US 2350893 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 6, 1944. HOFGAARD 2,350,893
TYPE FOR TYPEWRITING M INES, PERFOR ON OR PRINTING AS WELL AS INTERPRETATION SYSTEM F CHARACTERS Filed April 5, 1940 I 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 mm LM HE YZ June 6, 1944. R. HOFGAARD 2,350,393
TYPE FOR TYPEWRITING MACHINES, PERFORATION OR PRINTING AS WELL AS INTERPRETATION SYSTEM FOR CHARACTERS Filed April 5, 1940 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 EEG- 96-94 1/5 rm I f WW J n 1944- R. HOFGAARD 2,350,893
TYPE FOR 'IYPEWRITING MACHINES, PERFORATION OR PRINTING AS WELL AS INTERPRETATION SYSTEM FOR CHARACTERS Filed April 5, 1940 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 III:
Patented June 6, 1944 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE TYPE FOR TYPEWRITING MACHINES, PER- FORATION OR PRINTING AS WELL AS INTERPRETATION SYSTEM FOR CHAR- ACTERS Application April 5, 1940, Serial No. 328,090 In Norway April 24, 1939 Claims.
The present invention mainly has for its object a type for typewriting, perforating or printing, by means of which it is made possible to produce characters which are particularly adapted for accurate mechanical interpretation, for instance by means of photocells or contact springs.
In order to obtain this the types are so formed as to produce by their engagement with the Writing surface a picture composed of a number of fields following after each other in the direction of reading, each field comprising transversely to the direction of reading a transparent or translucent, or light reflecting part and an opaque or non light-reflecting part.
Each character will accordingly comprise a rectangular surface, consisting of two adjacent strips lying in the direction of reading, said strips being divided in the direction of reading in dark or light fields in such a manner that a dark field in one strip will always correspond to a light field in the other strip and vice versa.
The number of characters which may be produced by means of types of the above mentioned form as it will be understood are 2, where n is the number of the double fields comprising a light and a dark section following each other in the direction of reading.
For recording the letters of an ordinary alphabet accordingly a character composed of five double fields following each other in the direction of reading will be sufficient.
The types according to the present invention may be printing types by means of which the dark fields are produced by blackening or perforating types, by means of which the light fields are produced by perforation.
In both cases the mechanical interpretation of the writing produced by means of the type may be carried out by means of two co-operating photocells to which light is supplied by means of a suitable optical system from a source of light under which the characters are moved in the direction of reading so that when one of the transverse double fields is exposed to light from the source of light, light will pass through the translucent or transparent part of the double field to one of the photocells, whereas the other photocell is not being illuminated.
By using two co-operating photocells in this manner errors in interpretation are avoided, the photocells being so connected that they transmit an electrical impulse only in case one of the cells is illuminated and the other not.
Instead of using photocells for producing electrical impulses by means of the double fields of the characters, it is also possible when the characters are produced by perforation to use a pair of co-operating contact springs which act in the same manner.
When a character by means of a type of the above mentioned kind passes below the interpretation device consisting of two co-operating photocells or contact springs, there will be transmitted by means of one of the photocells or one of the contact springs a number of impulses, each character corresponding to a certain characteristic sequence of impulses.
In order to cause this sequence of impulses to actuate a certain recording member (for instance the type arm of a type-writing machine, a Linotype-machine or the like) the impulse transmitting photocells or contacts co-operate with a controller, the movement of which is synchronized in such a manner with the relative movement between the system of photocells and characters that it transmits each of the sequence of impulses to different stages of an automatic selector of a conventional type.
In this manner each sequence of impulses transmitted through the interpretation system is caused to close the current circuit selected by means of said sequence of impulses, said current circuit serving to actuate the recording member for the character corresponding to the sequence of impulses.
It is preferred to use two controllers of the kind specified, adapted to be cut in alternately so that one controller effects the transmission of the sequence of impulses corresponding to one particular character during which time the other returns to its starting position.
