US 2353726 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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I LAYOUT APPARATUS Filed Feb. 2, 1942 a Sheets-SheetB v NVLNTOQ 1577b 5. Gaztma/m fl, fub ckzm m A H G TTOw Patented July 18, 1944 UNITED STATES PATENT O FICE LAYOUT APPARATUS Eric S. Quttmann, Rockford, Ill., assignor to The Ingersoll Milling Machine Company, Rockford, ,I ll.', a corporation of Illinois Application February 2, 1942, Serial N0. 429,201
14 Claims. (Cl. 3 3125) This invention relates to apparatus for facilitating the-laying out of dimensions, patternadesigns, etc., or otherwise marking work pieces.
In the present practice, such layout work is still done by means of simple toolssuch as gauges, squares, indicators, etc., which are manipulated entirely by hand not only in marking the work piece but in making the measurements necessary to locate various points or lines where machining operations are to be performed. This method re- -lies entirely onhand skilland is necessarily slow and of limited accuracy.
"The primary object of the present invention is to reduce the time consumed and increase the accuracy attained in layout work while at the same time reducing the skill required.
A more detailed object is to support a layout tool for accurately measured movements along a plurality of predetermined crossing paths and for engagement selectively with difierent sides of a work piece.
A further object is to provide a layout apparatus by which dimensions maybe indicated or marked on both vertical and horizontal surfaces of a work piece by means of a tool mounted above the work piece.
Another object is to provide a novel layout apparatus which provides for extreme accuracy of tool movement, which is adapted for the handling of heavy work pieces, which renders all sides of the work accessible, and which facilitates loading and unloading of the work pieces.
Still another object is to locate the measuring indicators for the different tool movements in a novel relation to provide for accuracy of their response and to facilitate reading from a single control position.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a fragmentary perspective View of a layout apparatus involving the novel features of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary plan view of the bridge structure with certain of the parts broken away and shown in section.
7 Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, and '7 are fra me tary sectional views taken respectively along the lines 3--3, 44, 5 -5, E6,and '11 of Fi .2.
Fig. 3 is a section taken along the line -8-8 of Fig. 6.
" Fig. 9 is a fragmentary plan view of one end rt n .6 t e bri e gu we taken along e line9-9 of Fig. 6.
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of one end of the bridge and its support taken along the line l6l0 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional View of the bridge, the section being taken along the line l'I-H of Fig. 12.
Fig. 12 is a plan sectional View taken along the line l2l2 of Fig. -11.
Figs. 13 and 14 are sections taken respectively along the lines 13-43 and l5:l4 of Fig. 12.
Fig. 15 is a section taken along the line 15-15 of Fig. 14.
Fig. 16 is an elevationalview partially in section of a layout tool and its support.
Fig. 1'7 is a section taken along the line .l'lll of Fig. 16.
Fig. 18 is a schematic view of the operating parts of one of the measuring devices.
Fig. 19 is an elevational view of the control panel.
Fig. 20 is a schematic view and wiring diagram.
Fig. 21 is a longitudinal sectional view of another kind of layout tool and its mounting.
While the invention is susceptible of various modifications and alternative constructions, l'. have shown in the drawings and will herein describe in detail the preferred embodiment. ;It is to be understood, however, that -I do not intend to limit the invention by such disclosure fbut aim to cover all modifications and alternative constructions falling within the spiritand scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims.
Referring now to Fig. l, the improved layout apparatus comprises generally a stationary horizontal work table J0 and a tool supporting structure composed of three parts movable relative to the table along three' perpendicularly related aths and including a main frame or bridge ll disposed above the table and accurately guided for movement longitudinally thereof, ahead 12 movable along th br d e-ape iree e ee yei-ibe table, and a tool carrier or. ram l3 mounted on the head for endwise vertical movement toward van rom t le By su ortin t e 19 for such three dimensional movement, a layout ,device or tool M on the lower end thergqf may be positioned for engagement with any point ,onthe top or at the sides .of a work piece resting on the table. To facilitate this, the tool is adapted to be projected either downwardly as shownor laterally infour directionsat right angles to ,each other according towhichside of the .work is .to .be marked.
