US 2348277 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 9, 1944.
Zo ZI w. M. BooTHBY ETAL 2,348,277
OXYGEN MASK Filed April 14, 1941 4 sheets-sheet 1 '14 "3 IesA Invencrs M. BaOl'hbg- A. H. Bullouliom..
'Bu 5MM Y May 9, 1.9441 w. M. BOQTHBY m1 2,348,211
f OXYGENl MASK Filed April 14, 1941 4 Sheets-sheet 2 May 9, 1944,
w. M.v BOOTHBY ET AL l 2,348,277I
OXYGEN MASK Filed April 14, 1941 4 sheets-sheet 4 Invefors w. M. Boohlo.
A, 'H Bulbul. BWM/Wzm@ Patented` May 9, 1944 OXYGEN MASK walter M. noouiby and Arthur n. Bulbuuan,
Application April '14, 1941, serial No. 388,482
(ci. 12s- 202) l 7 Claims.
Our invention relates to means for administering oxygen for breathing at varying altitudes and atmospheric pressures, and primarily is,A intended for the use of aviators, particularly military aviato'rs, who have occasion to ily to great heights.
There is a direct relation between kthe pressure of oxygen in the alveolar regions of the lungs and thebarometric pressure of the atmosphere in which the atmosphere at its barometric pressure is breathed. It further is true that when the alveolar oxygen pressure drops below a certain point serious pathological disturbances may result. In general barometric pressures correspending to those up to elevations of 10,000 feet can be endured by most normal individuals without serious consequences. Ii the physicalcondition of an aviator ,is good he can withstand the anoxia or insumcient oxygen of the atmosphere he is breathing at pressure corresponding to elevations of 15,000 feet, perhaps as long as one hour. From such elevations up there is a rapidly decreasing endurance of anoxia and death may ensue at barometric pressures between 20,000 and 23,000 feet. It may be set forth that above 10,000 feet increases in elevation of everythousand feet greatly shortens the length of time the aviator can maintain his altitude with safety. It is true, however, that in military aviatio frequently much higher elevations must be entered even up to some 40,000 feet. Under` such `conditions there must be means afforded the avi# ator to supply additional quantities of oxygen in the lungs in order to raise the alveolar pressure of oxygen to a. point approximating normal. It is further true that at the high elevations attained in military aviation intense cold is encountered and it is essential to have the oxygen supplying means so constructed that at leastthe'v exhalation valves will not become inoperative be. cause of freezing. In practice oxygen may be that when he returns to the high altitudes he will be subject to dangerbus conditions of anoxia.
It is further essential that any mask structure worn by an aviator shall be provided with a microphone favorably located for radio transmission oi' the voice of the aviator, and this must be so related to the air passages and valves as they are constructed as not to interfere with ready and easy breathing.
It is a principal object of our invention therefore to provide against all these contingencies so that dependable apparatus is given the aviator y 'such that he may be protected against any and all of the hazards above enumerated.
It is a further object of our invention to provide a mask structure which as worn will cooperate with the'aviators helmet to completely protect all parts of the face of the aviator below the eyes and whichI in conjunction with the avi-l ators goggles and helmet will in fact completely cover and protect theA whole face of the aviator.
It is a further object of our invention to provide a mask wherein a'portion thereof will extend below the chin of the aviator and will provide means for securing the same upon the aviators head such that the mask w11 resist the severe stresses in flying and diving above enumerated and remain in' position under every conceivable exigency of altitude and ight.
It is a further object of our invention to provide a mask structure wherein a pair of turret devices adapted for any desired type `of valve structure are symmetrically positioned on the face of the wearer and are provided with special breathing channels connecting with outside tubes going to the reservoir rebreathing bag.
It is a further object of our-invention to form v the mask with side portions adapted to engage high up on the cheeks of the wearer, said side supplied in a substantially closed circuit except for exhalation, in which case the exhalation valve alone must be protected from freezing. In other forms of apparatus inhalation of air also is pro- 1 vided by an inhalation valve in which case this valve also must be protected from freezing:
The use of masks and attendant apparatus in military aviation is furthercomplicated by the fact that there are occasions when flyingmust be carried on with tremendously rapid descents from high altitudes to much lower altitudes. as in dive bombing,- and the pressures encountered in such descents and particularly in the reversal thereof are so 'great that there is danger that mask apparatus may be torn from the aviator so portions extending into the part below the' chin of the wearer and being formed with symmetrically disposed outward extensions provided with outwardly directed openings for connection of the mask to the reservoir rebreathingbag as may be desired, with said breathing channels formed in the extensions.