The types in accordance with the present invention may be combined with types for ordinary letters or characters so that the ordinary letter or character as well as the character produced by the new type are transferred to the writing surface. For instance types in accordance with the invention may be combined with ordinary typewriter types so as to apply the new characters on the sheet above or below the ordinary types. In the case of perforation types these may also be arranged so as to perform perforations in the field covered by the ordinary characters.
Instead of using a type in accordance with the invention for each character which it is desired to reproduce, the types in accordance with the invention may also be formed by the necessary number of type sections, arranged one after the other in the direction of reading, said sections being adapted to be adjusted transversely to the direction of reading in order to produce the dark or light field in one or the other of the two positions necessary to form the impulse combinations.
The relative displacements of said type sections may then be caused by means of an ordinary key-board, the keys for each of the ordinary characters being adapted to actuate one or more levers causing the displacement of the separate sections of the special type.
In the following some forms of the invention will be described with reference to the diagrammatical drawings.
Fig. 1 is a picture of the printing surface of types in accordance with the invention corresponding to the characters usually found in an ordinary typewriting machine.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of part of a machine type which is provided besides the ordinary characters with the new characters in accordance with the invention located above the ordinary characters.
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of part of a machine type provided with ordinary characters and perforating types.
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatical cross section of an interpretation device with two photocells.
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic perspective view of a synchronizing device for two controllers.
Fig. 6 is a circuit diagram fOr an interpretation device with two photocells and two controllers.
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic side view of the adjusting device for the separate sections of a composite special type.
When typewriting is carried out with the new types the new characters adapted for automatic interpretation will be located in the spaces between the lines on which the ordinary characters are found.
In the machine type illustrated in perspective view on an enlarged scale on Fig. 3 perforation types in accordance with the invention are so placed that they cover the normal letters a and A. and when this kind of types are used there will be produced a perforated writing in accordance with the new type system on the same line as the ordinary characters.
Referring to Fig. 4, l is a source of light, 2 a conventional optical system and 3 a translucent or transparent disk over which a strip provided with writing produced by the new types is moved in a direction perpendicular to the picture of the surface of the drawings.
4 is a system of prisms by means of which rays of light passing through the transparent or translucent parts of the characters are directed either against the photocell 5 or the photocell 6 according to whether one part or the other is adapted to let the light come through.
In accordance with the principle of interpretation by means of photocells 5 and B it is necessary that one or the other of said cells should always be in operation.
In case both photocells should simultaneously be in or out of operation, this means that an error has been made. Photocell 5 acts to operate relay I 9 whereas photocell 6 acts to operate relay ll. See Fig. 6.
Supposing relay H] to be energized contact spring I2 will connect the plus terminal of the battery through line 8 with line l3. Contact spring I4 remaining in its position of rest connects line l3 with controller arm I5, which is connected in its starting position through line I 6 with magnet coil H and further with line 9 and the minus terminal of the battery. Relay ll acts to operate two contacts one of which, 18, closes a selfclosing circuit for relay H from the plus terminal of battery over contacts 18 and I9 associated with contact wheel 20, so that line 8 is connected with line 2| over said contacts l8, l9 so as to close the circuit as specified to the minus terminal of battery.
In case relay H] for photocell 5 is disconnected so that contact sprin l2 interrupts the current circuit over relay l1. said relay will still be under current over the selfclosing circuit specified until contact wheel 20 interrupts the said circuit by actuating contact spring l9.
In case relay I0 is not energized and current is supplied to relay H, a current circuit will be closed in the same manner from the plus terminal of batter over line 8 which is now connected by means of contact spring I2 with line 22 and from then over contact sprin 23, which is then in its closed position connected with line 24 and controller 25. The latter in its starting position as illustrated closes the circuit through line 26 to relay 2'! and from then to the minus terminal of battery. Said rela 21 by means of contact spring 28 closes the same selfclosing circuit as previously specified for relay l1.