The extent of linear displacement in the three directions is measured by three device l5, l6, and [1 having indicators respectively operable to indicate the extent of movement of the main support I l longitudinally of the table, the movement of the head l2 transversely of the table, and the movement of the vertical tool carrier l3 vertically of the table, Power operated means is employed for moving the three supports and is arranged to be controlled from a single panel l8 (located in "a position from which all of the measuring indicators may be viewed conveniently. Thus, by manipulating control devices on the panel while observing the indicators, an operator may move the layout tool into operative association with any point on the top or sides of the work piece and then perform the layout operation through any length of the work surface.
' The table 10 i a heavy metal slab preferably substantially longer than it is wide and supported from a base I9 through the medium of screws or the like which may be adjusted to level the tabl accurately. .T-slotg are formed in the top to enable work pieces to be clamped in place in the usual way.
In layout work, measurements must be made with extreme accuracy, a tolerance: on the order of a thousandth of an inch being frequently required. It is of the utmost importance, therefore, that the movable tool supporting structure possess substantial rigidity and be guided very accurately. At the same time, the structure must be relatively light in weight so that it may be jogged to accurately defined positions and it must afford convenient access to the work table, not only during marking of. the. work surfaces but also to facilitate loading and unloading of the work pieces. Also, in order to maintain the necessary accuracy of measurement and guiding of the movable parts, the measuring devices and the coacting guide surfaces must be properly en- .closed. With these requirements in view, the main frame or bridge I I is of special construction and is supported and guided at three points, two
;of which are disposed on opposite sides of the .bridge and above normal head height on one side of the table while the third point is on the opposite side of the table preferably below the top of the latter.
The two spaced points of support are provided by an elongated track 2| extending along and upper side of the casting is shaped to receive hardened steel rail 24 and 25 projecting upwardly so as to form in effect a channel.
Cast integral with one end of the bridge is a hollow crossbar 26 projecting equal distances in opposite directions and having at each end an outwardly projecting stud 21 carrying a roller 28 that rides on the upper surface of the rail 24. The widened end of the T-shaped bridge is thus supported at widely spaced points. 7
' The crossbar 25 is guided laterally by the opposed surfaces of the rails 24 and 25 and for this purpose, rollers29 and 30 (Figs. 2 and 5) engaging the respective. surfaces are rotatable on pins 3| eccentrically mounted on studs 32 depending from ribs 33 near opposite ends of the crossbar and overlying the rail 24. Any suitable means, such as a screw 34, may be provided to hold the rollers 29 and 30 in place after they have been adjusted to take up any transverse play between the crossbar and the track.
A housing of inverted U-shaped section is supported by the rails 24 and 25 to enclose the Way surfaces and exclude settling dust or foreign particles. The studs 27 project through a slot 36 in one wall of the housing. The ends of the latter beyond the crossbar are closed by a metal belt 3! (see Figs. 5, 6, and 9) extending around rollers 38 at opposite ends of the casting 22 and within the latter with its ends secured to the crossbar 26 at points 39 (Fig. 2). A sheet metal plate 40 secured to the cross bar closes that portion of the track between the ribs 33.
The third point of support for the bridge is provided in the present instance by the upper surface on a hardened rail 4i mounted on a ledge ,which is formed by milling a channel 42 (see Fig. 10) in the edge of the table remote from the elevated track'2l above described. Foreign matter is excluded from this way and the latter is protected mechanically by a plate 43 fastened to the table edge and having a depending flange spaced from the channel. The lower end of the bridge leg 44 projects horizontally toward the table and carries a projection 45 extending upwardly between the table and the plate 43. A stud 46 on this extension projects into the channel and through an antifriction bearing carries a roller 41 which rides along the channel. Since no provision need be made for guiding the bridge leg 44 laterally of the way 4i, the bridge structureis free to expand or contract with temperature changes, this being permitted by shifting of the roller 4? laterally of the way. The bearing is supported eccentrically on the stud 4E and thus may be adjusted to take up play in the parts or level the bridge.
