US 2352804 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 4, 1944. L. SCHEPMOES FLUORESCENT LIGHTING FIXTURE Filed June 24, 1942 s Sheets-Sheet 1' II II II ll ll ll H II I! ll ll ll ll l.| I1 I- C'Lll l.l IA H II II II II II! Ill-)1 H II H II II II ll H H II ll II II II INNTOR lwaszi Soup/1105s. a lnfinLbl-lv mdnmnd ATTORNEY y 4, 1944- LISCHEPMOES 2,352,804"
FLUORESCENT LIGHTING FIXTURE Filed June 24, 1942 a Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR 1 Q Q Z M0515) Jam/1405s. II I Bum, (inks w m.
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FLUORESCENT LIGHTING FIXTURE Filed June 24, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR Z/NDJL EY Jum /1405s BY main. cwLHst- Hnausumi ATTORNEY Patented July 4, 1944 umrso STATES PATENT orrics Lindsley Schepmoes, New Haven,
to The safety Car Heating and Conan, aaaignor Lighting Coipany, Inc., a corporation Delaware 7 Application June 24, 1942, Serial No. 448,318
Claim!- (Cl. 240-78) This invention relates to lighting fixtures and more particularly to a fluorescent lighting fixture characterized by a lens particularly adapted thereto.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide a fixture for fluorescent lighting characterized by simplicity and sturdiness and which is compact so as to be capable of installation in restricted spaces. Another object is to provide a fixture of the above nature capable oi providing maximum light distribution from a fluorescent lamp. regardless of the position of installation of the fixture. Another object is to provide a fixture. of the above nature in which glare is reduced to a minimum when the fixture is observed in the normal range of vision. 7 Another object is to combine a fluorescent lamp with its various operating electrical-auxiliaries together with its light control lens within a compact housing of pleasing external appearance which may be mounted directly on a wall surface with no part of it penetrating the wall. A still further object is to provide a light controlling lens parvent unsightly ticularly adapted for use with a fluorescent lamp.
Other objects will be in part apparent and in part pointed outhereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations oi elements and arrangements of parts, as will be exemplified in the structure to be hereinafter described, and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims.
In the drawings, wherein I have shown two embodiments of my fixture, and also two different forms of lenses adapted for use therewith, Figure 1 is a perspective view of the fixture; Figure 2 is an enlarged section taken generally along the line 2-2 of Figure 3;
Figure 3 is an enlarged section taken generally along the line 3-4 of Figure 2; a
Figure 4 is an enlarged sectional elevation ,taken along the line 4-4 of Figure 3:
Figure 5 is a fragmentary rspective view, on the same scale as Figure 1, o the fixture housing and lamp support;
Figure 5A is an enlarged perspective view of one oi the fluorescent lamp supporting sockets;
Figure 6 is a greatly enlarged fragmentary side view of one form of lens adapted for use with the fixture shown in Figure 1, this view being taken looking into the lens; Figure I is a sectional elevation of the lens shown in Figure 6;
Figure 8 is a greatly enlarged side view,oi'-another form of lens adapted for use witli'the fix-' ture of Figure 1, this View being taken looking into the lens;
Figure 9 is a sectional elevation of the lens shown in Figure 8;
Figure 10 is a per spective view or a modified form oimyfixture:
Figure 11 is an enlarged section 0! the fixture shown in Figure 10:
Figure 12 is a section taken along the line lI-lloiFlgure-itand;
Figure 13 is a section taken. al ng the line l3'l3oiF18I- 12.
Similar reference characters-refer, to imilar parts throughout the various vlewsot the lugs. r Y
The ever-increasing development-and use 01 fluorescent lighting has given rise to a number of problems and diificulties in the provisions! suitable fixtures ior fluorescent lamps, and suit-- able housings for the electrical apparams necessary to the .operationoi' the fluorescent lamp.