It is a further object of our'inven'tion to provide, in conjunction withthe two outletsfrom the mask, mechanism whereby the tubes to the reservoir rebreathing bag may be extended either up or down as desired, when down to go to areservoir rebreathing 'bag which" may be supported under the coat of the wearer. when up to go to a reservoir rebreathin'g bag which maybe supported in 1 connecting said breathing openings thereto.`
a compartment attached to the top of the helmet of the aviator. y
It is a further object of our invention to provide oxygen delivering apparatus -including a mask and symmetrically disposed breathing outlets at each side of the mask in conjunction with means for supporting a reservoir rebreathing bagupon the top of the helmet of the aviator and for It is a further object of our invention to provide a casing for a reservoir rebreathing bag adapted to be removably attached to the helmet of the aviator and to form a protected compartment warmed by the heat from the aviators head in which the reservoir rebreathing bag will be positioned, said compartment being provided with apertures to atmosphere and an exhaling valve being positioned in the compartment whereby the same will be protected from freezing as it would be if worn under the coat of the aviator.
It is a further object of ourinvention to provide a specially constructed metallic or Bakelite saddle or reinforcing member which shall be light and strong and at the same time hold the face contacting portions of the mask firmly in position. It is a further object of our invention .to have the mask body formed very thin of dipped rubber and to support it with theaforesaid reenforcing saddlemade up of spaced bands of metal and secured directly to the body of the mask.
It is a further object of our invention to have the saddle so formed that a portion thereof will engage about the outer contour of the mask but spaced therefrom a, slight distance and to form said outer contours with a cross-sectional inward curve whereby together with the aforesaid reenforcing member for face-contacting portions of the mask will be adapted to conform to any contours of the face.` The full objects and advantages of our invention will appear in connection with'the description as given in the specication and as shown in the drawings, and thenovel features by which these desirable objects are attained will be particularly pointed out in the claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a front elevation view of our oxygen administering apparatus with the reinforcing saddle in position and the rebreathing compartment secured to the top of the helmet.
Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 without the reinforcing members showing adifferent method of connecting the mask to the head ofthe wearer and indicating the tubes extending downwardly to a reservoir vrebreathing bag under the coat.
Fig. 3 is a detail view of a form of exhaling valve.l
Fig. iis a substantially diagrammatic view of a source of oxygen supply.
Fig. 5 is a side 'elevation view showing the 25 into valve turrets mask of Figs. 2 as worn with the tubes extending downwardly as in Fig. 2. i
Fig. 6 is a partial side view of the rrask as worn taken on a central sectional line.
Fig. 'I is a view of the mask from -the inside with fastening means eliminated.- Il12tlg. 8 is a sectional view taken on line 9-8 of- Fig. 9 is a sectional view ytaken on line 9-9 of Fig. 10 is apart perspectiveview of a connector adapted to ,unite the breathingpassages ofthe mask with the tubes leading to the; lreservoir rebreathing bag, which as above stated may be 7g either up or down.
'protuberant portions 29 A mask body II is provided with a nose receiving portion I2 and lateral extensions I3 and I4 to which in-the form shown in Figs. 2 and 5 are secured tabs I5 and I5' carrying a band I3 which is adapted to encircle' the head'of a wearer as indicated in Fig. 5. A central flattened turret I1 is adapted to hold a microphone indicated diagrammatieally at I8, Fig. 6. The microphone turret |1 is substantially in the center of the mask structure. -At each side thereof and preferably at slight angles, as shown in Figs. 2 and '1, are a pair of valve turrets I9 and 20. Within these turrets any suitable valve mechanism may be employed as for example discs 2| of sponge rubber. Such discs of sponge rubber provide a restrictionin breathing, for either expiration or of exhalation gases which is that most heavily charged with oxygen and that thereafter the latter part of the exhalation will-pass out through Correspondingly upon inspiration the reservoir rebreathing bag will first be emptied and then air may be drawn in through the sponge rubber valve discs 2|, although restriction by said valve discs may be sufficient so that if abundant oxygen is being supplied there will be substantially no inspiration of air through the sponge rubber dises 2| on inhalation;l
As clearly shown in Fig. '1, the openings 24 and I9 and 20 are offset outwardly from the planes of the mask extensions the sponge rubber valve discs 2|.
Il and I5, there being formed about said turret openings ear-shaped channels 26 and 21 which appear as double protuberant portions 29, 29 and 30, 3|, Fig. 2. These protuberant portions are lextended in a union portion 32 which surrounds a channel 33 having a curved outward wall 34 and a substantially straight inner wall 35. By this means, a free passage of gas is provided to and from the chamber 38 inside of the mask and thence to and from the reservoir rebreathing bag by means which will now be described.
