structure in which the strength of the completed glass block wall is greatly increased. The weight ris taken oi the glass blocks and carried by the concrete struts or joint members, and the joints are uniform in width and spaced with a regularity which greatly improves the appearance of the wall. In the event of the breakage of any glass block, it is only necessary to break the block out completely by means of chisels or other impact tools, and thereafter a new block may be covered with mastic at its top, bottom, and sides, and slid into the socket, which is vacated by the broken block. Any excess of mastic may then be removed, and wherever the joint is open, additional mastic applied, so that the replaced block is made the firm part of the wall.

In the event it is desired to dismantle the wall and preserve the blocks and precast joint slabs intact, it is only necessary to utilize a thin knife blade or a hooked wire, such as an ordinary button-hook, or a wire oi greater length'to dig out the asphaltic or other adhesive compound between the glass blocks and the pre-cast concrete joint members. Once this has been done, the blocks may be slid out ol' their sockets; and after al1 of the blocks, have been removed from the wall, the horizontal and vertical concrete slabs may then be taken apart.

It will also be evident that after one course of glass'blocks has been removed, it will be a relatively simple matter to remove the lower succeeding courses and the concrete joint members. one after another, without necessity for such digging operations. The digging is only required where all the sides of the block are still confined by mastic.

The present system is not only adaptable to glass blocks. but may be used with ordinary bricks, which may be firmly secured to the pre-cast concrete joints by means of grout used as mortar, instead 0f the mastic which is employed with glass blocks.

While I have illustrated a preferred embodiment of my invention, many modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and I do not wish to be limited to the precise details of construction set forth, but desire to avail myself of all changes within the scope of the appended claims. i

Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is:

1. In a, wall structure, the combination of a rigid supporting framework comprising a plurality of horizontally extending pre-cast concrete slab members adapted to serve as horizontal joints, and a plurality of vertically extending precast concrete slab members adapted to serve as vertical joints, said slab members having their largest surface areas substantially plane, and said horizontal slab members being spaced from each other by a distance slightly greater than the vertical depth of building blocks to be used in said structure, and said vertical slabs being spaced from each other by a distance slightly greater than the horizontal width of the build ing blocks to be used in said structure, said structure being built up alternately of horizontal slab members, and a series of vertical slab members supporting succeeding horizontal slab members and forming box-like recesses of a size adapted to slidably receive building blocks `of vitreous material or the like, whereby the building blocks do not support any load other than each block supporting its own weight, and the load of the upper courses is carried by the horizontally extending slab members and the vertically extending slab members, the latter serving as struts, a plurality of building blocks in said recesses, and a sticky adhesive compound adapted to adhere to the building blocks and to the concrete slab members, lling the space between the sides of each building block and the adjacent walls of the slab members, whereby the structure is made watertight and each block is caused to adhere to the walls of its recess in the framework, said horizontal slab members being formed with vertically extending portions of substantially the same width as the vertically extending slab members and adapted to support the vertically extending slab members and to determine their location.

2. In a Wall structure, the combination of a rigid supporting framework comprising a plurality of horizontally extending pre-cast concrete slab members adapted to serve as horizontal joints, and a plurality o! vertically extending precast concrete slab members adapted to serve as vertical joints, said slab members having their largest surface areas substantially piane, and said horizontal slab members being spaced from each other by a distance slightly greater than the vertical depth of building blocks to be used in said structure, and said vertical slabs being spaced from each other by a distance slightly greater than the horizontal width of the building blocks to be used in said structure, said structure being built up alternately of horizontal slab members, and a series of vertical slab members supporting succeeding horizontal slab members and forming,

box-like recesses of a size adapted to slidably receive building blocks of vitreous material or the like, whereby the building blocks do not support any load other than each block supporting its own weight, and the load of the upper courses is carried by the horizontally extending slab members and the vertically extending slab members, the latter serving as struts, the horizontal slab members in each course comprising a plurality of sections of a length sufficient to span more than one block, and the ends of the sections forming abutting joints between horizontal slab members, intermediate between the side walls of the building blocks, and vertically extending portions located above and below said horizontal slab members and forming shoulders between which the building blocks must be located to predetermine the alignment of the joints in the wall.