Even when this necessary electrical equipment is provided in compact form .it is still dimcult to house and conceal in' such a manner as to pre li rthercomplications arise due to the length or the fiuorescent lamp itself which. of fcourse, necessitates a fixture. oi
still greater over-all dimensions. 4180. when it is desired to use fluorescent lighting 'in particular installations, such as in cars. Pullman berths, mirrors, over beds in homes or on ships. and similar places where space is, relatively connned, additional-difiicult problems arise in providing a fixture suitable ior such installations. Space limitations are 'conflned not on y wall surface area or mirror irame surface, but also the thickness of iurther complications in that. in many pmjotration or the partition is not allowed, thus necessitating the provision of a which is ciillib e ely selfcontained and which therefore be comb. of direct-attachment to the partition.
It is well known, oi course, the a fluorescent lamp permits much better light 'di'stribution'and utilization than does the spherical light source of an'incandescent lamp. Howevenin order-to tion to provide a fluorescent lighting fixture capable of solving the above-mentioned problems and obviating the noted difiiculties in an emcient and practical manner.
With reference to Figure 1, one form oi my fixture is generally indicated at "(comm in general a housing generally indicated at 2| which supports the fluorescent lamp and houses the lamps electrical equipment; a preferably integral lens support or canopy generally indicated at 22; and a lens generally indicated at 23. As will be noted in detailbelow, lens 23 is directly secured to canopy 22 which is in turn secured to housing 2| so that fixture comprises a unitary assembly which may be directly attached to a wall or other surface without the necessity of penetratly formed with partition 21 and flange 28, and.
which has a lug 3| or the,like which extends outwardly from front wall 25 of the housing to provide a support for one of the sockets of the fluorescent lamp, as will be described.
As shown in Figure 2, a platform 32 is integrally formed with front wall 25 of housing 2|, and extends rearwardly thereof to provide a support for a socket 33 adapted to receive a ballast lamp 3% (see also Figure 3). Socket 33 and lamp 3d are provided only when the fixture is to be used with direct current. Formed on and extending upwardly from the bottom wall 26 of housing 2| (Figure 3) are a pair of bosses 35 and 36 on the ends of which are supported a manually operated starter and ofi switch 37 provided with on and ed buttons 38 and 39 which extend through holes drilled in the housing wall 25. Switch 37 is held on bosses 35 and 35 by a screw Ml which extends through the housing wall into the switch. Switch 31 may also be conveniently utilized as a support for a condenser ti and a resistance 42 which are provided when the fixture is to be attached to a source of direct current. Housing 2| also encloses and has attached thereto in any convenient fashion a reactor 43.
It will now appear, with reference to Figures 2 and 3, that housing 2| compactly accommodates ballast lamp 34 and its socket, starter switch 3?, condenser 8|, resistance, and reactor 43 in such a manner that this necessary electrical equipment is securely, compactly and accessibly disposed so as to be completely out of sight when the fixture is installed on a wall or other surface. It should also be noted that none of this electrical equipment extends beyond the outer surface of flanges 28 (Figure 2), thus precluding the necessity of penetrating any partition to which the fixture is secured as would otherwise be necessary to accommodate the electrical equipment. Thus, housing 2| may be secured directly to the supporting surface on which the fixture is to be mounted by any suitable means, as by screws 44, which extend through flanges 22 and accordingly attach housing 2| to the supporting surface (see also Figure 4) Canopy 22 may be formid from sheet metal or may be a molded plastic, at in either event includes 'a top wall 45, the front portion a of which preferably curves over substantially half of lens 23- (see Figure 4) and'is provided with a pairofspacedbossesutowhichthelensmay be secured, as will be later described. Canopy 22 (Figure 1) includes at its ends generally U- end plate 49, which may be, in the case of sheet metal welded to shield 41, or, in the case of a plastic, molded integrally therewith. Shield ll is similarly closed by an end plate 50 (Figure 3). As shown in Figure 1, the lower ends "a and a of shields 41 and 48 underlie bottom wall 25 of housing 2| and he flush against the surface to which the fixture is secured (see Figure 4). As shown in Figure 3, canopy 22 may conveniently be directly mounted on and secured to housing 2| as by screws 5| and 52 which extend through a the canopy top 45 and are threaded into suitable bosses formed on housing top wall 24. It will now appear that lens 23 may first be secured to canopy "22, and the canopy may then be attached to the housing. Thus, the fixture is completely assembled on its supporting surface, but in such a manner 'as to be readily. removable therefrom for lamp replacement, cleaning, repair, or for any other purpose.