. Provision may be made for bracing the bridge against lateral deflection of the end supported by the single roller 61 and this without interfering with the freedom of movement of the head l2 along the bridge. Herein this is accomplished by tie rods I63 having one end connected to the projecting end of the bridge and the other end secured to one end of the crossbar 26. The rods may be threaded into brackets H34 on the bridge to facilitate adjustment of their lengths.
The bridge thus constructed and mounted is guided very accurately and yet is adapted to move freely without danger of binding as a result of temperature changes normally occurring in an ordinary machine shop. At the same time, the construction facilities the loading of all kinds of work pieces onto the table, thus, by moving the bridge to one end of the table, one side is entirely open and heavy work pieces may be moved onto the table by means of a crane, this being permitted by virtue of the location of the 1guidle for one end of the bridge below the table eve.
The bridge is moved back and forth by means of an electrically driven power operator selectively controllable from the panel I8. It is! carried by the bridge and preferably housed within one end portion of the crossbar 26. Herein, the operator includes a reversible electric motor 48 (see Figs. 2 and 7) mounted on the outer side wall of the bar and having one end of its shaft 49 connected through non-locking gearing 50, a normally engaged friction clutch5l and gears tor shaft 48.
152 ,to a vertical shaft :53 which is .jjournaled in .the crossbar 26 :andcarries a pinion 54 on its outer end. This .p'inionaneshes with a rack v55 :fastened to the casting 22 immediately .below larly mounted reversible .electric .motor 56 incorporatingreduction gearingdrives a shaft .51 on which is .splined one member 58 .of a jaw clutch engageable with the .teethl on a .member 59 fasten the .shaft 49 .of the motor 48. A spring 66 acting on .a lever 26! normally .retracts .the :clutchmember 58 maintaining the clutch disengaged. When the motor 56 is energized, a :solenoid .62 is also energized. shifting the. lever 6| to engage the clutch and drive the gearing Bil and 52 through-the intermediary of the mo- The bridge is thus advanced .at such a slow-rate of feed as to permit proper control in the positioning of the bridge. The clutch serves as an overloaddevice to prevent breakage of gears'in case the movable parts encounter a work piece unintentionally or engage a positive stop provided at the ends of their ways. Another friction clutch I59 between the clutch '5859 and the motor 48 protects the gears in Disposed between the track rails 24 and and carried on extensions-of the ribs 33 of the cross bar are clamping devices indicated generally at fifi which are controlled electrically so-as to .be
released whenever either of the motors -48 or Such depression is effected by a spring 68 stretched between the upstanding arms-69 of two bellcranks pivoted-at i0 and having short arrns H which bear against opposite sides of the lever-6?. Asolenoid l2 has its armature 13 connected'through toggle links 14 to the arms 69, the arrangement being such that when the solenoid is energized, the toggle is straightened and the arms '69 swung apart to release the clamping shoe. As shown in Fig. 2, there is a clamping device at each end of the crossbar 26 so that the clamping forces are of substantially the same magnitude and direction-and act on the bar at points equidistant from the bridge 11 which therefore'is not displaced under-these forces.
