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Publication numberUS2351288 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 13, 1944
Filing dateNov 17, 1939
Priority dateNov 22, 1938
Publication numberUS 2351288 A, US 2351288A, US-A-2351288, US2351288 A, US2351288A
InventorsGreatorex Riches Harry Gordon
Original AssigneeShaw Darby & Company Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Concrete pile
US 2351288 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jun- 13, 1944. H. (5. cs. G. RICHES CONCRETE PILE Filed Nov. 1'7, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Inventor H.G.Cw.G.'R\CHE5 by 5km mfiu hi Attorney June 13, 1944. RlCHEs I 2,351,288

CONCRETE PILE Filed NOV. 17, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheetfi Fig. 7.

Inventor H.G'.6.G.'R\C HES Attorney Patented June 13, 1944 CONCRETE PILE Harry Gordon George Greatorex Riches, Singapore, Straits Settlements, assignor to Shaw Darby & Company Limited Application November 17, 1939, Serial No. 305,034 In. Great Britain November 22, 1938 3 Claims.

This invention relates to concrete piles.

There are tWo methods of sinking concrete piles in common use at present, namely driving precast piles by impact and casting the piles in situ. Each possesses disadvantages. Another known method, not in common use, comprises using a tube which is driven into the ground, so as to form a socket for a precast pile which is lowered into the tube, the tube being subsequently removed. The end of the tube may be closed by a loose shoe during the driving. An important object of the invention is to provide such improvements in this last method as to render it superior to either of the methods in common use.

Another object of this invention is to provide improved pile units capable of being formed into an extremely strong pile.

Another object of the invention is to improve the reinforcement at th joints of a built-up concrete pile.

Other objects of the invention will appear as the description proceeds, reference being made to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a vertical section through the lower part of one pile in the course of the sinking process.

Figures 2, 3 and 4 are cross-sections on the lines II-II, IIIIII and IV--IV respectively of Figure 1;

Figure 5 is a perspective view of a set of pile units of the kind used in the pile shown in Figure 1;

Figures 6 and 7 are similar perspective views of modified sets of pile units.

Referring first to Figures 1 to 5, the first step in sinking the pile is to sink in the ground a tube l5, the bottom of which is closed by a loose shoe 5. The pile is then assembled above ground from a plurality of precast units and lowered into the tube. Each unit is shaped to form a joint member, spigot-and-socket joints being preferred and each of the units, except the bottom one, having a spigot of standard size at one end and a socket of standard size at the other. Preferably, the pile is mainly composed of a single long unit of standard size, which i estimated to be rather shorter than the final length of any pile ina group which is to be sunk, and the bottom of such a long unit is shown at I. cast units, which are much shorter than the long unit and are preferably made in a number of standard sizes, are then joined to the long unit until a pile of the required size is formed. It is, however, possible to form a satisfactory com- Short preposite pile entirely of short precast units, and in some cases this may be desirable.

The whole pile is formed in situ above ground, i. e. before it is lowered into the tube. This is easy, because once the tube has been driven the depth of the base of the pile is known, so that the required length of the final pile can be calculated exactly. In almost any ground this length will vary slightly from pile to pile and cannot be predicted with any degree of accuracy in ad- Vance, so that the invention enables waste to be avoided in having to cut ofi lengths from a precast pile, and also prevents the possibility of having to add to the pile after it is in position. Thus the final pile can be guaranteed to be in the same condition as it was when constructed under supervision above ground. Moreover, as it is placed in position, and not driven, it i not affected by driving conditions.

In most cases it is preferable to add the short units to the lower end of the long unit, since the lower part of the pile is usually only subjected to a pure compression. Figure 1 shows two intermediate precast short pile units 2a and 2b and a bottom precast pile unit 3, the latter having a foot 4 which rests in the shoe 5, and which forms a base for the whole pile. Each of the units 2a and 21) has a cylindrical socket B extending for the greater part of its length and a tapered spigot 1, which has a shoulder 8 which fits inside the rim of the adjacent socket and so aligns the two units correctly. Each unit is provided with four axial reinforcing members, those of the unit 2a being numbered 9a and those of the unit 212 being numbered 9b These reinforcing members pass through the base of the unit and project upwards into the socket and downwards past the spigot I, so that they run almost to the bottom of the adjacent socket. Thus, when a pair of units is assembled, the socket of the joint has eight axial reinforcing members running through it, four belonging to the unit above and four belonging to the unit below. When the joint is assembled, the socket i filled with cement grout or the like M, so that when this sets a very powerful reinforced joint is formed.

In addition each joint is provided with a pair of transverse locking bars in, il, which pass through registering holes I 6, I! in the spigot and socket respectively and provide a positive connection between the adjacent units. Their presence prevents the possibility of the joint being disturbed during the removal of the tube and while the cement in the socket is setting and in addition adds greatly to the reinforcement of the pile. Each unit is also reinforced by two members I2 and I3 which run substantially axially along the wall of the socket. At its lower end, each member I2 or I3 is bent inwards so that it runs into the spigot and is then bent right back and up so that it passes up the opposite side of the socket. When the bar I] is inserted through the spigot of the unit the lower part of the member I2 is thus looped round it. Each free upper end of each member I2 and I3 is turned back on itself so that it encircles one of the locking bars when this is inserted through the socket of the unit; this is clearly shown in Figure 1 at the upper part of the unit 2b, where the member I3 is cranked around the locking bar II. The interlocking of the reinforcement of the units with the locking bars is a very important feature of the construction, as it provides continuous reinforcement in the composite pile, which greatly adds to its strength. The members I2 and I3 are bound in by circumferential reinforcing mem bers I8, which support the socket against any tendency to split under the action of the spigot when the pile is submitted to bending stresses.