As noted above, housing 2| is provided wi. lamp socket supporting lugs 3| which, as shown in Figure 2, each support a socket 53. As is more clearly shown in Figure 5A, socket 53 includes a lamp supporting portion 54 and a base 55 which carries suitable terminal screws 55 (Figure 4). Lamp supporting portion 54 and base 55 are disposed. on opposite sides of a strap 51 provided with a hole 58 which, when socket 53 is mounted on its supporting lug 3| (Figure 4) registers with a hole bored in the lug, which hole receives a suitable securing screw 550 by which the socket is secured to its lug fl. Thus, sockets 53 are. secured at the opposite ends of housing 2| so as to detachably receive a fluorescent lamp tube 59.
As noted above, fluorescent lighting has a number of advantages, one of the most important of which lies in the elongated source of illumination. Also, as noted, it is necessary to control this illumination so as properly to illuminate the area desired, while at the same time preventing annoying glare. Where itis desired, as in the case of a Pullman berth, to locate the lighting fixture to the side and above the reading plane, the lens shown in Figure 6 may advantageously be used. For illustrative purposes,
this lens is the one shown mounted in fixture 2| in Figures 2 and 4, and accordingly will be de-' scribed in connection with those figures.
In order to refract light rays emanating from lamp 59 away from the lines of visionwhen the fixture is to be applied to the side of and above the reading plane, lens 23 is provided, as shown in Figures 6 and 7, with a series of closely spaced prisms 50. These prisms are arcuate in form, as shown in Figure 7, and extend from the lower edge 22a of lens 22 preferably to a point 22b thereon, to provide a lens portion 23 of lesser over-all thickness at the level of the axis of fluorescent lamp 52, so' as morereadilyto accommodate the asymmetrical disposition of lamp 5! with relation to lens 23, as shown in Figure 4. The upper end of lens 23 terminates in a flange 22d provided, as shown in Figure 8, with spaced' holes 23c through which screws I (Figure!) extend to be threaded into. bosses 46 on canopy 22 to secure the lens to the canopy.
Referring back to Figure 6, it may be seen that the inclination from the vertical of one side of each of prisms 60 (side "a, for example) is greater than the inclination of the other side 60b of the prism so that when the fixture is mounted on its supporting surface with its axis vertical, the light'rays emanating from the fluorescent lamp will be directed axially and downwardly of the lens, and accordingly toward the reading plane and not at right angles to the axis of the fixture. Wall portion, 45a of canopy 22 acts both as a shield and a reflector, respectively, to prevent light emanation from that portion of the fixture adjacent the lamp and toconcentrate the light at the unshielded portion of lens 23. Hence, annoying glare is precluded in'the nor mal range of vision of the fixture. This refraction of light rays is effected throughout what might be called the prismatic area of the lensso that ample illumination of the reading plane is provided... As shown in Figure 4, the lower end 230. of lens 23 rests against the bottom edge of front wall of housing 2| when the lens is installed, and is accordingly supported thereby when the fixture is mounted with its' axis horizontal. Hence, any tendency of the lens to sag and warp the front portion 45a of the canopys top wall 45 is precluded. When fixture 20 is to be installed in more modern Pullman cars wherein the partition between adjacent sections is permanent, the fixture is mounted centrally on the partition with its axis horizontal and at the proper height so that the light rays are directed downwardly and to one side so as to fallv on the reading plane.
The lens, generally indicated at 62 in Figures 8 and 9, might be termed a parallel condenserlens ,and is particularly well adapted for use ina fix- Thus, lens 62 includes an elongated double convex or condenser portion 63 which, as shown in Figures 8 and 9, forms the lower portion offthe lens, and accordingly underlies the asymmetridesired to shield the prismatic portions of lens 82.