I The movements of the bridge alon'gitsguideways are registered by the measuring device l5 above referred to and registered on a dial or scale 18 which is supported by one end of the bridge crossbar 26 preferably adjacent the bridge and faces toward the control panel 18. As shown in Fig. 18, the indicator includes wheel 'type revolution counters I5 and for measuring inches and tenths thereof and a pointer '11 coacting with the stationary scale 18' to read in thousandths of an inch. Thewheelsand the pointer are actuated through appropriate gearing 19 mounted --within a casing 86 (Fig. '2) which is supported in a recess 8| in the crossbar 26. Projecting from the "end of the casin oppositethe dial and through the closure plate 49 is a shaft 62 which between the rails 24 and '26 carriesa-drum' 83 around'whicha flexible line or tape -64 is wound helically. One" end of I the tape is attached *tothe at "85, while the unreeled portion of the tape rests .on the upper surface of the casting 22 (see Figs.2 and -9) .andlits :free end is attached to the casing 22 at .tBSbeyond the limit position to which the drum is moved. This point of attachment is so located withreference to the drum axis that the unreeled portion of the tape is always maintained at a constant angle a relative to .a perpendicular to the drum axis (Fig. 18), such mangle being equal to the helix angle of the the motor 56 while the-motor"48 is coasting to .a y 'stop.
wound portion of tape. A motor 86 constantly energized tends .to turnthe drum and the indicating elements in a direction to wind up the tape, its torque being overcome when the bridge is moved-by the motors 4B and 56 ina direction to unwind the tape. By inclusion of a friction clutch 88 in the drive train, the pointer and wheels of the indicator may be reset to zero without disturbing the tape tension. This may be efiected by turning a knob 89 on the pointer shaft and a knob 90 for resetting the wheel counter in the usual -wayor by remote-control of .a .motor connected to the reset mechanism. 'Aguardplate58?..(Fig. s6) is supported from the ribs 133.:beneath the rollers .28 and .29 and the -clampj l.
With a measuring device of the above charvacter with it; drumand tape enclosed in the a-manner above described, it is possible under ordinary shopconditions to measure the move- 'ments of the-bridge. H with an accuracy of less than one thousandth of an inch. Moreover, .by virtue of the light: construction of the bridge .and the action ofthe clamps 69, it .is possible :to ioggthe bridge through very fine increments and, by observing the pointer H, to positionthe ':bridge with extreme precision while standing at the control station across the table.
*Referringnowto Figs. 1 and 11 ,to .15, the
. -antifriction mounting is provided to support z-andguide the head in its movement along the .rail. This 'mounting com-prises spaced balls 92 :and opposed converging way surfaces 93 and 93 ,"constituting ball raceways and respectively :formedonrails 94 and 95 respectively seated in grooves inthe top of the bridge and the :underside of the head casting I2. Each ball is held in recesses in a pair of links 96 which are ,pivotally connected to adjacent links to form an endless flexible cage whereby. the balls are :held in spaced relation. Beyond the ends of the head ways, the balls ride in grooved pulleys 91 rotatable on shafts .98. The latter are sup- ..ported at opposite ends by spaced brackets99 projecting rigidly from opposite sides of the head-and enclosed'by sheet metal housings on top :of the head.
1 'Lo-exclude dust and foreign-matter from the bridge ways -93 beyond the head, a belt 8891s extended-around rollers HM and 102 on the'head and is attached at its'ends to remote points I03 (see-Figs. 1 and 3) of the bridge I I. The rollers I'Mand- I02 are positioned so that the end portions of the belt rest in a groove l00 above the rail 94 and exclude dirt and foreign matter "from the latter. As the head moves alongthe bridge, one of these portions is lengthened and the other is shortened, the intermediate por- -tion of the belt-being flexed around the-rollers as the head moves. That portion of the belt between the rollers IOI is enclosed by a housing I02.
To hold the head against upward displacement, rollers I 84 (Figs. 11 and 14) spaced apart longitudinally of the bridge are rotatably supported by lugs I05 on spring platesIUB which are fastened to the plate I2 and bent so as to urge the rollers against the under surface of a hardened rail I01 seated in and extending along the underside of the bridge II. Bysuch preloading, the head is held down against the bridge and any lifting force applied to the head is counteracted. Rollers I08 rotatably supported by the plate I2 to turn on vertical axes bear against opposite sides of the rail I01 and thus serve to guide the lower end of the head against displacement laterally of the bridge. The rollers I88 are mounted eccentrically to permit of adjustment in locating the head I2 accurately.