A feature of our invention which is of very great importance is the provision of an extension 23 ofthe mask body joining the extruded or and 3| and so shaped and positioned as to underlie the chin of the wearer, as clearly shown, particularly in Figs. 5 and 6. This underlying arrangement anchors the entire mask upon the chin of the wearer and takes the stress of the fastening means about the head of the wearer such as shown at `|6 in Fig. 5. It also has the added highly important function of receiving the terrific force of sudden reversals and upturns of the airplane, as in dive bombing or attack dives, or similar maneuvers. This force is transmitted directly to the lower jaw of the wearer whose head will normally under such conditions be held forward and down and thus will anchor the mask upon the `junction of th'e lower jaws at the chin and resist any tendency to strip the mask from the face of the wearer. Thisl effect will continue to anchor the mask, even though, as sometimes happens, the aviators head is jerked backward at the time of the turn.
There also has been a substantial difiiculty encountered with types of masks heretofore .employed of finding suitable insulation between the .mask body andthe helmet ofthe aviator. Often there has been a vspace at the chin and along the sides of the margins of the mask where atltack from severe coldcan take place and frosting results. The present structure, reaching clear e under the chin and spreading over the cheeks of the wearer, actually underlies the margins of the aviators helmet and produces a highly effective insulation. 1 p
It will be noted that the openings 33 extend outwardly and downwardly from the sides of the mask in effect spanning the lower portion of the face of the wearer. We may provide a connector piece 31 in detail such as shown in Fig. 10 which has a' portion 38 .adapted to be inserted in the openings 33, and extended from a shank portion 39 whichl in turn' is extended by a suitable curve into a portion 48 which receives the breathing tubes 4I and 42. The tubes 4I and 42 may g'o downwardly as indicated in Figs. 42 and 5 and connect with a union 43 which hasv an 5 outlet tube 44 going to the gas tube 45 leading to a reservoir rebreathing bag, not shown, which `is held beneath the coat indicated at 46. An exhalingv valve 41 of the typel s hown in detail in Fig. 3 may be incorporated inthe line 45 under thel coat of the wearer, as indicated in Fig. 5. An oxygen tube 48 leads from a supply of oxygen 49 with pressure regulatedin a well-known manl ner to the casing member of'valve 41 as shown in the lower part of Fig. 5, thus supplying oxygen to the breathing line at any desired or predetermined rate.
'I'he exhaling valve 41 comprises a casing 5I) `formed with oppositetubular extensions 5I and 52 connected in the breathing line formed by the tubes 42 and 4 I, respectively, the oxygen tube 48 preferably having a continuation 53 in casing extension 5I The valve structure of known form comprises a valve seat 54, a valve disc 55 engageable therewith, a spring 56 holding the disc 55,
in contact with valve seat 54 and a valve cap 51 holding the spring 56 in position and adapted to vary the pressure thereof upon valve disc 55 as may be desired.
' cheek portions 80 and 8| and a chin portion 82 When the sponge rubber valves 2l are em-Q ployed exhaling valve 41, as positioned under the coat (or in the compartment above the hel- .v
' the mask fora closed circuit except for exhaling,
in which case the turrets' I9v and 20 maybe closed by an impervious covering on the sponge vrubber valve and only oxygen be supplied tothe breather and exhalation taking place through the valve 41 positioned as above dened.
'I'he members 31 as shown in Figs. 2 and 5l are turned downwardly for delivering to reservoir rebreathing bag below the chin and where desired specically underfthe coat. These members 31 although asymmetrical can be moved to opposite sides and turned up as indicated in. Fig. 1. They will then be connected with tubes 58 and 59 which join at 60 and 8| with connector nipples 82.
'I'hese nipples are parts of a light casting 83, Fig. 1, which is provided with a flange 64 adapted to be secured by bolts 65 to the aviators helmet, which, following common practice, will be insulated as indicated at II. The opening 61 through nipples 62 extends .through channel 88 to a depending extension ,69 adapted to receive' a rebreathing bag 19 as shown inFig. 1, the neck 15 .'53 1I of the rebreathing bag being secured to the extension 69 in afcustomary manner. The casting63 is alsol provided with a channel 12 which communicates with oxygen tube 48.