To increase the eificiency of fixture 22, the front wall 26 (Figure 5) of housing 2| is preferably coated with suitable material so that this portion of the housing acts as a reflector for fluorescent lamp I. (see Figure-4) Installation of fixture 2. is easily and quic ly effected by first attaching housing 2! to the supporting surface by screws 44 (Figure 2). These screws are readily accessible prior'to the installa-- tion of lamp is in its sockets II. After the housing has been mounted on its supporting surface, lamp 5! may be installed in the sockets in the customary manner, after which canopy 22 (Figure 3) with lens 23 already attachedthereto may be secured to housing wall 24 by screws II and I2.
Thus, installation of the fixture may readily be metry is desired to meet prescribed decorative conditions. The fixture, generally indicated at it in Figure 10, is particularly well; adapted to such use. Broadly speaking, fixture it resembles fixture 20 in that it includes a housingtgenerally indicated at 61, a metal or plastic canopy, generally indicated at it, and a translucent plastic shade, generally indicated at 08. As will be described in detail below, Shade 80 is withcally disposed fluorescent lamp 59. The upper,
inner portion of lens 62 is provided with elongated parallel graduated prisms 64, the spacing between which diminishes upwardly so that light rays from lamp 59 striking these prisms are refracted away from the normal range of vision, thus precluding annoying glare. Lens 62 is also provided with an attaching flange and thus may readily be applied to canopy 22 (Figure 4) Y as described above in connection with lens 23. It will, accordingly, appear that regardless of whether lens 23 or lens 82 is used in fixture 20 (Figure 1), light distribution is so controlled that the rays are refracted away from the lines of vision, and thus glare in the normal range of vision is effectively avoided. At the same time, ample lighting is provided in the desired area. and, in the case of lens 62, refracted rays are utilized for general illumination.
' However, when lens 62 is used, it is desirable that canopy wall portion So be substantially narf rower than shown in Figures 1 and 4, as it is not in canopy 88 and is accordingly securely heldjin the fixture when the canopy-is secured to housing 61. Housing 1 may in turn be directly attached to the desired supporting surface. 7
As shown in Figure 13, housing 81 is generally dish-shaped, having top, libttom and front walls 10, ll, 12, and curved end walls 13 and ll (Figure 11). At each end of housing 01 are. a pair of hollow posts I! and II (Figure 13) through which screws 'I'I extend so that their threaded ends may be attached to the supporting surface on which the fixture is to be applied, thus to hold the housins securely in its installed position. Housing 61, (Figure 11) also has a platform 18 formed integrally therewith to support a ballast lamp II and its socket 80. when fixture t8 istO be energized from a source of direct current, it is provided with electrical equipment similar to that described in connection with Figure 2. Thus, fixture 66 may have disposed in the housing 61- thereof not only ballast lamp 1:, but also starter switch 8| (Figure 12) condenser 82, resistor u; and reactor Starter II is secured to bottom wall." of the housing by a screw 82. Starter II is, of course, provided with on and of! buttons 25 and it which accessibly extend through holes drilled in the housing wall. It will accordingly appear that in general housing it resembles housing 2! of fixture 22 in that it supports and, when installed, conceals the various electrical equipment for fluorescent lighting.
As shown in Figure 12, an opening I] is formed in each end of housing It through which the base of socket 54 may be placed, the socket being securedto the housing by a screw 82 whichextends through front wall 12 of the housing and is threaded into strap 51. Thus, when the sockets are installed at the opposite ends of the housing, they are in position to detachably support. the fluorescent lamp '2.
Canopy It may be molded from a plastic material, or die cast from a suitable metal. In either event, however, it is preferable that all portions of the canopy be integral both for decorative purposes and to strengthen the fixture. Thus, canany 88 comprises hollow hemispherical ends 89 and I (Figure the distance between which is less than the axial length of shade 69 so that when the shade is installed within the canopy and connected to housing 81, the shade is securely held within the fixture. Canopy ends 09 and OI are connected by narrow rails 9i and 92 (see also Figure 13) and integrally formed with each of the ends it and 80 is an attaching post 98 (Figure 11). When canopy 88 is installed on housing ii these posts 83 project through the openings 81 in the housing in a position to receive screws 84 which extend throu h holes drilled in housing end walls l3and 14, the screws thus securely attaching the canopy to the housing. Preferably each of canopy ends 89 and 99 is provided with an angular ridge 95 (Figure 11) which limits endwise movement of shade 69. and accordin y Prevents either end of the shade from becoming exposed.