The head is moved along the bridge at fast or slow speed by an electric operator of the character above described having its parts correspondingly numbered with the exponent a. This operator includes motors 48 and 56 mounted on the top of the head casting as shown on Figs. 12 and 14. The motors are energized under the control Projecting forwardly from the front of the head casting I2 are two vertically spaced brackets I2I and I22 bored to provide guideways I23 in which the ram I3 slides endwise. The ram is held against rotation by a key I24 (Fig. 12) mounted on the upper bracket and seating in a longitudinal grooveI 25 in the ram. The bottom of this groove is engaged by the shoes I26. (Fig. 15) of a clamp 64' which is constructed and operates in the same way as the clamps 64 and 64 previously described, the parts bearing similar reference numerals. to which the exponent b has been added.
. The operator for raising and lowering the ram is of the .same construction as the bridge and head feeding operators and its parts are given corresponding references with the addition of the exponent b. This operator is mounted on the topof the head casting I2 on the side of the ram opposite thehead operator and Within a cover or sub-housing I28. The driven shaft 53 of the operator. is disposed horizontally and carries a pinion 54R meshing with rack teeth I on the .front of the ram. The motors 48 and 58' are controlled from the panel I8 and the solenoid I2 is energized to release the clamp 64* when either motor is running.
of switches on the panel I8 and are operable through gearing to drive two meshing gears II2 journaled in the top part of the head I 2. Beneath this plate, the shafts of these gears carry pinions II3 meshing with racks II4 on the top of the bridge. By duplicaing the racks and pinions, the resultant force applied to the head to feed it along the bridge is directed along the longitudinal center of the bridge and guideways so that the feeding force does not tend to twist the head in its mounting on the bridge.
A clamp 64 (see Fig. 13) similar in construction to the clamps 64 above described is provided for locking the head I2 to the bridge when the motors 48 and 56 are deenergized, the parts being mounted on and disposed above the top of the head casting. In this case, the arms II of the bellcranks actuate plungers II5 guided in the casting I2 with their lower ends adapted for engagement with surfaces IIB on the bridge.
Movement of the head along the bridge is measured by the device I6 above referred to, which device is of the same construction as the device I5 previously described, and its parts bear the same reference numbers with the addition of the exponent a. To separate'its indicator from the others, the operating parts are preferably mounted at the end of bridge II near the leg 44 and on the same side of the bridge as the bridge indicator I5. As before, the operating parts of v the measuring device are disposed within a subhousing fill behind which is the drum 83 around which part of the tape 84 is wound. The un-.
reeled portion of the tape extends along a channel III (Figs. 12 and 14) formed along the rear side of the bridge II and its, endis attached at II9 to a holder I I8 projecting into the channel and rigid with the rear wall of the head casting I2. The width of the channel is such as to allow for cross traveling of the tape as it leaves the drum inwinding and unwinding. The tape channel is suitably sealed to exclude dirt as by a belt I 20 having its ends secured to the tape holder I I8 and extending in a continuous loop around pulleys (not shown) atopposite ends of the channel, the open edge of which is closed at all times. The opposite run of the belt is disposed at the root jof the channel.
The parts of the measuring device I I (see Figs. 14 and 15) are in a casing projecting horizontally into the sub-housing I28 between the brackets I2I and I22 on the lower one of which it is supported. The indicators 15', 16 and 11 are exposed on the side of the head facing the con- .trol panel. Thus, the indicators of all three of the measuring devices are conveniently visible by. an operator standing adjacent the bridge near the control panel I8. This applies to each position of the bridge along the table since all three indicators are mounted to move with the bridge. The indicators are quite widely spaced thereby minimizing the possibility of confusion as to which motion is registered on each indicator.
Owing to the slow rates of the movements imparted to the bridge, the head, and the ram by operation of the slow feed motors, the pointers and the scale graduations are plainly observable.
