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Publication numberUS2351615 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 20, 1944
Filing dateJun 3, 1940
Priority dateJun 3, 1940
Publication numberUS 2351615 A, US 2351615A, US-A-2351615, US2351615 A, US2351615A
InventorsMaxwell James Robert
Original AssigneeMaxwell James Robert
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building construction
US 2351615 A
Images(4)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 20 1944.

R. M. JAMES 2,351,615

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 4. Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June '3. 1940 l l l I I I l l l INVENTOR |I|l|||| l I l ll l I l l l l l I l I l l I I I I l I l I I l l l l l IL 5 @wy 8W Q,

. June'20, R. M. JAMES BUILDING CONSTRUCTION I Filed June 3, 1940 4 Sheets- Sheet 2 mv TOR 6?. 72 p ma m s June 20, 1944. R, M. JAMES" 2,351,615

' BUILDING CONSTRUQTION,

Filed June 3, 1940 .4 Sheets-Sheet 3 k g 1 1 a W 1 m w w 1 f E w m I 5 1 m m m W P F =9. -Hwlqflfimhm fi 1111 11 q f 1 W JWHHMMWM MIMI fl nlnkl l lnl kh w I 1 1 I 1 K F Junezo, 1944. R. M'. JAMES T4 2,351,615

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Jane 3, 1940 4 Sheets-Sheet, 4

INVENTOR .I B m'l'aisvs Patented June 20, 1944 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE q ini i it 1 l BUILDING CONSTRUCTION g BlobertMaxwell James. Buffalo, N. Y.

Application June 3, 1940, Serial No. 338,505

tonn s. (01. 72-16) -.This invention relates to a building construction and more particularly to 'aload supporting wall the erection of which provides finished sur-y faces on both sides,-each of which can be. of any desired: appearanceand suitable for either the exterioror the interior-of the building.

'One of the principal objects of the invention is to provide-a wall construction, the load supporting members of which are studs which are faced with plates composedof-one of the synthetic resin plastics preferably in combination with a sub stantial amount of filler toreduce cost, such plastics being available at low'cost in a wide range of colors, finishes and physical'characteristics and'having the strength and weather resisting properties for use as both exterior and interior Wa-ILpIateSand being capable of being molded with a high degree of accuracy to provide ease in erection and to insure weather-tight joints between the panels. 1 91 I "Another object of the invention istoprovide sucha wall construction in which thestuds forming ;the load carrying members oan-be made of wood or of concrete and in which.where Portland cement studs are used, the studs can be poured and built up progressively with-the erection, ot

the completed wall. a a

Another purposeis to provide plates for facing such a wall construction which are securely interlocked with one another and with the studs and in whichthe platesare so interlocked as to provide weather-tight joints. Another object is to provide such plates which can be provided in-a minimum number ofsha'pes and at the same time not only provide the. fiat surface ofthe wall but also .the exterior andinterior corners of. the outer wall ,of the house and its partitions. 1 I t Another aim is to provide such. a construction which is. adaptable to all building. conditions and types of buildings including,permittingthe loca: tion of doors, windows or ornamentation as the architect may desire. M

Another purpose of the invention is to provide such plates which can be erectedin either break joint or stacked arrangementfandinwhich the arrangement can bereadily shifted from one to the other to suit the architectural effect desired. Another objectis to provide such plates which can be sawed in half to provide half sections, the plates being so constructed as to insure that such half sections interlock in the same manner as the whole plates to provide weather-tight joints. Another object-of the invention is topro'vide such a wall construction which has low thermal conductivity; is fire resistant; possesses adequate strength both in its load supporting characteristics and also in the ability of the facingplates to withstand blows; and which can -be rapidly erected'by normally'skilled workmen. 1

Another aim is to provide such a building construction in which substantially all of the facing plates can be removed from the .studs' without injury, thereby permitting the plates to be used over again after the building has been demolished.