Supposing that the contact arms l5 and 25 have moved one step in a counterclockwise direction it will be seen from the drawings that one of two current circuits must be closed. that is either the circuit for relay 29 or the circuit for relay 39. If arms l5 and 25 are in their third position, one of the corresponding relays 3| or 32 will be closed. In the fourth position one of the relays 33 or 34 and in their fifth position one of the relays 35 or 36 will be energized in the same manner.
If the arms l5 and 25 continue their simultaneous stepwise movement from the sixth to the tenth position it will be seen that current circuits will be closed in the same manner either over contact arm I5 to relays 31, 39, 4|, 43 and 45 or over arm 25 to relays 38, 40, 42, 44 and 46. Relays ll, 21, 29, 30, 3|, 32, 33, 34, 35 and 36 all have the same selfclosing circuit closed over contact spring l9 and contacts I8, 28 as above specified as well as by further contacts 41, 48, 49. 50, 5|, 52, 53, 54 as will be seen on the diagram.
In the same manner selfclosing circuits are energized for relays 31-46 from the plus terminal of battery over line 8 and contact spring 55 to line 53 and over contact springs 51-456 for the respective magnets 3|46.
By this stepwise displacement of the selector arms l5 and 25, magnets I! or 21, 29 or 30, 3| or 32, 33 or 34, 35 or 36 will be energized when the selector arms have passed the five first steps depending on whether one or the other of relays Ill and H receives current by means of photocells 5 and 6.
By the further displacement of arms l5 and 25 the next five steps will close current circuits either to relay 3'! or 38, 39 or 40, 4| or 42, 43 or 44, 45 or 46.
If it now be presumed that either line 61 or line 68 is connected to the plus terminal of battery, it will be seen that a current circuit is closed gigrerlgaie of the two sets of relays on magnets Presuming that in the first set of relays relays I1, 29, 32, 34 and 35 receive current from line 2| over contacts I8, 41, 59, 52 and 53 the contact springs of which are in the closed position, line 61 will be connected with the following lines: 6IIOI--I02I03I04I05I06-I0I I08 I09 to line IIO which is the 26th line counting from the right, leaving relay 36 and joining cable I I I, the lines of which lead in the same numerical order to each of the 32 relays 69I00, counting from the right.
Thus relay 94 will be energized, this being the 26th relay counting from the right. In case the relays of the other set, that is 31, 39, 4|, 43 and 45 are under current, line 68 leading to the contact sets corresponding to relays 31-46, will also be connected with line I I which also leads to relay 94 through cable III.
The said magnets 69I00 in a known manner may be actuated with a typewriting machine for releasing or operating the type arms of said machine.
Presuming photocell to be operating in the upper part of a light ray and the photocell 6 in the lower part of the same light ray for recording characters, photocell 5, in order that the said relays, such as IT, 29, 32, 34 and 35 shall receive current, will be twice activated when photocell 6 is neutral,whereupon photocell 6 is activated twice when photocell 5 is neutral, whereupon photocell 5 is again activated whereas 6 remains neutral.
The five impulses thus interpreted will correspond to the type character S on Fig. 1. In case photocell 5 is activated in the same manner during the two first of five impulses whereby magnets I1 and 29 will receive current, whereupon the third impulse step activates photocell 6 so as to supply current to relay 32, line 61 will be connected with lines IOI, I02, I03, I04, I05 and I06.
In case photocell 5 is now activated in the fourth impulse step, line I06 will not be connected with line I01 but with II2, which is again connected with line H3, and in case photocell 5 is now activated at the fifth impulse step line II3 will be connected with line I I4 over relay 35 which is connected over relay 36 with line I I5. Line I I5 is connected through cable III with relay 96.
On Fig. 1 the said sequence of impulses are illustrated by means of the type indicated with the word switch." Relay 96 consequently is not connected with any particular type arm but releases and operates a contact set for cable III, whereby the lines, after the operation of said relay, are disconnected from the coils of magnets ta-I00 and connected with other magnets. This may be up to 3I for the operation or releasing of other type arms or functions of a typewriting machine in case the 32 types illustrated on Fig. 1 should also be used for other type arms of functions of the typewriting machine.
