Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2347567 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 25, 1944
Filing dateMar 11, 1943
Priority dateMar 11, 1943
Publication numberUS 2347567 A, US 2347567A, US-A-2347567, US2347567 A, US2347567A
InventorsKresse Edward J
Original AssigneeKresse Edward J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Dental implant
US 2347567 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 25, 1944. E. J. KREssE DENTAL IMPLANT Filed March ll, 1943 EDwAR J. KRESSE INVENTOR.

` @ta/w57! Patented Apr. 25, 2.9214

UNITED STATES PATENT QFFICE DENTAL IMPLANT Edward J. Kresse, Denver, Colo.

Application March 11. 1943, Serial No. 478,823

4 Claims.

This invention relates, in general, to dentistry and has reference more particularly to improvements in materials from which to manufacture implants for use in mounting articial teeth, but which can also be used in traumatic bone surgery.

It has long been the custom to mount crowns on the natural roots which have iirst been prepared by grinding, cleaning and filling according to an established asceptic surgical procedure. Such practice has been largely discontinued for reasons that will not be pointed out herein.

As early as 1909 the use of a peculiarly constructed metal frame for insertion into the alveolus of an extracted tooth or in a cavity drilled in the jaw bone, was suggested as a bearing for` an artificial tooth (Patent 943,113). Since that time a large number of experiments have been carried out which show that implants for the mounting of crowns and for bone surgery are likely to cause sepsis and necrosis unless the material employed is selected with great care.

A metallic alloy sold under the name of Vitallium and composed of 65% cobalt, 30% chromium and 5% molybdenum has been found to be a suitable material for implants as it does not set up any appreciable electrolytic action which, if present, is objectionable as it produces metallic salts in the local tissue iluid which causes excessive cellular proliferation and in general inhibits osteoblastlc activity.

It is the object of this invention to produce a suitable nonmetallic material for use in makin surgical implants that will not produce any electrolytic action and in the body of which certain germicides can be incorporated which will be released graduallv through osmotic action, and in suilicient quantity to inhibit sepsis and necrosis.

It has been found that certain plastic substances, such, for example, as methyl methacrylate. polymers when mixed with a germlcide have osmotic properties which allow the germicide to slowly pass out in suiilcient quantity to inhibit sepsis. Such implants keep tissues and surrounding bone clean and healthy, thereby permitting full osteoblastic activity and osteogenesis to proceed in' a normal way.

Another object is to vproduce an implant that shall be provided with a drainage opening extending the entire length and through which iluids from the bottom of the alveolus can escape.

A further object is to produce an implant with means for making an operative connection with a tool for rotating it when it is inserted.

The above and any other objects that may berial, such as stainless steel, gold or silver.

come apparent as the description proceeds are u attained by means of a construction and an arrangement of parts that will now be described in detail, and for this purpose reference will new be had to the accompanying drawing in which:

Figure 1 is a cross section through an upper jaw bone showing an implant in place therein;

Figure 2 is a side elevation of the implant;

Figure 3 is an end view of Figure 2;

Figure 4 is a longitudinally diametrical section taken of Figure 3;

Figure 5 is a fragmentary diametrical section to an enlarged scale; and

Figure 6 is a longitudinal section similar to that shown in Figure 4 and shows a slightly modiiled construction.

In the drawing reference numeral 5 designates the jaw bone and 6 the eshy covering thereof, while reference numeral I designates the implant and 8 a crown secured to the implant.

In order to illustrate one speciiic use of the material that forms the subject of this invention a dental implant constructed therefrom will be described. 'I'he material is a plastic in the poly. mer or monomer of which a chemical having germicidal properties or actions has been incorporated in a manner which will hereinafter be referred to in greater detail. The plastic which has been employed in this invention and which is illustrative of plastics of a type suitable for this purpose is a methyl methacrylate which is furnished by the manufacturer in two parts, one of which is a powder and the other a liquid monomer, such plastics are thermoplastic and can be molded in a suitable metal mold. In the present instance, a two-part mold has been employed.

'I'he implant has the general appearance of a wood screwland in the drawing the threads have been designated by reference numeral 9. During the molding operation the implant is provided with a drainage opening III that extends the entire length thereof and may be formed by a tubular metal member such as that designated by reference numeral l I, although if plastics of sufcient hardness are used, such openings may be formed in the plastic implant itself. The larger end of the implant is provided with a ferrule l2 which is made from some noncorrodible mate- In order to turn the implant during the operation of inserting it in the alveolus, it is provided in addition to the drainage tube I i, with one or more short tubes i3 that are placed adjacent the drainage tube and soldered or welded thereto or they may be secured to the drainage tube by a wire wrapping as it is only necessary that they be held in position during the molding operation since after the plastic has set, it will securely hold the several tubes in position.