The drum 83 is disposed adjacent the ram and the unreeled portion of the tape is extended upwardly along the ram and fastened at I3I to the top of the latter, proper provision, of course. being made for cross traveling of the tape in winding and unwinding. A tubular housing I32 upstanding from the head encloses the upper end of the ram and the tape.
Provision is made for counterbalancing the excess weight of the ram I3 and other parts which are disposed in front of the bridge II and tend to twist the head in its mounting on the bridge ways. Herein, the counterweight comprises a block I6I of metal fastened to the side of the head casting I2 on the side of the bridge opposite the ram. As a result of such counterbalancing, no unbalanced force is exerted on the head supporting ways other than the reactionary forces resulting from engagement of the marking tools with the work.
Provision is made for mounting various deof a scriber tool is illustrated in Figs. 1, 16 and 17. This tool is carriedby a holder I32 which is adjustable about a horizontal axis I33: to project the tool point eitherdownwardly as shown in full lines in Fig. 16 or'horizontally as shown in dotted outline. Herein, the holder comprisestwo. spaced plates I34 rigidly connected and pivoted on a shouldered stud I35; projecting horizontally from a vertical plate I36 on the lower end. of a shank I31. The latter may, as shown. bev formed with a. tapered upper end I33; received in a correspondingly tapered axial. recess I39 in the lower end of. the ram I3.
Between the plates is rod. I so, of resilient material; having one end clamped rigidly'to, the plates by screws IlII. From this'point of anchorage, the rod extends downwardly and upwardly toform one. loop and then downwardly to, form a second loop. The free. end of the rod is straight and alined with the ram axis projecting beyond the plates for attachment thereto of a collar I42 in, which the tool It is held by a set screw I43. While this mounting; of the tool is relatively rigid and, the point is; positioned accurately, the
tool, is adapted, by flexing of the loops, to yield axially or laterally inthe plane of the rod. At the. same time, it is accurately guided by the plates I34. against sidewise movement. Thus, the. tool IA will ride over the surface of a rough casting without the supporting parts being stressed appreciably. A pin Hi4 on one plate is adapted tobe projected through a hole Hi l in the other plate and thus lock the plates together withthe tool projecting downwardly exactly vertically and preferably in alinement with the axis of the. ram. By removing the pin, turning the plates and replacing the pin in the other hole, the toolwill be projected horizontally as shown in dotted outline in Fig. 16 and at right angles to the ram, being thus adapted for operative engagement with the top surface on the work piece.
The holder L32 is; mounted detachably on the lower end of the, ram for selective adjustment to predetermined angular positions around the ram axis. Four such positions are provided for in the present. instance, these being parallel with the paths of movement of the head l2 along the bridge and of the bridge along the table. While this adjustment, may be obtained in. various ways, it is accomplished herein byforming axially facing notches M in the lower end of the ram each adapted to, receivev a pin I46 projecting from the upper; surface of the shank flange in position. The. notches are spaced ninety degrees apart in the, present instance and the center lines of the diametrically oppositenotches; are parallel to the path of movementof the bridge in one case and the path of the head i2. in the other.- Thus, by adjusting the shank sothat the pin I45 projects into the different notches, the tool I l, when extending laterallyoi the ram, may be conditioned for marking any one of four vertical side suriaces of a work piece either by movement vertically or horizontally. In, each case, the selected position of the shank will be such that the tool willyield. as permitted by bending of the rod M3, in the direction or the motion. This also applies to positioning of the toolfor operation on the an surfaceoi the work piece ,fter such angular adjustment. the tool holder is clamped to the ram, in this instance, by turninga collar Mt. This is formed at opposite ends with right and left hand threads engaging complemental threads on the shank l3? and the; ram. As the collar is turned in one direction, a shoulder on the shank is tightened against the ram end, thereby locking the toolholder in a definite axial position relative to the ram and other parts.