In accordance with the embodiment forming the basis for circuit diagram on Fig. 6, the interpretation of the type characters is supposed to be transmitted to the type arms of an ordinary typewriting machine. The operation of any particular type arm also causes a stepwise movement of a contact wheel whereby contacts such as I9 and 55 as well as II I and H8 are actuated.
The depression of any particular type key as well as the space key (the bar in front of the keyboard) as it is known releases the progression device of the typewriting machine whereby the carriage of the machine is moved one step when the key actuated is released and the type arm returns to its original position.
It will be immediately understood that besides this releasing device other movements may also be performed by the depression of a key. Thus one or more ratchet pawls may in a known manner engage the teeth of their respective ratchet wheels whereby these are moved one step by the depression of the key.
By placing one or more trailing arms in such a manner that their ends are in engagement with the disk associated with said ratchet pawls, there may be caused by means of notches or bosses on said disk to perform a movement, whereby contacts are closed or opened or in some cases remain uninfiuenced during the stepwise progression.
On Fig. 6 I9, 55, Ill and H8 indicate such trailing arms actuated by means of disks 20, H9 and I20. During the stepwise progression contact arm III will move from a notch to the top of a tooth. The contact point of the arm which on Fig. 6 engages contact spring I22 when wheel I I9 has moved one step, will engage contact spring I2I. The stepwise progression of contact wheel II9 accordingly will cause the plus terminal of battery to be connected at every second step with line 68 and at the intermediate steps with line 61.
Disk I20 in the same manner actuates the trailer arm II8 which is moved from notch to notch during the stepwise progression whereby contact arm II8 performs a short contact closing, whereby a current circuit is closed from the plus line 8 through contact trailer H8 and relay I23 the second coil terminal of which is connected with the minus terminal of battery. Relay I23 thus receives an impulse for each step of movement carried out by disk I20.
Disk 20 is like disk I20 provided with small teeth or bosses which when they pass trailing arms I9 or 55, lift these during their passage so that the corresponding contacts which are ordinarily closed, are interrupted for a short period during the movement. As it appears from the figure the teeth of disk 20 are placed at such distance from each other that the contacts are interrupted alternately. Thus when disk 20 moves clockwise, the first step will cause movement of contact arm 55 whereas contact arm I9 is moved during the next step. Accordingly the selfclosing current circuits for the two sets of relays are interrupted alternately.
Before the sequence of operation is described th synchronizing device for th paper ribbon from which the photocells receive their impulses, will be described with reference to Fig. 5. By means of relay I23 the movement of the paper ribbon is made dependent on the speed of operation of the typewriting machine.
Paper ribbon I24 is supposed to be moved in the direction of the arrow movement taking place at uniform speed past the photocells for instance by means of a spring motor. The movement of the paper ribbon is transmitted to drum I25 on shaft I26. The movement of shaft I26 is transformed as indicated diagrammatically on Fig. 5 by means of gears I21, I28 to selector devices I5 and 25.
On sleeve I29 which is loosely mounted on shaft I26 is secured ratchet wheel I30 which is adapted to be released stepwise by means of magnet I23. Sleeve I29 is connected with shaft I26 by means of a spiral spring (not shown) which is wound by the rotation of shaft I26 when sleeve I29 is maintained in its position by means of pivot I3I.
When shaft I26 has performed a rotation corresponding to a movement of paper ribbon I24 caused by the impulse steps for up to two characters, that is in the present case ten impulse steps, the spiral spring will be completely wound so that shaft I26 can not be moved any further, whereby the movement of ribbon I24 stops being kept in position by pawl I3I. In case magnet I23 receives an impulse ratchet wheel I30 is released.
The spiral spring connecting shaft I26 and ratchet wheel I30, moves the latter one step whereupon the ratchet wheel is again stopped by pawl I3I, whereas shaft I26 is now free to rotate. The released spiral spring will again be wound until the whole stops again and is held by pawl I3I unless magnet I23 receives an impulse during this period. In this case paper ribbon I24 is moved evenly and uniformly.