Another aim isto provide such a building construction which'is extremely inexpensive both in the cost of materials and in the labor of erection, thereby permitting the invention to be used in low cost housing. l 1

In the accompanying drawings: l

Fig. 1 is a fragmentary"side elevation of a building constructedfin 'accordance. with my invention with studs of poured Portland cement.

Fig. 2 is a horizontal section taken on line' 2- -2, Fig. 1, and showing indotted lines the manner in which a window and itscasin'g can be'installed and also showing the manner in which an interior partition can be joined to the outer wall of the building. V

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary enlarged view similar t0Fig.2. y

Fig. 4 is a fragmentary vertical'section taken on line 44, Fig. 1, and illustrating the manner in which a lintel is provided over anopening, such as the Window opening illustrated inFig. 1.

Fig. 5 isa, fragmentary vertical section taken on line 55, Fig. 1.

Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical section, 'on a reduced scale, taken on line Ii -6, Fig. 5.

Fig. 7 is a. perspective view,"viewed' from the rear side of one of the fiat plates o f synthetic plastic material illustrated inthe previous "figures and also showing the manner in which 'a clip can be interlocked with the 'base"plates"forining the inner and outer surfaces of the wall.

Fig. 8 is a perspective view similarto Fig. 7 viewed from the opposite or front side of the plate.

Fig. 9 is a perspective view similar to Fig. "'7 of one of the curved exterior corner plates shown inFigs.1-3.

Fig. 10 is a perspective view similar to'Fig. '7 of one of the curved interior comer plates shown in Figs. 1-3. p I Vi Fig. 11 is a perspective view of one of the clip used to secure the plates to the studs. Y

Fig. 12 is a vertical fragmentary section similar to'Fig. 5 and showing a'rnodified formof the inprises a frame made up of a plurality of studswhich can either be of poured concrete, as illus-' trated in Figs. 1-5, or of Wood, as illustrated in Fig. 12, to which clips are secured,-these clips being designed to interlock with keys formed in the rear faces of the face plates.

and are formed to interlock with one another to provide Weather-tight joints -and,;also'ar e provided with keys at predetermined places-to provide flexibility in the application of the plates. The. plates are madeyin the form ,of 'flat platesto cover the major flat surfaces of the wall; in the form of curved exterioricorners tofprovide'the exterior cornersof thebuilding; and in the'form of curved interior corners to providethe interior corners of the 'building,ithe three formsbeing designed to interfit exactly; in the completed structure.

As previously indica'ted,.the wall made in accordance with the present invention is faced with relatively thinplate's {composed of :a molded synthetic resin plastic which can contain a substantial amount of filler, suchyaswood flour, the plastic selected being' determined by the color and appearance desired. and by'its ability toresist weathering, such" plasticshaving the -necessary .strength and other qualitiesnecessaryefor exterior and interior-use in buildings. ,fEx'cept at :the corners, these plates are :in 't-heform of rectangular panels. indicated. generally at; 15 which, as best indicated-in Figs. 1 and 8, have flat exterior faces l6. -Along"its upper edge'ea'ch of these plates I5 is provided with a rearwardly offset, upwardly-projecting tongue H, the front face of which is substantially coplanar the rear face I8 of the plateso 'as'to provide a groove ill-for the reception of. the lower edge of a plate in thenext. succeedingrupper row.j However, it is .desirablev that 'the front face 'ofithe tongue be arranged. a slight distance rearwardly. of the rear face l8 of the plate so as to'permitofthe application of caulkingo-r suitableweatherproofing material in the joints between; the plates. This tongue extends from a distance short of one end 23 of the plate, as 'ind-icatedatfll, to a point beyond theopposit'eend of i the plate and at this opposite :end is continued to provide a similar vertical tongue2| :Which'extends downwardly to a point 22 shortof the-lower edge; of the plate.

