US 2351183 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 13, 1944. BLACKBURN 2,351,183
LONG STROKE DEEP bIL WELL PUMPING JACK UNIT Filed Nov. 25, 1941 'll l! INVENTOR Lufher A. Blackburn 2%?M Arrow 5 4 Shee'ts-Sheet 1 Julie 13, 1944. A BLACKBURN 2,351,183
LONG STROKE DEEP OIL WELL PUMPING JACK UNIT Filed NOV. 25. 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 v IF 12 4. o '54 .5 INVQENTOR 4r TORNE y.
Luther A. Blackburn J1me 1944- L. A. BLACKBURN 235 LONG STROKE DEEP OIL WELL PUMPING JACK UNIT Filed Nov. 25. 1941 I I 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 6 79 i O. I 80 72 o 80 51 9 e1 4 65 I o 6 as L h 67 A 2 O 0 Z l' 68 a 000 62 i 64 55 L 3 6 a 0 17-1! 0 6 o O n O l O Q 71 67 7231 79 1/ a 70 i g i0 6] 2i! 7 E O o O o O o O I 7 i 0 I 4 4 I 6 9 e9 W i" 62 I 9 l V; 64 63 68 O '65 o 0 o o a a 17 O O O O 7] INVENTOR Luther A. Blackburn 3% @4mw ATTORNEY June 13, 1944. BLACKBURN 2,351,183
LONG STROKE DEEP OIL WELL P UMPING JACK UNIT Filed Nov. 25, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTCR Lurfier A. Blackburn jmmw ATTORNEY Patented June 13, 1944 a A LONG STROKE DEEP 01L WELL meme JACK UNIT Luther AJBIackburn, Huntington Park; Calif. Application November 25, 1941, Serial No. 420,364
1 Claim. (91. 74 -37) This invention relates to pumping jack units for deep oil wells and contemplates vertically arranged chain mechanism for actuating a cross head for reciprocation of a sucker rod string within a well, the rod string and the fluid pumped i being partially counterbalanced to substantially equalize the weight lifted by the power unit on opposite strokes of the well pump. The present application is an improvement over and con-- tinuation-in-part of my c'o-pending application S. N. 300,606, filed October 21, 1939, for Long stroke pump jacks.
A principa1 object is'to provide a pumping-jack unit for applying vertical reciprocatory movement to a sucker rod string for pumping deep oil wells, 6
and adapted to afford a long stroke for the rod string to minimize the eifect of rod and tubing elongation incident to the transfer of the weight of the fluid raised from the tubing to the rod string and vice versa with each cycle of thewell pump. 7
Another object is to provide mechanism wherein a part of the weight of the rod string and fluid raised on the upstroke of the well pump is balanced by counterweights, and a part of the weight of the counterweights is likewise counterbalanced on the down stroke of the pump, the balance of the load to be carried by the power unit on opposite strokes being equal to assure uniformity of 'movement and maintain a constant tensionon the chains and associated mechanism.
Another object is the provision of a crosshead carrying transversely movable blocks connected to endless chains movable over pairs of vertically aligned sprockets 'to reciprocate the crosshead and a rod string connected thereto, in combination with novel means for lubricatingsaid blocks and compensating for their wear.
Another object is to incorporate safety devices for automatically stopping the movement of the rod-actuating mechanism and for supporting the counterweights in any location throughout their range of travel in the event of the parting of the sucker rod string or of one or more of the chains.
Still another object is to provide novel bearing supports for the sprockets carrying the chains by which the crosshead is reciprocated, contributing greatly to the strength of the apparatus and assuring proper alignment of the chains.
5 Another objectis to provide a frame for the support of the mechanism of the character indi cated, mounted on rails and having one'side sec tion thereof removable whereby the'appa'ratus may be shiftedover or off thewell with facility, means being included for selectively releasing the jack onto a suitable firm foundation when properly alignedwith the well or lifting it-onto the rails for lateral movement from the well.