Since the process of molding plastics is well understood. it will not be described herein. In the present case it merely involves a two-part mold having an opening of the size and shape desired. When the materials forming the plastic are mixed, certain chemicals having germicidal properties such as silver nitrate, iodine crystals, thymol iodide, sulfa derivatives, formalin derivatives, either in the form of a fine powder of uniform of varying size, or as a liquid are mixed with the monomer and after the plastic has been molded and set, such germicldes arequite uniformly distributedthroughout the entire mass. The presence of these germicides produce a plastic that has osmotic properties and therefore when the implant is in position the fluids from the socket gradually absorb sumcient quantities of germicide to inhibit sepsis or necrosis.

The method of inserting the implants is that after the tooth has been extracted, a suitable tap is employed for cutting threads in the walls of the alveolus, after which the implant is positioned on the end of a tool I4, having a plurality of prongs I5 positioned to engage in the openings in tubes II and I3. The tool I4 forms what may be termed a screw driver and enables the operator to place the implant in position. After the implant has been positioned in the alveolus, the tool is removed, leaving the central drain opening I free to permit the escape of fluids and in this way the production of pressures at the bottom of the alveolus is prevented. The germicides that have been incorporated in the plastic prevent sepsis and promote osteoblastic acitivity and the new bone thus formed' lls the grooves between the threads and provide a firm and rigid support for the implant.

For the purpose of hastening and expediting the osmotic process foreign objects such as fine particles of rubber of the type employed in vulcanized dentures may be mixed with the polymer or monomer before the materials are molded and this produces a plastic body of such porosity as may be desired. These have been indicated by dots in the sections and have been designated by numeral I6. However, when germicides of crystals form are employed, these will leave pores of microscopic size as they dissolve, thereby providing a multitude of passages that gradually extend inwardly and through which the germicide is liberated in sumcient quantity to prevent sepsis. Increased porosity may also be obtained by other means such as mixing other than'the normal monomer with the polymer or mixing organic plastics therewith, and it may also be obtained in the fabrication of the plastic by other chemical or physical treatments.

After the implant has been positioned and the new bone growth has formed so as to hold it rigidly and after all danger of irritation and decomposition has passed, a crown I3 may be attached by mean/s of prongs such as those indicated by reference numeral I5 in Figure 4.

From the above description it will be apparent that the implant that has been described and which is illustrative of surgical implants made from the material that forms the subject of this invention is: first of all, a nonmetallic implant, and since the material is a nonconductor of electricity and is of uniform composition, it cannot produce electrolysis. Another important feature of distinction is that it comprises in its'body a 75 material having germicidaproperties which produce porosity and which gives to the material osmotic characteristics that permit the germicide to be slowly delivered to the enclosing membranes; this a property that is not present in metallic implants. The amount of porosity can be regulated in the manner above pointed out.

Although the implant which forms the subject of this invention has been described in connection with dentistry, it is also equally suited for use in traumatic bone surgery where ordinary metal implants often produce necrosis. The shape of the implant and the size, shape and pitch of the threads, can, of course, be varied as`well as its size and since the material of which it is formed is very strong, it is highly suitable for connecting pieces of bone that have been broken because the properties that make it suitable for dental implants are of equal value wherever implants are indicated in connection with any other portion of the body.

It is to be understood that any suitable plastics can be employed, either thermosetting or thermoplastic.

TheA roots of the teeth are separated from the jaw bone by a layer of peridontal tissue which is elastic and serves to absorb shock. In Figure 6 an enlarged sectional view of the assembly is shown in which the center dowel'pin I5 is shown as extending almost entirely through the entire length of the drain tube II, or through the opening where no drain tube is used. Between the dowels I5 and the sides of the tube an elastic cement I1 is positioned and a layer of this cement is positioned between the tooth 8 and the implant as shown at I8. The elastic cement may be of natural rubber, a synthetic rubber or plastic and serves the double purpose of securing the tooth to the implant and as a shock absorber corresponding in function to the peridontal tissues. Instead of having the elastic connection in the implant the dowels may be mounted elastically in the tooth.

Having described the invention what is claimed as new is:

1. A material for'use in making surgical implants comprising a thermoplastic of the methyl methacrylate type having incorporated therein a solid water soluble chemical having germicidal properties, the chemical being present in sufficient quantity to produce a porous structure after the germicide has been dissolved and removed by osmotic action.