The sequence of operations during the interpretation process in connection with the embodiment illustrated by diagram on Fig. 6 shall now be described.
It is presumed that ribbon I24 has been placed in front of the photocells so that the interpreta tion impulse of the first type is situated under the photocell combination, whereas at the same time the selector arms I and 25 are in their initial position.
Pawl I3I keeps the whole system locked. The carriage of the typewriting machine is now adjusted to one step in front of the place where the first type is to be printed. The battery which is adapted 50 as to be easily connected and disconnected is now supposed to be connected. A pressure on the space key (the bar) places the typewriting machine in operative position, where as at the same time disks 20, H9 and I20 are moved one step. Disk I20 thereby transmits an impulse to relay I23 and paper ribbon I24 starts its uniform movement, the photocells receiving the five first writing impulses for the first type.
These writing impulses as described above are transmitted to the first set of relays, comprising relays I'I, 2l-36. Neither more nor less than five relays in the above mentioned set must be closed and these will remain closed, being maintained by means of the selfclosing circuit over line 2!. As contact arm H1 is now connected with spring I2I, the current circuit will be closed from the plus terminal of battery over line 61 to cable III and one of relays Gil-I00 for printing of the type corresponding to the character interpreted.
The paper ribbon I24 continues its uniform movement as the spiral spring between sleeve I29 and ratchet wheel I36 permits a movement of up to 10 type impulses before it is completely wound. Consequently the selector arms continue their movement from the sixth to the tenth step, current circuits over the relays in set 31-46 corresponding to the next character being closed.
During this continued interpretation one of the magnets under the typewriting machine is actuated whereby the type first interpreted is printed and the disks 20, H9 and I are moved one step. Magnet I23 receives an impulse by means of which the spiral spring between sleeve I23 and ratchet wheel I30 is again released so that the paper ribbon I24 may continue its uniform movement.
Simultaneously with the impulse to locking magnet I23 contact arm I9 is moved, whereby the relays in line 2I of the first contact set are cut out and all closed magnets are demagnetized. Further contact arm H1 is moved from contact spring I2I to contact spring I22, whereby as soon as five of the magnets 3'I46 in the second contact set have received current, the corresponding magnet in set 69-460 is energized in order to actuate the corresponding type of the typewriting machine.
The contact wheels are hereby moved another step whereby the magnets in the second contact set are cut out whereas the current circuit of the contacts in the first contact set will be closed as soon as five magnets in this set have again received current etc. In this manner the time necessary for moving a type against the cylinder of the typewriting machine as well as for moving the carriage one step to interpret the impulses produced by the next type is utilized.
The process of interpretation in accordance with the above mentioned process will take place with high velocity. In the case of an error in interpretation, for instance by the simultaneous illumination or non-illumination of both photocells, the five relays for the corresponding contact set will not be closed and no current circuit will be closed to one of magnets 69-400, whereby the interpretation process is interrupted.
Fig. 7 illustrates the manner in which a composite special type may be adjusted in connection with the key-board of a typewriting machine.
The special type is here composed of five pivoted displaceable type arms one of which is shown and indicated with I32. Each of the type arms I32 is provided with an element for perforation or blackening so that they are adapted by adjustment transversely to the direction of reading to form a complete type of the kind illustrated on Fig. l.
The levers I32 are pivoted on trunnions I33 on levers I34 adapted to pivot about stationary trunnions I35. A spring I36 maintains the type arms I32 in their left hand position against a stationary stopper I31.
Levers I34 are connected by means of links I38 with levers I39, pivoted on stationary trunnions I40. Levers I39 are arranged in pairs, one pair for each of levers I34 being located on each side of the key-board and the free ends of these pairs are interconnected by means of cross bars I4I so as to form a number of U-shaped hoops which are all pivoted on the stationary trunnion I40. The cross bars I4I for each of the U-shaped hoops corresponding to the several levers I34 and I32, are provided with notches so as to be actuated by the depression of the several keys I42 in case there is no notch in the cross bar I4I directly below said key.