Means is provided for enabling an operator standing adjacent the control panel I8 to bring the tool l4 just into contact with a surface of the work. This means includes an indicating light I48 on the panel I8 energized and deenergized under the control of, an electric circuit which extends through the tcol and the work piece (see Fig. 18), the collar I42 being composed of insulating material. If desired, suitable relay or amplifying means may be, provided so that the full lamp current need not be carried through.
the points of contact between the tool and the work. Selection ofthe machine element to be moved is made by turning a knob I53 to actuate a three position switch I54 by which the push buttons are associated with the ram, head, or bridge motors. The direction of operation of the selected motor is determined by the position of a switch 155 having two positions.
Preferably, the slow and rapid motions of the different tool supporting elements, that is, the bridge, the head and the ram, are controlled by a common pair of push button control switches I59 and [El (see Figs. 19 and 20) thereby insuring that the tool may be moved along only one path at a time. These switches, the six motors, their clutch solenoids, and the three clamps may be, connected as shown, in Fig. 20. Interlock switches I56 and I5I are provided to prevent any possibility of the motor 55. being started while the motor 48 is; running,
With the apparatus above described, it will be apparent that a layout tool mounted on the ram l3 may be located with extreme accuracy at any point in the space above the work table and below the bridge. That is, it may be moved longitudinally and transversely of the table to establish a location in a horizontal plane, and the ram may be raised or lowered to determine the third dimension. The extentof motion in each direction may be gauged accurately by observing the proper one of the measuring devices and by operating the slow feed motor of the selected element so as to jog the tool to, the desired point in each direction.
For punching drill hole centers, a tool holder I (Fig. 21) carrying a prick punch 35 may be substituted for the scriber holder I32 on the ram I3, the holder preferably incorporating a selfcontained power unit for actuating the punch. In the present instance, the holder comprises a tube I63 closed at its end by a bushing Iiil in which slides a headed shank Itil carrying the punch. A hammer I69 slida'ble in a bore H0 is urged toward the shank by a compression spring l'iI seated in a plug closing the upper end of the tube. A shoulder I12 on the hammer is. en aged by a cam I13 fast on a shaft I14 which is driven through reduction gearing IE5 by an electric motor I'It on one side of thetube. in each revolution of thecam, the hammer is retracted compressing the spring and then is released the tip of the cam passes the shoulder l'i2'. The hammer is projected against an anvil Isl}. on the shank I58 and the blow thus struck on the anvil l-Eficauses the punch to indent the work. The punch is normally held in the position shown by a resilient ring I8-l engaging a shoulder I32 011 the shank.
Energization of themotor I15 may be controlled from, a remote point on the controlpanel by depressing the push button switch I60. The operator gauges the duration of switch closure so that ordinarily only one blow is struck. Since the energy for striking the blow is derived from means carried by the holder, the position of the punch point is not disturbed.
For punching the top of a work piece, the holder is mounted on the ram as shown in Fig. 21. To extend the punch laterally of the ram, a shank I'II projecting from 'the side of the tube I66 is fitted into the ram with a pin l '18 entering one of the notches I45 determined by which wall of the work is to be operated on. It will be seen that the punch and scriber holders I32 and I64 are mountable interchangeably on the ram and are adapted for projection of the tools vertically or in a plurality of horizontal directions. The constructions are so correlated that the different tool tips occupy the identical positions relative to the ram when mounted in corresponding positions. This permits of interchanging tools for operation on the same work piece without resetting the measuring device for a new reference point.