2. A material for use in making surgical irnplants comprising methyl methacrylate and a water soluble germicide` chemical in crystal form. the latter being present in the implant in sufcient quantity to produce continuous, inwardly extending passages as the germicide is dissolved.

3. A material for use in making surgical implants comprising a thermoplastic of the methyl methacrylate type with which is mixed particles of dental vulcanite in sufilcient quantity to produce a porous structure, and a water soluble chemical having germicidal properties.

4. A non-metallic material for use in making surgical implants comprising a thermo responsive plastic, free from rubber, in which is incorporated a germicidal chemical in crystal form, the crystals being present in suiiicient quantity to produce continuous passages as the chemical dissolve whereby the germicide will be slowly dissolved and released when subjected to the action of body iiuids.

EDWARD J. KRESSE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2449522 *Apr 3, 1945Sep 14, 1948White Albert HArtificial tooth
US2609604 *Feb 14, 1949Sep 9, 1952Sprague Boyd FDental screw insert
US2665218 *Mar 12, 1948Jan 5, 1954Saffir Jacob ADental cements
US2835035 *Jul 26, 1952May 20, 1958Wolfdietrich RauscherArtificial tooth and method of making the same
US2846322 *Apr 29, 1952Aug 5, 1958Edgar SchaeferBactericidal dental cements
US3087904 *Jan 14, 1958Apr 30, 1963Kalden ErnstDental dressing composition comprising a polyamide and a solvent therefor
US3499222 *Aug 17, 1965Mar 10, 1970Leonard I LinkowIntra-osseous pins and posts and their use and techniques thereof
US3514858 *Apr 14, 1969Jun 2, 1970Silverman Ralph HDenture securing apparatus
US3579831 *Mar 5, 1969May 25, 1971Stevens Irving JBone implant
US3590485 *Oct 1, 1969Jul 6, 1971Chercheve MichelDental implant
US3890227 *Aug 29, 1973Jun 17, 1975Petro Tex Chem CorpTreatment of process water
US4046732 *Jan 9, 1975Sep 6, 1977Infante Samuel JDispersant for the application of dental ceramic
US4060896 *May 24, 1976Dec 6, 1977Wahnish M ErvinProsthodontic implant and method
US4096241 *Jun 24, 1976Jun 20, 1978Ed. Geistlich Sohne A.G. Fur Chemische IndustrieBactericides for prevention and treatment of parodontosis
US4141864 *Dec 16, 1977Feb 27, 1979University Of Virginia Alumni Patents FoundationOrthopedics, dentistry, in situ leachable particles
US4277238 *Mar 30, 1979Jul 7, 1981Masataka KatagiriArtificial bonelike graft and method for producing the same
US4384960 *Nov 13, 1979May 24, 1983Polley R DIodine dispenser and method of dispensing iodine
US4626214 *May 11, 1984Dec 2, 1986Artal Alberto AFixed dental implant
US4671768 *Dec 5, 1983Jun 9, 1987Ton Michael AImplant as well as a dental prosthesis attached to one or more of such implants
US4758161 *Jan 28, 1987Jul 19, 1988Core-Vent CorporationCoping insert for use with a dental implant
US4960381 *Aug 10, 1988Oct 2, 1990Core-Vent CorporationScrew-type dental implant anchor
US5018970 *May 5, 1989May 28, 1991Stordahl Finn RImplant teeth--permanent bases with replaceable caps
US5030096 *Oct 2, 1989Jul 9, 1991Steri-Oss, Inc.Implant healing cap and holder
US5078607 *Feb 12, 1991Jan 7, 1992Core-Vent CorporationDental implant including plural anchoring means
US5527183 *Aug 9, 1994Jun 18, 1996Collaborative Enterprises, Inc.Endosseous implant system
US5755574 *Jun 6, 1995May 26, 1998D'alise; James V.Endosseous dental implant and method of manufacture
US5816809 *Sep 4, 1996Oct 6, 1998Genetic Implant Systems, Inc.Dental prosthesis support device and method of using same
US5823777 *Feb 7, 1997Oct 20, 1998Biohorizons, Inc.For implanting in bone
US5927979 *Mar 31, 1997Jul 27, 1999Biohorizons Implants Systems, Inc.Abutment-mount system for dental implants
US6007336 *May 11, 1998Dec 28, 1999Sapkos; Stanley W.Dental prosthesis support device and method of using same