3. In a wall structure for vitreous blocks, the combination of a supporting wall member of bricks or the like, said bricks being arranged in regular courses and having their joints arranged to coincide with certain of the joints of a front wall structure, said front wall structure comprising a plurality oi vitreous building blocks, and a plurality of horizontal and vertical joint members of reinforced concrete, said horizontal joint members comprising slabs of concrete of a thickness substantially equal to the thickness of the joint desired and of a width corresponding substantially to the depth of the vitreous building blocks, each of said horizontal joint members extending between a plurality of blocks, and the joints between said horizontal joint members being intermediate the vitreous blocks, said horizontal joint members also having upwardly extending and downwardly extending joint shoulders located between the vitreous blocks and adapted to engage the vertical joint members comprising concrete slabs of substantially rectangular shape adapted to rest upon the upwardly extending -portions of said horizontal joint members and to engage the downwardly extending portions of the horizontal joint members of the next upper course, thus forming a plurality of recesses of a cross section adapted to t said vitreous building blocks with a clearance, and an initially plastic mastic compound engaging the walls of said recesses, and providing a bed for the vitreous building blocks against the concrete joint members and iilling in said clearance, said mastic compound also serving to strengthen the assembly and to hold the complete structure of building blocks and joint members in predetermined shape, whereby the blocks are all supported upon the framework of the joint members without bearing any other weight than their own weight and any block may be replaced by removing the mastic surrounding it. 4. In a wall structure for vitreous blocks, the combination of a supporting wall member of bricks or the like, said bricks being arranged in regular courses and having their joints arranged to coincide with certain of the joints of a front wall structure, said front wall structure comprising a plurality of vitreous building blocks, and a plurality of horizontal and vertical joint members of reinforced concrete, said horizontal joint members comprising slabs of concrete of a thickness substantially equal to the thickness of the joint desired and of a width corresponding substantially to the depth of the vitreous building blocks, each of said horizontal joint members extending between a plurality of blocks, and the joints between said horizontal joint members being intermediate the vitreous blocks, said horizontal joint members also having upwardly extending and downwardly extending joint shoulders located between the vitreous blocks and adapted to engage the vertical joint members comprising concrete slabs of substantially rectangular shape adapted to rest upon the upwardly extending portions of said horizontal joint members and to engage the downwardly extending portions of the horizontal joint member.r of the next upper course, thus forming a plurality of recesses of a cross section adapted to fit said vitreous building blocks with a clearance, and an initially plastic mastic compound engaging the walls oi said recesses, and providing a bed for the vitreous building blocks against the concrete joint members and iilling in said clearance, said mastic compound also serving to strengthen the assembly and to hold the complete structure of building blocks and joint members in predetermined shape, whereby the blocks are all supported upon the framework of the joint members without bearing any other weight than their own weight and any block may be replaced by removing the mastic surrounding it, certain of said strut members having rearwardly extending extensions anchored in said first-mentioned supporting wall whereby the forward wall structure is carried and supported by the rear wall structure.

RUDOLPH KALKUSCH.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2546356 *Apr 21, 1948Mar 27, 1951Boyd John BWall structure of building blocks
US4899512 *Feb 10, 1988Feb 13, 1990Degooyer Lonnie CSpacer and fabric mesh reinforcement member for glass block masonry installation
US4916876 *Jun 3, 1988Apr 17, 1990Schuyler Stephen V CGlass block wall construction
US4948539 *Sep 27, 1988Aug 14, 1990Byers Thomas LPhototool with a glass member connected to a frame member with an adhesive
US4986048 *Jan 11, 1990Jan 22, 1991Pittsburgh Corning CorporationMethod and apparatus for erecting a glass block wall
US4999964 *May 4, 1989Mar 19, 1991Innovative Building Products, Inc.Floor grid system
US5009048 *Aug 15, 1989Apr 23, 1991Acrymet Industries Inc.Glass block walls using acrylic or glass filters
US5259161 *Jun 3, 1991Nov 9, 1993Carter Frank PVertical and horizontal reinforcement and spacing guide for panels constructed of blocks
US5485702 *Mar 25, 1994Jan 23, 1996Glenn SholtonMortarless glass block assembly
US20060191219 *May 15, 2006Aug 31, 2006Lemert Steven GGlass block panel system and fabrication method of same
US20140208671 *Jan 29, 2013Jul 31, 2014Ron ZoharMethods and devices for utilizing a thermally-efficient building block
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/308, 52/477, 52/513, 52/566
International ClassificationE04C1/00, E04C1/42
Cooperative ClassificationE04C1/42
European ClassificationE04C1/42