Still another object is the provision of guards located on the level with'the derrick floor at opposite sides of the pump jack frame into which the counterweights are reciprocable, one or both of said guards being shiftable from their normal position to permit movement of the jack from the well. a i
Other objects and salient features of my invention,:such for example asfacility of control of the sucker rodan'd the pump structure actuated thereby, ease of manipulation andadjustment of all moving parts, adaptability of the'frame structure to support a crown block for use in removing the rods and pump barrel, etc., and compact arrangement of the chains, sprockets and gear mechanism, will be apparent to those of skill in the art to which my invention appertains upon an examination of the following description read in the lightof the accompanying drawings in which: ,v
Fig. 1 is aperspective view of the entire unit assembled as in use; [Fig. 2 is a fragmentary view in elevation of one of the rails over which the apparatus may be moved, and of one of the wheels for supporting the latter thereon; .Fig. 3 is a sectional view of Fig. 2; Fig. 4 is a fragmentary side view, in section and elevation, depicting the principal mechanism enclosedin the casing by which the sucker rod is actuated and showing the counterweights for the load carriedby the crosshead on taken on line 33 equalizing opposite strokes; I
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view in section and elevation of one -of the lower bearing and sprocket assemblies; i r f v l Fig. 6 is a broken v elevation, partially in section, cf the crosshead and two of the chains by which it is actuated, illustrating the relation between these parts with the. crosshead at the top of its stroke; H a t :Fig. 7 is an elevation similar to. Fig. 6, showing the crosshead intermediate the ends of its range of movement; i
Fig. 8 is apla'n view, showing particularly the relative arrangement of the chains, crosshead, and cpunt'erweights; l y r Fig. 9 a detail view in elevation of a pair of the master links by which the crosshead and chains ar connected;
Fig. 10 is a detailed sectional view of the means for adjusting the tension of the crosshead-actuating chains;
Fig. 11 is a sectional view of one of the counterweights illustrating the guides therefor in elevation, and depicting particularly a means for locking the counterweight in the event of the breakage of'theirmeans of suspension;
Fig. 12 is a sectional view through the gear case illustrating the mechanism through which power is applied to the chains and crosshead;
Fig. 13 is a sectional view through the brake mechanism, illustrating also the safety device for locking the drive shaft against movement in the event that the crosshead should'begin to move faster than the speed at which it is drivenby the power unit;
Fig. 14 is a broken vertical section of one of the counterweights incorporatinga modified form of locking device.
Referring to the drawings in :detail, the numerals of which indicate like parts throughout the several views, 15 designates generally each of a series of :beams arranged to form a rectangle between which extend apair of transverse parallel cross beams |5. Four upstanding channel studs I! are secured to cross beams iii to define the corners of the upstandinggportionof the structure. The pairs of channel -studs mounted upon respective beams I6 define opposite sides of the structure; the position of studs H of each of these pairs isreinforced by 'crossangles 1| .8 parallel and spaced apart vertically to the top of the structure. Angle "braces 20;further reinforce the vertical position of the studs II at each side of the frame. Each stud Is! is connected to a like stud of the ,pair'thereof forming the corners of the opposite side of the apparatus, which is l nearest adjacent thereto respectively, by girders 20. The :ends of .the frame across which girders 20 extend are-enclosed by plates 2| which are removably secured -to..the studs by suitable means.
The sides of the apparatus between each Ipair of vertically aligned cross beams l are enclosed by panels 22 and doors 23, the latter affording access to the mechanism within. The middle portion of the beam |5at oneend of the supporting frame is cut-away as at 24 .to enable, upon removal of the adjacentlowerrnost plate 2], unrestricted access from the exterior to the center of the structure, whereby the apparatus. canbe moved laterally over or from a well. In order -to 'fac'ilitate'lthis movement,'I provide a pair of rails 25 which are mounted on a suitable foundation (not shown) at opposite sides of the well. The side beams 15 of the frame carry bearings 26 adjacent to each corner ofthe frame, in which the ends of crank pins 21 are journalled with the laterally offset-portions 28 of the pins protruding from thebearingsover-the rail 25 adjacent thereto. A flanged wheel 29 is journalledonthe outer end of each crank pin 21 directly over the adjacent rail '25. The-outer end of each crank pin 21 is provided withasquared portion 30 whereby it may be turned to lower the wheel '29 thereon onto the rail 25 and elevate the adjacent corner of the frame and entire structure. The portion of each crank 2:1 enclosed by its bearing 26 is formed with a radial opening I3.| .to receive :a pin 32., slidable vertically in the-upper part of the bearing, when the offset outer portion'of crank 27 is in its lowermost position relative to ."the part of the pinjournalled -i n,-the ibearing. It will thus be seen that by applying a tool to the squared outer end portion 30 of each of the crank pins and turning the latter, successive corners of the structure may be elevated with respect to the well and moved laterally of the well over rails 25.