The lowermost unit 3 has a socket of similar construction to those of the units 2a and 2b, but instead of a spigot itis provided with the foot 4 which is shaped to fit into the shoe 5. The units 2' and 3 are round in cross-section, whereas the main length of the pile I is octagonal. The long unit I is provided with a spigot I9'of construction similar to those of the units 2a and 2b, and with continuous axial reinforcement 28 bound by reinforcement 2I.

Figure 6 shows a set of units of modified construction, in which only one transverse locking bar In is provided for each joint.

Figure 7 shows another set of units, 22, arranged to make screw joints with one another. Each unit 22 has a spigot 23 and a socket 24. The spigot 23 is encased in a thin steel cup 25 formed with a screw-thread 26, and the socket 24 is lined by another thin steel cup 21 formed'with a meshing screw-thread 28. The cups may be used as mould parts in which the spigot and socket are formed during the casting of the unit. They are formed with holes I6 and I! for the reception of locking bars. The units 22 are reinforced in the same way as the units Za'and 211.

It will be observed that each of the units shown in Figures 5, 6 and 7has an end so shaped to engage another that the units either interlock against axial displacement or can be so locked by locking means engaging both units. Such locked units may be used for underpinning or forming an impact-driven pile where there is lim ited headroom for driving. Further, other forms of joints may be used between the units, for example, the ends of a unit may be formed as the component members of a bayonet or equivalent joint.

In sinking the pile, the tube I5, closed by the shoe is driven in until firm ground is found. The depth of the shoe can then be calculated from the length of the tube inserted. If, for example, the tube had been driven in fifty feet and precast units forty feet long were available together with short units of three feet long, the final pile would be built up as shown in Figure 1 from one long unit I, two intermediate units 2a and 2b and a bottom unit 3. Each joint is assembled by filling the socket of the lower unit with cement or the like, lowering the next unit into the socket so that the reinforcing bars 911 of the upper unit lie between the bars 9b of the lower unit and so that the transverse holes through the spigot and socket register, and finally driving the locking bars II) and II through these holes.

When the complete pile has been built up it is hoisted and lowered into the tube until the bottom unit rests upon the cast iron shoe. Cement grout or fine concrete is then poured down the tube and around the pile, after which the tube is extracted.

It is within the invention to drive pipe sections into the ground outside the tube, so that in the final pile the precast units do not constitute the whole pile, but rather a solid core within the pipe sections.

I claim:

1. A pair of similarly shaped concrete pile units each having an end shaped to engage and interlock with an end of the other in a spigot and socket manner, each unit having imbedded longitudinal reinforcing members some of which extend beyond the spigot end of the respective units, the spigot receiving socket portion of each unit being axially extended to receive the protruding end portions of the reinforcing members, and transverse locking means passing through the shaped ends of adjacent units and interlocking with imbedded portions of the reinforcing members of both units, said socket extension being filled with concrete to imbed the protruding ends of said reinforcing members.

2. A concrete pile comprising at least two similarly shaped reinforced concrete units, each unit having a projecting end and a socketed end, the

projecting end of one unit interfitting with the socketed end of an adjacent unit to form the pile, each unit having imbedded longitudinally extending reinforcing bars, some of said reinforcing bars extending beyond the projecting end of the re- --spective units, the socket of each unit being extended axially to receive the protruding end portions of said reinforcing bars of an adjacent unit, and means coacting with the said imbedded portions of said reinforcing bars in each unit to re-,

strain adjacent units against substantialrelative rotary and longitudinal movement.

3. A concrete pile comprising at least two similarly shaped reinforced concrete units, each unit having a projecting end and a socketed end, the

1 projecting end of one unit interfitting with the socketed end of an adjacent unit to form the pile, each unit having imbedded longitudinally extending reinforcing members, said members having loop formations at opposite ends disposed respectively in the projecting end portion and in the wall portion of the socket at diametrically opposite points thereof, said loop formations of adjacent units being aligned when said units are.

assembled in interfitting relation, and transverse locking pins extending through the socket wall and projecting end portion of adjacent units and through said aligned loop formations whereby to,

lock adjacent units against substantial relative rotary and longitudinal movements.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2507259 *Mar 26, 1947May 9, 1950Levasseur Joseph WPile
US2529220 *Mar 26, 1947Nov 7, 1950Levasseur Joseph WFoundation pile
US2539456 *Sep 11, 1946Jan 30, 1951Continental Oil CoPiling
US2706498 *Nov 13, 1950Apr 19, 1955Raymond Concrete Pile CoPrestressed tubular concrete structures
US3166873 *Nov 21, 1961Jan 26, 1965Morton M RosenfeldReinforced wall structure
US4314777 *Jul 2, 1979Feb 9, 1982Henderson Don STension pile splice
US5081804 *Sep 8, 1989Jan 21, 1992Gustavsberg Vvs AktiebolagPower line pylon and lamp post
US5934837 *Jul 18, 1997Aug 10, 1999Lee; Chen-FangMultipurpose, combined, pre-casting pile assembly
US6543967Feb 22, 2002Apr 8, 2003Frederick S. MarshallStaggered rebar for concrete pilings
US6848864 *Dec 4, 2001Feb 1, 2005Warren DavieInterlocking slab leveling system
US6881012 *Dec 8, 2003Apr 19, 2005Gregory R. CovingtonFoundation repair system and method of installation
US7108458Feb 1, 2005Sep 19, 2006Warren P. Davie, Jr.Interlocking slab leveling system
US20040141814 *Dec 8, 2003Jul 22, 2004Covington Gregory R.Foundation repair system and method of installation
U.S. Classification405/252, 52/436, 52/423
International ClassificationE02D5/52, E02D5/22
Cooperative ClassificationE02D5/523
European ClassificationE02D5/52B