Preferably housing wall I2 (Figure 11) has an opening 96 which may be closed by a pivoted door 91. This opening is provided to permit ready access to ballast lamp is when the occasion arises. Preferably front wall 12 of housing 56 is suitably polished or coated with a refleeting material so that this part of the housing comprises a reflector for the fluorescent lamp.
It may thus be seen that in each of fixtures 28 and 66 full advantage has been'taken of the benefits of fluorescent lighting, and that a neat, compact, and decorative fixture has been provided to fulfill the several objects hereinbefore mentioned.
As many possible embodiments may be made of the above inventidh, and as many changes might be made in the embodiments above set' ing integral attaching flanges on said housing at'the rear thereof and lying in a plane parallel to said front wall for detachably securing the housing to a wall or the like, means forming integral socket supporting flanges extending outwardly of the plane of said front wall, integral supporting members within said housing for supporting electric devices for operating a fluoreicent lamp, said members being wholly thereof and lying in a plane parallel to said front wall for detachably securing the housing to a wall or the like, means forming socket supporting flanges extending outwardly of the plane of said front wall, integral supporting members within said housing for supporting electric devices for operating a fluorescent lamp, said members being wholly contained between the 'planes of said front wall and said flrst-men-i tioned flanges, a socket on each of said secondmentioned flanges, a fluorescent lamp detachably mounted in said sockets adjacent said front wall, a canopy detachably secured to said housing, said canopy having a top wall which lies flat on the top wall of said housing and is supported thereby and a curved portion extending over a portion of said front wall, and a lens se cured to said canopy and enclosingisaid lamp.
3. A flxture for fluorescent lighting, in combination, a housing having top, front and bot, tom walls and open at the rear, means forming. attaching flanges on said housing atthe rear; thereof and lying in a plane parallel to said front wall for detachably securing the housing to a wall or the like, means forming socket supporting flanges extending outwardly of the plane of said front wall, integral supporting members within said housing for supporting electric -devices for operating a fluorescent lamp, said mem bers being wholly contained between the planes of said front wall and said first-mentioned flanges, a socket on each of said second-mentioned flanges, a fluorescent lamp detachably mounted in said sockets adjacent said front wall, a canopy detachably secured to said housing, a lens disposed between said canopy and the front wall of said housing, and means securing the upper portion of said lens to said canopy, the lower edge of said lens resting against and being supported by the front wall of said housing.
4. A fixture for fluorescent lighting, in comfpination, a longitudinal housing having a front gwall, an elongated fluorescent lamp detachably imounted on the front wall of said housing, electrical devices in said housing to operate said lamp, an elongated arcuate lens supporting canopy secured to said housing and covering a portion of said front wall, a curved elongated lens having a single flange formed on its upper longitudinal edge, and means for securing said lens flange to the inner portion of said canopy, the lower longitudinal edge of said lens resting against the front wall of said housing, said canopy when secured to the housing forcing the lower edge of the lens into tight engagement with the front wall of the housing.
5. A fixture for fluorescent lighting, in combination, a housing adapted to be secured to a vertical wall, a socket secured to 'each endof said housing, a fluorescent lamp detachably mounted in said sockets, a canopy secured to said housing and extending outwardly therefrom, said canopy including shield members at its opposite ends adapted to enclose said sockets when secured to said housing, and a lens mounted within said canopy and secured thereo between said shields so as to enclose said fluorescent lamp, said canopy having an outwardly extending top wall provided with bosses.
and said lens having a flange adapted to be secured to said canopy bosses.
I LINDSIEY SCHEPMOES.