The verticaledge 23 of the plate oppositeithe tongue 2| is formed to provide a groove :24 for receiving the tongue 2| of the next succeeding plate and for this purpose the plate is provided on .its rear face adjacentthis opposite vertical edge with a vertical .rib 25, this rib being spaced from the edge -:23.;.of the. plate a :distance slightly greater than theihorizontaliextent .of th'etongue 2| and being provided with a vertical flange or tongue 26 which togetherlwith the rear face is of the plate and the rib 25 forms the groove 24. This rib :25 :and its tongue 26 extend the .full

heightof the; plate? so "that the groove- 24 likewise The face plates are molded of a synthetic resin plastic.

extends the full height of the plate to the base of the horizontal tongue IT. The rib is also notched upwardly from its lower end along the fiat rear face |8 of the plate, as indicated at 2?, to permit the upper horizontal tongue 2| of one plate to be fitted against the rear face of another plate.

With a series of fiat plates I5 provided with tongues and grooves as above described, it will be seen that .these plates can be interfitted and interlocked .to provide the flat surface for a wall as illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 12 and 14.

; :Thus, in horizontal rows the tongue 2| of each I6 and I8 of the several plates |5 are coplanar,

as best illustrated in Fig. 2. In laying the next higher row of the plates I5, the lower edge of therow of plates already in place, so as to provide-a weather-tight horizontal joint between the several walls. Since in the molding of synthetie resin "plastics the product can beheld to extremely accurate dimensions, it will be seen that the tongues can be made to closely fit the vertical and horizontal grooves provided and insureweathertightness in both the vertical and horizontal joints between the plates and also that these joints can be madeextremely narrow.

1 Each plate I 5 is additionally provided on its rear face IS with Vertical ribs 30, 3|, 32 and 33 inadditi'on to the rib 25. The rib 30 is arranged exactly one-quarter of the distance from the edge '23 of the pl'ateto'the'opposite edge of the plate and is provided with a notch 34 similar to the notch-21 0f the 1% 25, this notch extending upwardly fr'oin its lower end against the rear face l8 of the plate. The rib 3| is arranged to one side of the vertical centerline of the plate andis provided with fanotch 35 similar to the notches and 34 of the ribs 25 and 30, respectively'."-; In' additionthis central rib 3| is pro- ,videdwith a vertical flange or tongue 36 which isidentical with the flange or tongue 26 of the rib 25 and provides'a Vertical groove 31, identicalwith the groove 24 provided by the rib 25 and its rib or flange 26. The purpose of providing the tongue and groove 3'! at the center of the plate is to permit of making half plates having anend groove similar, to the Whole plates by the 'simpleexpedient of cutting the whole plates in half. Thus it will be seen that by sawing the plate 15 along the line A-A in Fig. ,7, which representsthe vertical centerline of the plate, two half plates are produced, both of which half plates can be used at the ends of the rows of plates, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The two half sections from one-plate will be slightly different from one'anotherin that the half out from the left of the whole plate |5, as viewed in Fig. '7, will not have a tongue 2| at one end. This is of slight practical consequence, however, as many oftheselcan be used where the presence of a tongue is unnecessary, as at the window opening or in interior work where the occasional absence of the tonguewould-be unimportant.

The rib 32 is arranged exactly three-quarters of the distance from the edge 23 of the plate to the opposite edge of the plate and is provided with a notch 38 at its lower end similar to the notches 21, 34 and 35 of the ribs 25, 30, 3|, respectively. The-rib 33 is arranged along the edge of the plate l5 opposite from the edge 23 and likewise is provided with a notch 39 which is similar to the notches 21, 34, 35 and 38 of the ribs 25, 30, 3| and 32, respectively. Each of the ribs 30-33 extends from the bottom edge of the plate the full height of the plate as with the rib 25. v