US6068480 *Jun 22, 1999May 30, 2000Biohorizons Implant Systems, Inc.Abutment-mount with square driving surface
US6077267 *Apr 19, 1995Jun 20, 2000Huene; Donald R.Absorbable bone screw and tool for its insertion
US6083004 *Jun 18, 1998Jul 4, 2000Biohorizons Implant Systems, Inc.Abutment-mount system for dental implants
US6155812 *Jul 15, 1998Dec 5, 2000Biomet, IncCement mold for a temporary implant
US6205837May 27, 1999Mar 27, 2001Stanley W. SapkosDental prosthesis support device and method of using same
US6217332May 3, 1999Apr 17, 2001Nobel Biocare AbCombination implant carrier and vial cap
US6312260Aug 12, 1999Nov 6, 2001Nobel Biocare AbOne-step threaded implant
US6315562Dec 6, 1999Nov 13, 2001Nobel Biocare Usa, Inc.Implant carrier with gripping fingers
US6361731Nov 10, 2000Mar 26, 2002Biomet, Inc.Method of forming a temporary implant
US6561805Jan 16, 2001May 13, 2003Nobel Biocare AbUniversal implant delivery system
US6569188 *Jun 18, 2001May 27, 2003Arthrex, Inc.Hex drive bioabsorbable tissue anchor
US6887077Aug 16, 2002May 3, 2005Implant Innovations, Inc.Immediate load dental implant system and method of use
US6913465Jan 13, 2003Jul 5, 2005Nobel Biocare Services AgDental implant delivery system
US6955258Jul 31, 2003Oct 18, 2005Nobel Biocare AbDental implant packaging system
US7270653May 18, 2004Sep 18, 2007Abbott Research GroupMethods of treating abnormal biological conditions using metal oxides
US7276056Feb 20, 2003Oct 2, 2007Abbott Research Group, Inc.Methods of treating abnormal biological conditions by vaginal douching
US7285121May 2, 2002Oct 23, 2007Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Devices and methods for the correction and treatment of spinal deformities
US7963984 *Jun 8, 2007Jun 21, 2011Stryker Ortho PedicsApparatus and method for attaching a graft ligament to a bone
US8118789Jun 6, 2007Feb 21, 2012Abbott Research Group, Inc.Deodorizer devices and systems for controlling perspiration-related body odor
US8206143Feb 20, 2009Jun 26, 2012Biomet Manufacturing Corp.Modular articulating cement spacer
US8556627Sep 9, 2011Oct 15, 2013Maxillent Ltd.Dental implant having a recessed surface for sealing
US8662891Dec 8, 2011Mar 4, 2014Maxillent Ltd.Implants, tools, and methods for sinus lift and lateral ridge augmentation
US8696354 *Mar 1, 2012Apr 15, 2014Maxillent Ltd.Dental implement having lumen and distal threading
US8702423Dec 8, 2011Apr 22, 2014Maxillent Ltd.Cortical drilling
US8721334 *Aug 2, 2011May 13, 2014Maxillent Ltd.Dental implements having end mill cutter surfaces
US20110287386 *Aug 2, 2011Nov 24, 2011Maxillent Ltd.Implants, tools, and methods for sinus lift and lateral ridge augmentation
US20120164603 *Mar 1, 2012Jun 28, 2012Maxillent Ltd.Dental implement having lumen and distal threading
USRE33796 *Oct 5, 1988Jan 14, 1992Core-Vent CorporationCoping insert for use with a dental implant
USRE35784 *Jan 16, 1996May 5, 1998Vent-Plant CorporationSubmergible screw-type dental implant and method of utilization
DE960224C *Aug 9, 1951Mar 21, 1957Wolfdietrich Rauscher Dr Med DKunstzahn, Verfahren zu seiner Herstellung und Werkzeug zum Einsetzen des Kunstzahnes
DE2812696A1 *Mar 23, 1978Sep 27, 1979Wilhelm Dr Dr Med SchlattmannImplantat fuer zahnprothesen und verfahren zu seiner herstellung
EP0320791A2 *Dec 8, 1988Jun 21, 1989Bauer, Ernst, Dr.Finger wrench
WO1982001990A1 *Dec 8, 1981Jun 24, 1982Christiansen Karen SBone cement
WO1993021848A1 *Apr 22, 1993Nov 11, 1993Donald R HueneAbsorbable bone screw and tool for its insertion
WO1998042274A2 *Mar 19, 1998Oct 1, 1998Unger Heinz DieterImplant body and rotatory body
Classifications
U.S. Classification424/487, 424/667, 433/174, 514/694, 514/601, 514/731, 424/619, 514/772.4, 424/618, 424/655, 424/646
International ClassificationA61C8/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61C8/0089, A61C8/0022
European ClassificationA61C8/00F2, A61C8/00T