An opening 13 above. extension 68 leads into the chamber 14 inside the extension .member 63 and connects with an exhalation valve similar to valve 41 shown in detail, which is located within the chamber 14. The-material of the extension;v member 63 will be light but rigid and forms the compartment 14 in which is located the rebreathing bag 10 and the exhalation valve similar to valve 41, not shown -in Fig. l. Apertures 15 toward the lower part of chamber 14" open 'to atmosphere. These apertures are so positioned that the gases of exhalation will be caused to spread throughout chamber 14 and-in that manner keepV the exhaling valve and the walls of the rebreathing bag sufliciently warm so that freezing cannot take place' within chamber 14. If desired to make more effective the warming of chamber 14, insulation, not'shown,` may be applied thereto in the manner of the insulation shown at 66 of Fig. 1.
As shown in Figs. 2 and 5 where the mask body II is composed ofvsufiiciently heavy molded rub- .ber the' securing band II maybe directly attached to the tabs I5 and l5v by means of rivets 16. 1 However', we have found it desirable as adding to the comfort with lwhich the mask can be worn and conducing to complete sealing of the `mask at its face-contacting contour margins to form the mask quite thin of dipped rubber, and
to provide in conjunction-with said thin-walled j mask structure a saddle-like reenforcing memberl 11 such as isshown;i n\ general outline in Fig. 1. This member will be formed of light, strong material such as thin sheet metal or possibly some y form. of Bakelite.' It `comprises a rim portion made up of nose clamping. portions 18 and 19,
which underlies the chin-engaging portion of the mask. The respective portions 80` and 8I are united with the chin portion 82 by means of arched spanning portions 83 and 84 and the nose clamping portions 18 and 19 are connected with the chin portion .82 by means of central ribs l 90 and 9I which are shaped as clearly shown to go about the microphone turret I1 and go inside of the. extruded portions29, 3| and 28, 30, as shown in Figs. 6, '1 and 9.A Further, the partsl 90 -and 9I may be provided with extensions 93 and 94 which take under the lip of the turret mem- `bers I9 and 20 and aid in supporting them against collapse.
The main mask body has, running around its entire contour limits, an edge portion 92 which is curved inwardly so as to show a substantially sharp edge as indicated at 95 and 96. The outer margin's of the saddle. 11 do not extend quite to the outer margins of the mask structure, leaving a part of the mask structure indicated at 91 and 7 98 which extends beyond said outer margins of the reenforcing saddle. The effect of these two devices, the curved edge contour and the extension of thejbody of the mask beyond the reenfoicing framework is to bring the vmargins of the mask into secure sealing contact with the face of the wearer. The pressure of the rigid or at least semi-rigid springy outer portions of the reenforcing saddleis thus held away from the actual contacting margins of the'reenforcing saddle frame', which insures not only a goodiit but comfort in the wearing of Ithe device. l l
As clearly indicated in Fig. 1,' two sets of straps vsie; and Inu,
a manner as not t sures for breathing safely adapted to be held upon and |ll| and |02 are secured respectively to check members 80, 8| and the chin member 824 immediately below its junction with the transverse members 90 and 9|. By these means the mask may be anchored very securely upon the face of the wearer. Although the tubes 4|, 42 and 58, 55 for ease of drawing are shown as smooth-walled tubes, the common corrugated tubing, such as shown at |04 of Fig. 8 and |05 of Fig. 9 may be employed as is customary, since these corrugated tubes have greater resistance to collapse from outside pressure.
The mode of operation ci our invention has been fairly well pointed reservoir rebreathing bag either down as underthe coat of the wearer or up as in the helmet of the'aviator, and this connection is made in such interfere at all with the mask itself both as a protective covering to the face oi the aviator, as' a holder for the microphone and as a provider of permits free and easy balanced breathing either through mouth or nose at all times.
In addition to the above advantageous uses of the mask it cooperates with the goggles and helmet ofthe aviator so as completely'to cover the iace'of the aviator and at all times protect from severe external cold. Furthermore, the form of the mask wherein a portion oi it underlies the chin oi the aviator and is held against the chin and beneath the margins of the aviators helmet, taken with the method of securing the same by straps passing to the back of the head of the aviator effectively retains the mask'in posiinduced by iiying maneuvers of aviators. At the same time the aviator, by merely inserting his fingers under the lower rim o! the mask between the mask and the helmet, can strip the mask upw'ardly from his face, in the event of necessity oi bailing out at high elevations and using a safety parachute outiit for supplying oxygen during that part of the parachute descent which is at too high altitudes and low barometric preswithout added oxygen. We claim:
1. A mask structure comprising a body portion the race and providing a sealed breathing chamber therein, said mask structure being shaped and formed to enclose the cheeks and the chin oi the wearer, raised portions in pairs above the respective cheek parts of the mask forming pairs oi; connected curved 'along their. -sides air-breathing channels open each pair of said into the breathing chamber,
, out in the descriptive speciiication already given, and its marked ada breathing chamber whichv tion so as to resist any and all severe stresses or the helmet of the wearer and forming a cham- I ber, channels extending outwardly and downwardly along the sides of the casing and forming tube connections, a reservoir rebreathing bag connected with said channels within the casing, means for supplying oxygen to said rebreathing bag, and tubes connecting the mask openings with the openings through the casing, an exhaling valve located within the casing, and openingsin the casing adapted to permit gases of exhalation to escapeI from the exhaling valve to pass out of said casing chamber.