For the purpose of attaching the plates to the studs, as hereinafter described, each of the ribs 25, 30, 3| 32 and 33 is shown as provided with an enlargement 40 atits upper end, each of these enlargements being of dovetail form in horizontal section and having its enlarged vertical rear end projecting rearwardly from the rear side of its supporting rib. The sides of the dovetail enlargements 40 are preferably vertical and the enlargements extend a substantial distance down the ribs although this distance is not critical. I

The plates are secured to the studs by means of metal clips 45, each of which, as best shown in Fig. 11, comprises a fiat metal back 46 from which integral vertical side wings 41 project forwardly to provide a dovetail groove 48 which conforms to the dovetail enlargements 40 of the ribs of the plates l5. The back 46 extends upwardly from the wings 41 and at its upper end is provided with a hole 49 to receive an attaching screw. The major axes of the wings 41 also preferably incline slightlytowardeach other from the bottom of the clip to the top so that in driving the clips down the dovetail projections 40, these wings are caused to firmly engage the sides of the dovetail projections 40 and frictionally grip these projections. each of theclips 45 is also formed above the wings 4'! to provide an additional pair of Wings 44 which are bent flat against the front face of the metal back 46 and form a stop to limit the downward movement of the clips 45 when so driven downwardly on the upper enlarged dovetail portions 40 of the plates l5.

In Figs. 1-5 is illustrated a building construction in which the studs are made of Portland cement which is poured as the erection of the wall with the plates proceeds. In erecting a wall with poured concrete studs, indicated generally at 50, a foundation-5|, as of poured concrete, is first provided, preferably with upstanding pins 52 at the places where the studs are to be arranged. These studs are designed to be placed on the standard I6" centers or any othercenter selected. and for this purpose each of the plates I5 is of the same length as the selected centerdistance between the studs. Further, since the ribs an 32 are arranged at exactly one-quarter and three-quarters of the distance, respectively, from the vertical edge 23 of each of the plates I5, it will beseen that the ribs 32 of each row of plates l5 will be arranged on exactly the selected centers and that also the ribs 30 ofthe series of plates will be arranged on the same centers. sure that the enlargements at the upper ends of these ribs will be in proper position to be secured to the poured concrete studs by means of the clips 45.

Following the'construction of the foundation 5| with the upstanding pins 52 a plurality of anchoring clips, indicated generally at 55, are

laid on the foundation wall 5| preferably. immediately adjacent each of the pins 52. These foundation clips are made of sheet metal and each comprises a flat horizontal'bottomportion 56, the central part 51 of whichis preferably The flat metal back 46 of This will in-.

ofiset horizontally to one side, as best illustrated in Fig. 7. At its opposite ends this body portion is provided with upstanding cars 58 which are of such form as to fit any of the notches 21, 34, 35, 38 or 39 provided at the lower ends of the ribs 25, 3|), 3|, 32 and 33, respectively.

A tube 50 made of paper, cardboard, metal or any other suitable material and of any suitable height, is then placed over each of the pins 52, these tubes being held in a vertical position in any suitable manner and the lower ends of these tubes, of course, also covering the central part of each anchoring clip 55. Thefirst row of plates I5 is thereupon set in position on the foundation wall 5| against both sides ofthe paper tubes iii! so as to start both the exterior and interior wall surfaces. In so setting this first row of plates each of'the ears 58 of the anchoring clip is inserted in the notch at the lower end of that rib of the plate I 5 which coincides with the paper tube with which the clip is associated. It will therefore be seen that the anchoring clips 55 act as positive spacers so as to insure an exact spacing of the bottom of the inner andouter row of plates. The purpose of providing the offset 51 in each of these anchoring plates is to insure that the clips can be located in proper position to catch the opposite ribs of the plates on opposite soles of the paper tubes 60 even though the pins 52 are not placed with a high degree of precision. Thus,

the clip can be arranged as shown in Fig. '7 or if, through slight inaccuracy, the pin 52 does not permit of such placing, the clip 55 can be turned end for end so that its offset portion 51 extends in the opposite direction to avoid the pin.