A suitable power unit 33 of any conventional type is mounted to a suitable foundation afiorded by the beams |5 so as to turn by a belt 34 or chain a drive pulley 35 disposed on the end of a drive shaft 36 journalled in bearings 31 at opposite sides of the frame. A pair of horizontal girders 38 supported in spaced relation at each side of the structure by auxiliary studs 39, provide support for bearings 31. A gear 40 is secured on shaft 36 between each pair of bearings 31 to mesh with larger pinions 4| mounted on short shafts 42 journalled in bearings 43 (Fig. 5) carried by the girders 38 of each pair thereof, respectively, with the shafts 42 at opposite sides of the structure in coaxial alignment. Pinions 4| in turn mesh respectively with identical pinions 44 similarly mounted on shafts 45 journalled in bearings-46 carried by the girders 38. It will thus be :seen that through the reductiongearing described, the power of the unit 33 as applied is increased (and that the speed of the shafts 42 "and 45, regardless of the speed of the pulley, will "be coordinated .due to the identity of the pinions 4| and 44 ".at each side of the structure are enclosed in agear case comprising a lower section '41 hung from the girders and an upper section 48 which ,is removable for inspection and servicing-of the gears and bearings, a-ladder 49 beingprovided from the derrick floor to girders 38 on .each side to facilitate access to the gear cases. The inner ends of each of the shafts 42 and 45 are supported .by bearing blocks 5|] suspended from an adjacent cross beam |-6 thereabove. Each bearing .block 50 is formed with a cut-out for the reception and rotation of a sprocket 5| mounted on and turned by the shaft journalled in the corresponding bearing block.
Two pairs of vertically-disposed angle irons 52 extend between the uppermost cross angles -|=8 at each side of the structure, each pair being in transverse alignment with the pair at the opposite side of theapparatus, with the area between irons -52 of each pair beingin vertical alignment with the axis .of one of the shafts 42 :or 45 :respectively. A U-shaped bearing block .53 is secured to each pair of irons 52 by a pair ofscrews 54 extending therebetween, the heads of the screws engaging the outer surfacesof-thez-lrons. The blocks .53 are each supported from below by screws 55 threaded through blocks 56 secured rigidly to the adjacent'cross angle l8 therebelow. A cat walk 51 attached to each side'ofithe-structure at the level of the last-named cross angle 18 oiferssupport to a person adjusting thescrew 55 for varying the elevation of bearing blocks '53. A shaft 58 ,journalledthrougheach bearingblock 53 carries an idler sprocket 59 in a recessed portion of the block which is held "in vertical alignment with a sprocket 5| carried and driven by one .of the four shafts 42 or 45. Four endless chains 6|! extend around respective pairs of vertically alignedsprockets-5| and 59 so as to be; driven by the lower sprockets 5| for reciprocating across head 5| suspended from chains 60 in a manner about to be described. a a a I .To .each series of vertically aligned girders 20, a vertical angle iron 62 is secured intermediate the channel studs forming the endsof the structureso as to 'extend from below the lower sprockets to above the idler sprockets 59. One sideof each angleiron 62 extends inwardly .to providea guide rail 63. The oppositesides of each rail 63 are slidably engaged by an end of cross head 6|. Cross head 6| comprises preferably a pair of channels 64 which. are held in spaced relation by the rail-engaging members 65 disposed between corresponding ends of the channels. A v spacing member 650. is similarly positioned between the channels intermediate the ends of the latter. One or more shims 6512 are interposed between the upper channel and each member 65 and the member 65a. A pair of blocks 66, each carrying four parallel rollers 61 between opposite corners thereof are disposed between the channels-64' of the cross head andbetween the upstandingsides of the lower channel 64, the latter tending to retain blocks 66 against any substantial motion laterally of .cross head 6|. The blocks 66 are moved toward and away from one another between the end members 65 of the cross head by the chains 60. To this end a connecting rod 68 is journalled in each of blocks 66 and extends to opposite sides thereof into proximity with runs of chains 60 at opposite sides of the structure, and terminating in ball-shaped ends 69. The-ends of the rods 68 are received by master links 10 of the respective chains in which they are rotatably retained.