3. A mask structure comprising a body portion formed of relatively thin rubber and adapted to be held upon the face and providing when so held a sealed breathing chamber therein, an extruded chamber formed at the center of'thevbody portion and adapted to hold a microphone, a pair of extruded turrets laterally disposed relative to said microphone turret adapted to hold valve mechanism, a saddle reenforcing member having strip-like portions extending about all the contour margins of the mask body with transverse portions extending between the microphone turret and the respective valve turrets for holding the mask -body in sealing position, and .means 'for conveying respiratory gases to and from the breathing chamber.
4. A mask structure comprising a body portion formed of relatively thin rubber and adapted to be held upon the face and providing when so held a sealed breathing chamber therein, an extruded chamber formed at the center of the body portion and adapted to hold a microphone, a pair of extruded turrets laterally disposed relative to said microphone turret adapted to hold valve. mechanism, asaddle reeniorcingf'member having striplike portions extending about all the contour margins of the mask body with transverse portions extendingbetween the microphone turret and the respective valve turrets for holding the`r the outer edges of mask-body'having its edges inwardly curved, and
meansfor conveying respiratory gases to and from the breathing chamber.
, 5. A mask structure comprising a body shaped and formed to contact the face of thewearer over the upper part of the nose,the cheeks and under the chin and forming a breathing chamber tioned at the center channels extending .into 'a single passagewayforming an opening from the breathing chamber in the mask body over iace-contactingparts, and an extruded turret adapted to hold a valve structure within and encircled by each of said pairs of curved passageways.
2. Inhalation apparatus comprising va mask structure adaptedto be held upon the face and providing-a sealed breathing chamber therein, said mask structure being shaped andvformed to enclose the cheeksand the chin oi thewearer and being provided with outwardly directed openings from the sides of said breathing chamber, a casing adapted to be secured to the ton about the nose and mouthoi a wearer, `an' extruded chamber sealed in said body thereof adapted to hold a microphone, a pair of ,extruded turrets symmetrically disposed at each side and adapted to hold valve mechanism, the extruded turrets being continued into raised portions of ,the mask body extending to the margins of the mask body and forming symmetrically disposed downwardlyturned passages for .conveying respiratory gases to and fromgsaid breathing chamber, and means e for conveying the gases to said passageways including tubes and reversible connectors, whereby respiratory gases on inhalation and exhalation coming through the tubes and passages and through the valve mechanism in the turrets will be brought to and from the breathing passages of the wearerlln an easy and uniformly commingled manner.
6. A mask structure comprising a' body portion adapted tobe held lupon a sealed breathing chamber therein, saidmask structure being shaped and formed to enclose the 'M cheeks and chin oi the wearer, raised portions the face and providing above the cheek parts oi the mask forming breathing passages curved rearwardly and downwardly, a turret extrudedin the mask body and adapted to hold a valve structure positioned adjacent each ofsaid passages and embraced by. its curvature and connected therewith at its bottom part, and tubes connected with-said curved passages tor conveying lrespiratory gases to and from the same, whereby respiratory gases on inhalation and exhalation coming through the tubes and curved passages and through the valve mechanism in the turrets will be brought to and from the breathing passages of the wearer in an easy and uniformly commingled manner.
'1. A mask structure comprising a body portion adapted to be held upon the tace and providing a sealed breathing chamber therein, said mask structure being constructed and formed to enclose the cheeks and chin of the wearer. raised portions above the cheek parts of the mask 'forming pairs of breathing passages on each side thereof respectively curved forwardly and rearwardly and uniting in a single passage extending downwardly, a turret extruded inthe mask body and adapted to hold a valve structure positioned adjacent and' so as to be embraced by the curvatures of said passageways and connected therewith at its bottomlpart, and tubes connected ywith the single and through the valve mechanism in the turrets l5 extension of said curved passages for conveying f respiratory gases to and from the same, whereby respiratory gases on inhalation and exhalation coming through'the tubes and curved passages will be brought to and from the breathing pas- .sages of the wearer in an easy and uniformly Commingled manner.
WALTER M. Boo'rnaY. l samba 1L summum.