The first row of plates I5 so anchored to the clips 55 are set up with the flange 2| of each plate being inserted into the groo've24 of the next succee-cling plate. If the setting up of the plates requires the use of the half plates, as illustrated in Fig. 1, one of the plates I5 is cut in two along the line AA of Fig. '7 so as to expose the groove 31 for receiving the flange 2| of the next plate. At the time the first'rows of plates [5 are being placed on opposite sides of the paper tubes 69, the clips 45, as best illustrated in Fig. 11, are slipped over the dovetail enlargements til of those ribs of the plates I5 which coincide with the paper tubes. These clips are placed so that their wings 47 embrace the dovetailed sides of the enlargements it] by sliding the clipsdown from the top of the enlargements 4|) so that these dovetail enlargements are caught in the dovetail grooves provided by the wings 41. The upper ends of these clips thereby coincide with the paper tubes 69 and screws 6| are passedthrough the holes 49 of the clips and screwed into the adjacent walls of the paper tubes lit). For this purpose the entire shank of each of these screws is threaded so that the paper tube will be caught by the thread of the screw when it is finally drawn tight. It hasbeen found that a remarkably firm connection can be made by so screwing the clips 45 to the walls of the paper tube.

ter the first inner and outer row of plates 5 have been so screwed in position, the second row of inner and outer plates i5 is set up in the'same manner, this second row of inner and outer plates being arranged so that the tongues ll along the upper edge of the base row fit against the rear faces is ofthe plates of the second row and into the notches 27, 34, 35, 38 and 39, respectively, of the ribs 25, at, s1, s2 and es of the row being laid. As the row being laid is set up it similarly is provided with clips 45 for those dovetail enlargements '41! whichcoincide with: the paper tubes .68 and these clips are scr'ewed to the walls-of the paper tubes. .Byproyi'din'g :both the one qua'rter and three 'quarter ribs and .32 with dovetail enlargements "40, it willbe 'seenthatthe plates l 5 can be. laid up either'iin the lbreak'j'oint relation shown in Fig. 1 or in a stacked arrangement, one of these ribs coinciding with a tube 60 where the tubes are arranged on the predetermined centers. The other ribs 25, 3! and 33 of the plates are provided with dovetail enlargements 4B for the sole purpose of permiting greater flexibility in the location of the studs and to permit employing intermediate studs between those on the predetermined centers where a concentrated load is to be supported by the wall, or for any other reason.

In the erection of the wall suitable temporary spacing boards or studs can be used to insure the exact spacing of the inner and outer plates, inasmuch as the paper tubes 69 are capable ofbeing distorted and after a suitable number of rows of the exterior and interior plates have been screwed in position the paper tubes 60 are filled with concrete 63 so as to embed the last upper row of screws which have been placed in position. After this concrete has set, the studs are in the form of concrete studs on predetermined centers and the screws 5| are embedded in these studs so as to securely hold the plates 15 to the studs.

To increase the strength of this securement, it

has been found that bent screws, as indicated at Ela, can be screwed into the walls of the paper tubes 69 as easily as the straight screws shown in the other figures. It has also been found that where such bent screws 6la are employed they are much more firmly anchored in the concrete inasmuch as they cannot be pulled out of the concrete without distorting the screw or breaking away a part of the stud. 1

Where lintels are required over openings, such. as the window opening 65 shown in Fig. 1, the lintel can be in the form of a sheet metal channel 66 having upright side flanges 5'! which are spaced to'embrace the paper tubes-6| and to engage the opposing faces of the ribs 25, 3S, 3 l, 32 and 33 of the inner and outer plates l5, as best illustrated in Fig. 4. This lintel is supported on the through studs at opposite sides of the opening 65, the paper tubes of these studs having been filled with concrete up to this point and since the upright flanges 51 of thelintel are spaced apart sufficiently to'embrace the paper tube til it will be seen that any number of studs can be built up on this lintel as indicated by the central stud shown at the top of Fig. 1. After the plates l5 have been set up so as to leave the opening as 'shown'in Fig. 1, a window or a door frame can be set into this opening in the manner illustrated by dotted lines in Fig. 3, this provision of window or door cases forming no part of the present invention and hence not being illustrated or described in detail.