Exact spacing of channels, 64 comprising the crosshead, may be accomplished by the use of shims 65b of the proper thickness. The effect of wear on the shims, rollers 61, and associated parts of the crosshead may be offset by the inse'rtion of additional shims or the substitution of shims of' greater thickness. The lower rollers may be lubricated by oil deposited in the lower channel between members 65 and the central spacing member 65a. It will thus be seen that the cross head 6| will be alternately raised and lowered as chains 66 are driven over their respective sprockets, the master links 10 being moved alternately upwardly and downwardly in unison with movement of the chains, operatively con-- nected to the respective blocks 66, in opposite directions, the relative reversal of movement being effected through the reduction gearing 40', 4| and 44,
Vertically-aligned openings, are formed in the center of the channels 64 comprising cross head 6| and in spacing member 650. for the extension of the upper end of the pump rod indicated at "H. The rod H is secured in the crosshead against vertical movement relative thereto by a clamp 12 of any suitable construction carried by the upper channel 64.
On the upstroke of pump rod H the weight of the rod string and the fluid in the well being raised is counterbalanced in part by a pair of counterweights 13 which are retained, respectively, for vertical travelfbetween pairs'of channelstuds l1 defining the opposite ends of the structure. A beam'ld extends across and connects the upper endsof the channel studs at each side of the structure. A bearing block 15 is mounted adj acent'each end of each of the uppermost crossbeams 14 with the blocks 15 at corresponding ends of the beams in transverse alignment. Each pair of transversely-aligned bearings 15 affords rotary supportfor an arbor 16 on which a sprocket 11 is centrally mounted. Adjacent each end of cross head 6| a pair of lugs 18 are mounted, equi-spaced from clamp 12. One end of a chain 1.9 extends over. each sprocket 11, and is retained between lugs 18 therebelow, respectively, by a pin 80. A
, passing upwardly over sprockets series of transversely-aligned holes 8| are formed in each pair of lugs 'IBto selectively receivethe ends of pins so as to provide a fine adjustment for the effective length of chains 19. Chains l9 11 extend downwardly at the. opposite side thereof between the channel studs l1 outside of plates 2| enclosing the ends of thedevice, for attachment to counterweights'l3. The counterweights 13 comprise a series of superimposed sections 82 preferably of a variety of sizes and weights whereby their total weight may be varied to meetspecific requirements. A tie bolt 63 extends vertically through eachiside of the respective weight sections to hold them together as a unit. Winged angle brackets 84 are secured to the top and bottom of each tie bolt 83 with the wings thereof engaging opposite surfaces of the outer side of the adjacentichamnel stud l1 so as to retain the counterweights 13 against lateral motion and guide them in their vertical'travel. To the uppermost weight section 82 of each counterweight a pair of lugs 85 are secured in spaced relationship. A U-shaped member 66 is slidably engaged between lugs '85. A link pin 61 at theend of each chain 19 hun from the sprocket 1.1 thereabove extends transversely between the upright portions of the member 86, with the ends thereof protruding through vertical slots 68 in the respective lugs. The U- shaped member 86 is thus free to move vertically between lugs 86 within the limits defined by the ends of the slots 88. A lift rod 89 extends slidably through the weight sections 82 of each counterweight 13, its upper end being secured to the bottom of member 86. A block 90 of greater diameter than the openings in weightsections 82 of the respective counterweights through which the rod 89 extends is secured to the lower 'end of each rod by suitable means and is normally disposed in a concavity 9| formed in thelowermost weight section for support of the counterweight. A leaf spring 92 extends through each block 90 and is arranged with its opposite ends normally in close proximity with the bottoms of the channels ll' between which the respective counterweights are disposed. In such position each leaf spring 92 is bowed upwardly by the weight of the sections 62 on the 'outerportions thereof, and accordingly exerts a downward tension on the rod 89 and block 96 with which it is associated. In the event that the chains 19 by which the counterweights are suspended or eitherof thembreaks and the restraint on the rod or rods 89" is thus relieved thebowed springs 92 will tend to straighten. A series of lugs 92a are secured to each channel-stud in spaced relation and in the vertical plane of the adjacent spring 92. The straightening of the springs in response to a sudden drop of the counterweights causes their ends to immediately engage with lugs 92a, which will brake the fall and support the counterweights until repairs are made. It will be obvious that the operation *of the braking mechanism just 'described: for each counterweight i3 is independent of the operation of like mechanism associated with the other counterweight. a
' 93 indicates acap adapted-to fit over the upper ends of the channel studs l1 and beams 14 so as to cooperate with the panels 22, plates 2|. and doors 23 liereinabove generally alluded to, in keeping dust anddirt from the chains Biland l9, and the various bearings, etc. i
The drive shaftz36 extends laterally of the apparatus at. the side thereof opposite to that at which the pulley. 35 is carried, for .thesupport of a brake drum 94. A-brakeb'and 95encircling; drum 94 is formed with radially projecting ears.