The depression of a particular key will therefore move one or more of levers I34, I32 into the position indicated in dotted lines and contact or perforating members of said arm I32 will then be displaced to the lower part of the type character as illustrated on Fig. 1.
The depression of one of the keys of the typewriting machine in this manner will cause the adjustment of the special type corresponding to the type of the machine in such a manner that when the type arm I43 of the typewriting machine arrives in its striking position as illustrated in dotted lines, it will at the same time engage the special type composed by means of arms I32 with its striking surface I44 and the character of the special type will then be printed on the printing surface immediately below the normal characters if such are employed.
Obviously the arrangement may also be used ill; case no ordinary types are placed on arms I claim:
1. A structure having an active surface which is composed of a number of individual printing members following each other in the direction of reading and being adapted to be displaced individually in a direction transverse to the direction of reading by means of ordinary type keys, each of which is adapted to actuate a combination of said individual members specific to the ordinary key character.
2. A structure having an active surface which is composed of a number of individual printing members following each other in the direction of reading and individually associated with notched cross-bars located below the keys of an ordinary keyboard, the notches in said crossbars being so placed with relation to the several keys as to cause each key to engage and actuate a combination of cross-bars specific to the ordinary key character.
3. A structure having an active surface which is composed of a number of individual printing members following each other in the direction of reading and being adapted to be displaced individually in a direction transverse to the direction of reading by means of ordinary type keys, each of which is adapted to actuate a combination of said individual members specific to the ordinary key character, the movement of the composite type against the writing surface being caused by engagement with the ordinary type arm near the end of its movement towards the writing surface.
4. A device for typewriting, the active surface of which is composed of a number of individual perforating members following each other in the direction of reading and being adapted to be displaced individually in a direction transverse to the direction of reading.
5. A structure having an active surface which is composed of a number of individual perforating members following each other in the direction of reading and being adapted to be displaced individually in a direction transverse to the direction of reading by means of ordinary type keys, each of which is adapted to actuate a combination of said individual members specific to the ordinary key character.
6. A structure having an active surface which is composed of a number of individual perforating members following each other in the direction of reading and individually associated with notched cross-bars located below the keys of an ordinary keyboard, the notches in said cross-bars being so placed with relation to the several keys as to cause each key to engage and actuate a combination of cross-bars specific to the ordinary key character.
7. A structure having an active surface which is composed of a number of individual perforating members following each other in the direction of reading and being adapted to be displaced individually in a direction transverse to the direction of reading by means of ordinary type keys, each of which is adapted to actuate a combination of said individual members specific to the ordinary key character, the move ment of the composite type against the writing surface being caused by engagement with the ordinary type arm near the end of its movement towards the writing surface.
3. A device for transferring an interpretable character to the surface of a sheet comprising means for simultaneously producing by pressure against said sheet a number of fields following each other in the direction of reading, each field comprising in a direction transverse to the direction of reading not over two sections only, one of which is produced by said means in separate representations, and the said section so produced having distinguishable properties from the other section.
9. In a machine for effecting individually distinguishable representations on a suitable carrier for use as a control sheet scanned by light sensitive means in the process of producing printed characters, a type, the face of which is formed to produce a field comprising a plurality of printed and non-printed sections, the sections following each other in the direction of reading, each section comprising in a direction transverse to the direction of reading, not over two areas, either one of which is produced by said type in separate representations, and the said area so produced being printed to distinguish from the said transversely adjoining nonprinted area.
10. In a machine for effecting individually distinguishable representations on a suitable carrier for use as a control sheet scanned by light sensitive means in the process of producing printed characters, a type, the face of which is formed to produce a field comprising a plurality of perforated and non-perforated sections, the sections following each other in the direction of reading, each section comprising, in a direction transverse to the direction of reading, not over two areas, either one of which is produced by said type in separate representations, and the said area so produced being perforated to distinguish from the said transversely adjoining non-perforated area.