As illustrated in Figs. 12 and 13 the invention can also be carried out with a wooden stud and sill construction instead of the concrete stud and sill construction indicated in Figs. 1-5. As shown in Fig. 12 the frame ofv the building includes a wooden sill it; which would usually be a standard 2" X 4" sill and which can besecured to the foundation. wall 5i in any usual and well known manner. On the sill in wooden studs .1! can be set up on predetermined centers in the usual and well known manner. With the wooden construction the base row of plates would be secured by base clips of somewhat different form from the flat plates l5.

base clips 45 used in connection with the poured concrete type of constructionillustrated in Figs. 1-5. As best shown in Fig. 13, the clips 12 employed where wooden sills are. used comprise an L-shaped strip of metal having a horizontal base, a short upstanding finger at one side which is adapted to fit into any of the notches at the base of any of the ribs provided on the back of the plate 15 and a long wing havinga hole 13. Where wooden sills are employed, the clip 12 ,can be secured to the sill at intervals by means of screws ornails 74, the clips being arranged toenter one of the notches 21, 34, 35,, 3,8 or. 39 .at the base of one of the reinforcing ribs on the back oi the plate 15. It will be understood that as many of these clips can'be provided as may be desired, usually such clips being provided at the opposite sides of the base of each'stud to register with that rib of the plate 15 which coincides with the stud and an additional base clip also being preferably provided in position to hold the opposite end of each of the base plates.

studs H in exactly thejsame. manner as they aresecured to thepaper tubes 60 in the form of the invention shown in Figs. l-5, except that the entire facing of outside plates can jbelaid up independently of the facing of insidev plates if desired, it not being necessary, as with the poured concrete studs, that the erection of the outside and inside plates proceed simultaneously. lhecorners of the building are completed by the use of exterior corner plates 75 illustrated in perspective in Fig. 9 and interior corner plates 15 illustrated in perspective in Fig. 10. These corner plates are shown as being rounded to provide rounding exterior and interior corners, but it will be understood that this is purely a matter of choice and that these plates could be square cornered if desired. l V

The exterior corner-plates T5 are of the same general form as the flat plates 1'5 except that the exterior corner plates are longer and are provided with'six vertical ribs instead of five. Of these ribs the first rib H 'is identical with the rib 25 on the flat plates, having a flange or tongue 25a forming an end'groove 2% similar to the end groove 24 in each flat plate The remaining ribs '18, 79, 80, 8! and 82 of the exterior corner plate 15 are each identical with the vertical ribs 36, 32 or 33 provided in the flat plate it, each of these ribs, and also the rib ll having a dovetail enlargement 40a at its upper end corresponding to the similar enlargements QB on the upper ends of the ribs of the flat plate l5 and each of these ribs 11 -82 also being notched at its lower end; as indicatedat 83, in the same manner as with the vertical ribs on the In other respects the form' of each curved exterior plate E5 is identical with the hat plates, except 'for being curved and the same reference numerals havetherefore been applied and distinguished by the suffix a. The

curvature of the exterior corner plate 15 is shown as confined to the space betweenthe vertical ribs 18 and l9so that these ribsproject inwardly at right angles to each other and are capable of being secured' b'y the clips 35 to the side of a corner stud 58, as best illustrated in Fig. 3. As shown in this figure and Fig; 2, these exterior corner' plates '15 exactly join the flat plates I5 so that the, two wall surfaces are "joined by a smooth unbroken corner provided by these corner plates 15. It will beunderstood that where the exterior corner plates 15 are to be laid up in break In other respects the plates l5 are laid up and secured to the wooden I studs.