96 through which a bolt. 91 extends. One side of brake band 95 adjacent to one. of theears. 96 is. secured to the adiacentsupporting structure for the bearings 31: and gears; 40' at-the corresponding side of; the unit to resist displacement upon. tight-- ening of the band about. to: be described. A brake. rod 98. is journalledin a tubular bearing 99 extending between opposite. sides of. the structure. under the girders 38, With; one end. of the rod 96 terminating adjacent. to bolt 91 A finger I is securedv on the last-namedlend of rod 98 to normally bear against the endof bolt 91' extending through the movable ear 96 of band 95-. so that by rotation of the rod 98 the ear 96 may be urged toward its counterpart, thus tightening band 95 on. the drum. The rod: 90 is adapted to b turned by a system of levers IOI: connected. to the end of the rodoppositeto the end to which finger I00 is secured, and is actuated by a handle I02 pivoted to the supporting beam I1 adjacent power unit 33.
A locking device is associated with the drive shaft 36 and pulley 35, through which power is transmitted. to the shaft. The locking device is adapted. to lock the mechanism in the event shaft 36 should turn faster than the pulley in response to excessive weight suspended from the crosshead. The end of the shaft is angularly groovedto receive. the end of the screw I03 or the like threaded through the pulley to resist movement of the pulley longitudinally of the shaft but which permits the pulley to rotate relative to the shaft. Pulley 35 is formed with a hub ratchet I04 having a series of teeth I05 on the edge thereof. 7 shaft 36, and carrying gear teeth I01 and I08 at opposite ends thereof, is keyed to the shaft as at I09 against rotation with respect thereto, but is movable longitudinally of the shaft. The teeth I01 at one. end of. sleeve I06 are normally in an engagement with the teeth I05 on hub-I04 of the pulley, whereby rotation of the pulley by the power unit 33 will. be transmitted to the shaft 36. On the shaft at the opposite side of the sleeve I06 from the pulley a locking ratchet H0 is disposed, being secured to the frame by suitable means and having teeth III adapted to engage with adjacent teeth I 08 of sleeve I06 when the latter is moved longitudinally of the shaft out of engagement withteeth I05 of pulley hub I04. It will be seen that should shaft 36 be moved at a greater speed than drive pulley 35, the teeth I01 on sleeve I06 will be moved over teeth I05 of pulley hub I04 which will causethe sleeve to. shift longitudinally of the shaft, locking the teeth [08 on the opposite side of the sleeve with teeth I II of the locking ratchet 0,, thus preventing further'movement of shaft 36, chains. 60,. and the pump rod 1I.
. During operation of the apparatus the. counterweights will be reciprocated between opposite pairs: of. the-channel studs I1. At thelower ends of their reciprocatory movement the weights move into guards 2,. each of which are hinged at one side as at I3,,wherebythey may be swung outwardly to facilitate assembly of the weight sections and servicing of the-emergency braking mechanism. therefor, and. the pump jack to and from the well.