joint relation to one another, the plates limust be provided in rights and lefts, the rights differing from the lefts by having a reversed arrangement of the vertical groove 24a and the opposite tongue 2| a. p I

The interior corner plates 16 must also be providedin rights and lefts and are used, forall interior corners including the interior corners of a partition 90, as illustrated in Fig. 2. These interior corner plates 16 are of the same general form as the flat plates l5 except that the interior corner plates are shorter and areprovided with four vertical ribs instead of five. Of these ribs, the first rib 9| is identical with the rib 25 on each of the fiat plates [5, having a flange or tongue 25b forming an end groove 2419 similar to th e end groove 24 in each fiat plate l5. The remaining ribs 92, 93 and 94 ofeach interior corner plate '16 are each identical with the vertical ribs 3%, 32 or 33 provided in each of the flat plates 5, each of these ribs, and also the rib 9i, having a dove tail enlargement 462) at its upper end corresponding to the similar enlargements 50 on the upper ends of the ribs of the flat plate l5 and each of these ribs 9l94 also being notched at its lower end, as indicated at 95, in the same manner as with the vertical ribs on the fiat plates [5. In other respects, the form of each curved interior corner plate 16 is identical with the flat plates, except for being curved, and the same'reference numerals have therefore been applied and distinguished by the suffix b. The curvature of the inner corner plate 16 is at its extreme end and is shown in Fig. 10 as adjacent the rib 94, this rib thereby projecting at right angles to the other ribs, although in an opposite hand plate the curvature would be adjacent the rib 9| as with the inner corner best shown in Fig. 3. In securing an inner corner piece in position, the dovetail enlargement 60b of the rib 9! will generally be attached by means of one of the clips 45 to the adjacent stud, although this will, of course, depend upon the arrangement of the The inner corner pieces 76 are not secured to the corner studs, this having been found not to be feasible.

From the foregoing it will be seen that the present invention provides a wall construction in which plates of an inexpensive plastic and of any suitable color or appearance are employed to provide the inside and outside of a stud wall by direct attachment to the studs. The use of plastics permits of producing the plates to exact dimensions and also provides a strong wall which will stand up under severe abuse and will also withstand weathering. It will also be seen that the wall can be erected rapidly by normally skilled workmen and is highly fire resistant even when wood studs are employed and since there is but slight contact between the plates and the concrete, where concrete studs are employed, and this further reduced by the presence of the paper shell around the studs, it will be seen that the wall has low thermal conductivity. The wall can also be rapidly erected and the construction is flexible enough to permit of incorporating any desired architectural effect. It will also be noted that the erected panels can readily be removed by breaking out the lowermost row of panels and sliding the remaining panels downwardly without breakage, this permitting the use of the invention economically in connection with temporary structures and also increasing the salvage value of a building made in accordance with the invention.

, I claim as myinvention: ,1. In a building structure, a plurality of uniformly spaced studs, aplurality of rigid plates arranged in horizontal rows against said studs and each equal in length to the spacing of said studs and having their edges formed to interlock with one another, an integral vertical rib projecting rearwardly from the rear face of each of said plates one-quarter the distance from each end of each plate so as to permit said plates to be placedin centered breakjoint relation to one another with one ofthe said ribs of each plate in substantially centered abutting relation with a corresponding stud, and means fastening said ribsto said studs in said-centered abutting relation therewith,, Q i ,7 v

2. Ina building construction, a supporting structure,-a plurality of rectangular rigid plates laid against said supporting structure and each being provided along two meeting edges with a rearwardly offset tonguethe front face of which is substantially coplanar with the rear face of the plate and each plate being provided on its rear face along the vertical edge of its other two meeting edges with a rib, a flange projecting outwardly from said rib parallel to said rear face and engaging the rear face of the offset vertical tongue of an adjacent plate, said rib projecting rearwardly from said rear face of said plate a distance greater than the rearward projection of said tongues and said rib being provided at its lower end with a notch engaging the rear face of the offset horizontal tongue of an adjacent plate, and means fastening the ribs of said plates to said supporting structure.