' A modified form of braking mechani'smwith the counterweights is illustrated i'n Fig.. 14 wherein the lower end of lift rod: 09 passes through. the
95 on. the drum 94' by means A ratchet sleeve I06, slidable on.
to enable movement of 1y. The power center of a lever '4 which isin turn supported on a nut H5 carried by the end of rod 89. The lowermost weight section 83a is. provided adjacent each. of its ends with a pair of depending lugs lit for support of pins, I01. onwhich toggles I-I8 are pivoted. Each. right. angle and. is pivoted. on. pin H1 at the vertex of its angle. The inner ends of the toggles are pivoted by suitable means to opposite ends respectively of lever II I. With the Weight sections 83 assembled on section 83a,'the weight of the assembled sections will normally maintain lever H4 and the portions of toggles II6 to which the lever is connected, parallel to the undersideof the weight section 83a. The outer ends of toggles II8 are thus vertically relation with the studs I1. The underside of section 83a-is formed with a recess H9 in which. rod 89 is disposed,
a spring I20, encircling lift hearing at itsupper end against section 83a and. at its lower end against lever II4. In. the event that either of the chains 19 suspension of the weights The operation of my invention is briefly de-- scribed as follows: The polished rod 1| is secured to crosshead 6I by clamp 12, and is then raised to the top of its stroke. The counterweights 13 comprising any number of weight sections 82 are attached to chains 19 respectivethe pulley 35 continuously in the same direction so as to move the chains 60 at each side of the structure in opposite directionsfe. g., the inner runs being driven upwardly continuously, and the outer runs downwardly. thus alternately raise and lower the blocks 66 to reciprocate crosshead 6I sprockets 5| and the idler sprockets 59. It Willbe observed that the movement of the crosshead at each end of its stroke will. be gradually retarded as master links 69 alternately move through the first lower quarter of the arcs of the drive sprockets 5| and the first upper quarter of' the sprockets 59. As the links 69 are moved into the second quarters of the arcs of the sprock-- ets the reversal of the movement of crosshead 6I will be slowly begun and the speed gradually increased until links 69 leavev the sprockets. The elongation and contraction of the sucker rod string, chiefly in response to the alternate assumption of the weight of the fluid in the well by the rod string'and tubing at the end of each pump stroke, will thus be extended over a sumcient time to avoid excessive strain on the rod without interruption or variance in the speed between the rod string and counterweights' 13 on the downstroke, whereby the power required for constant. speed of the chains 60 and cross head BI throughout the'pump cycle will be uniform. For example, in. a well employing a three fourths inch rod of a length of five thousand feet for actuating a two-inch plunger the: weight of.
the oil of thirty gravity would be approximately.
toggle is in the form ofa.
disposed in spaced should break or the should fail for any other reason, spring I20 will immediately urge unit 33 is. then. operated to drive The master links 69' between drive 5,100 pounds, and the Weight of the rod string on the upstroke 8,376.60 pounds, thus making a total weight to be lifted on the upstroke of 13,476.60 pounds. The rod weight on the downstroke will be approximately 7,441.20 pounds. By utilizing a total counter weight of 10,458.50 pounds, the weight balance to be carried by the power unit will be substantially the same on each stroke of the pump, i. e., 3,017.50 pounds.
It will thus be seen that I have provided a deep well pump jack unit in which opposite ends of the crosshead are supported from moving points continuously equi-spaced from the center of the cross head. Moreover, each end of the cross head is suspended from opposite sides by separate chains to equally distribute the Weight of the sucker rod string and the fluid in the well through the four chains.
While I have disclosed but one embodiment of my invention, and have catalogued only a few of the advantages and uses inherent therein, it will be understood by those engaged in the art that the essence of my invention is capable of many modifications and of constructions varying widely in size, design, proportion, and number of the various parts as specifically disclosed, within the scope of the appended claim.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters 10 Patent is:
In a device of the character described, a crosshead comprising a pair of parallel members, a block movable in said crosshead, a pin extending laterally from said block and terminating in a ball-shaped end, a chain, a master link in said chain having a socket therein for the reception of said end of said pin to transmit motion from said chain to said pin and block.
LUTHER A. BLACKBURN.