3. In a building structure, a plurality of uniformly spaced studs, a plurality of rectangular rigid plates laid against said studs and each equal in length to the spacing of said studs and each being provided along two meeting edges with a rearwardly offset tongue the front face of which is substantially coplanar with the rear face of the plate and each plate being provided on its rear face along the vertical edge of its other two meeting edges with a rib, a flange projecting outwardly from said rib parallel to said rear face and engaging the rear face of the offset vertical tongue of an adjacent plate, an additional vertical rib projecting rearwardly from the rear face of each of said plates one-quarter thedistance from the same end of each plate whereby said additional ribs coincide with said studs and said additional rib projecting rearwardly from the rear face of each plate a distance greater than the rearward projection of said tongues and one of said vertical ribs being provided at its lower end with a notch engaging the rear face of the ofiset horizontal tongue of an adjacent plate, and means fastening said additional rib of each plate to a corresponding stud.

4. In a building structure, a plurality of studs each comprising a shell filled with poured concrete, a plurality of rigid plates each having vertical ribs projecting rearwardly from the rear faces thereof and means securing said ribs to said studs, comprising clips interlocking with said ribs and bent screws extending through said clips and shells and embedded in the concrete of said studs.

5. In a building structure, a plurality of studs each comprising a shell filled with poured concrete, a plurality of rectangular rigid plates laid up in horizontal rows against opposite sides of said studs, said plates having vertical ribs projecting rearwardly from the rear faces thereof and provided with upwardly extending notches at their lower ends and provided with tongues along. their upperedges fitting into the said notches of the next succeeding higher" row of plates, means. securing said ribs to said studs comprising clips interlocking with said ribs and fastening members extending through said clips and shells and embedded in theconcrete of said studs and base clips spacing the base row of plates and each comprising a flat body portion and upstanding end ears engaging the said notches of opposite ribs of the inner and outer base rows of said plates.

6. Abuilding unit-oi the character described, comprising a rectangula-r'rigid plate adapted to be secured to a supporting structure andmprovided along one vertical edge with a rearwardly offsetvtongue-the: front face of which is substantially coplanar-with therear face of the plate and each plate being provided on its rear face along the opposite vertical edge with a rib and a flange projecting outwardly from said rib parallel to said rear face to engage the tongue of an adjacent plate, and a second rib and flange substantially identical with said first rib and flange provided alongside the vertical centerline of each plate whereby a half plate having a marginal form corresponding to the whole plate is obtained by dividing a Whole plate into halves.

7'. In a building structure, a corner construction comprising a corner stud and studs adjacent said corner stud, an exterior L-shaped corner plate having a pair of vertical ribs on its inner face at its bend projecting at right angles to each other and an additional vertical rib spaced from said pair of ribs, means securing said first pair of vertical ribs to the sidesof said corner stud, means securing said additional vertical rib to one of said adjacent studs, an interior L-shaped corner plate on the opposite side of said studs and having a vertical rib spaced from its bend and means securing said last vertical rib to one of said additional studs, said bend of said interior corner plate being spaced a substantial distance from said corner stud.

ROBERT MAXWELL JAMES.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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US2674775 *Jul 3, 1946Apr 13, 1954Willson Corwin DMaking molded panels
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US5279088 *Jan 17, 1992Jan 18, 1994Heydon Building Systems International, LimitedWall structure and method of forming the same
US5505031 *May 4, 1994Apr 9, 1996Heydon Building Systems, Inc. Of CaliforniaBuilding structure and method of use
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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/258, 52/481.1, 52/204.2, 52/563, 52/376
International ClassificationE04B2/56
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2/56
European ClassificationE04B2/56