To explain briefly a typical operation of the apparatus, let it be assumed that a line extending transversely of the table is to be scribed on the top of a work piece. The latter would be placed on the table and squared up in the usual manner. By manipulation of the control and selector switches, the tool point would be broughtinto contact with a previously determined reference point on the work piece. All of the indicators I5, l6, and I! would then be set at zero through the medium of their reset knobs 89 and 963. To position the tool for marking the line, the control switches are operated to move the tool first longitudinally and then transversely of the table in order to locate it in two dimensions in a horizontal plane above the work, the location being at one end of the line to be described and determined by the reading of the two indicators I and I6. Next, the ram is lowered until the scriber point comes in contact with. the work as indicated by lighting of the signal lamp 588. The tool is now set for marking the work piece which is effected simplyby traversing the head 12 in the proper direction along the bridge. The re silient rod I40 yields both verticaliy and laterally in the direction of movement to permit the point to pass over any irregularities in the work surface. i
From the foregoing, it will be observed that in spite of the substantial size of the apparatus and its adaptability for use with large as well as small work pieces, it is capable of precision work. That is to say, each movable part is accurately gu ded along ways which are enclosed and fully protected from foreign material. The same is true of the drum and tape of each measuring device which is accurate to within a thousandth of an inch over a range of several feet. The movements necessary to layout all sides and top of a work piece are all incorporated in the tool mounting or bridge structure which is very rigid and yet is light enough in weight to enable its motion to be arrested in a precise position under the push button motor control.
Iclaim as my invention:
1. A layout machine comprising, in combination, a stationary horizontal work support, a stationary guideway disposed above and extending along one side of said support, a second stationary guideway extending along the opposite side of said support and underlying a part thereof so as to be protected by such part, an elongated member engaging said first guideway along a substantial length thereof and guided thereby for endwise movement, an L-shaped bridge having one leg extending horizontally across said support and rigidly joined to said member intermediate the ends thereof, the other leg of said bridge being upright and engageable at its lower end with said second guideway, a head supported by and slidable along said horizontal leg, and a layout tool mounted on said head for engagement with a work pieceon said support during movement of the head along said bridge or during movement of the bridge along said guideways.
2. A layout machine comprising, in combination, a stationary horizontal work support, a stationary guideway disposed above and extending along one side of said support, a second stationary guideway extending along the opposite side of said support adjacent the top of the latter, an elongated member engaging said first guideway along a substantial length thereof and guided thereby for endwise movement, an L-shaped bridge having one leg extending horizontally across said support and rigidly joined to said member intermediate the ends thereof, the other leg of said bridge being upright and engageable at its lower end with said second guideway, and a head supported by and slidable along said horizontal leg and carrying a layout tool engageable with a work piece on said support during movement of the head along said bridge or during movement of the bridge along said guideways.
3. A layout machine comprising, in combination, a stationary horizontal work support, a stationary guideway disposed above and extending along one side of said support, a second stationary guideway disposed below said first guideway and extending along the opposite side of said support, an L-shaped bridge having one leg extending horizontally across said support and slidable along said first guideway, the other leg of said bridge being upright and engageable at its lower end with said second guideway, and a head supported by and slidable along said horizontal leg and carrying a layout tool adapted for engagement with a work piece on said support.
4. A layout machine comprising, in combination, a stationary horizontal work support, a horizontal bridge disposed above and extending transversely of said support, stationary ways guiding said bridge for lateral movement along said support, a head mounted on said bridge and guided thereby for movement transversely of said support, a layout tool carried by said head and engageable with a work piece on said support during movement of said bridge or of said head along the bridge, two drums rotatably mounted on said bridge, flexible lines Wound around said drums with their free ends respectively connected to said head and to a point which is fixed relative to said support, and indicators actuated by rotation of the respective drums to register the movements of said head and bridge.
5. Layout apparatus comprising, in combination, a stationary table, a bridge extending transversely of the table and supported above the latter for bodily movement longitudinally of the table, a head mounted on and slidable along said bridge, a device carried by said head and adapted to perform a layout operation on a work piece supported on said table, and two measuring devices having rotary indicating members rotatably supported on opposite end portions of said bridge, said devices having means respectively connected to said head and to a stationary point and operable during transverse movement of the bridge and movement of the head along the bridge to actuate the respective indicators.
6. Layout apparatus comprising, in combination, a stationary table, a bridge extending transversely of the table and supported above the latter for bodily movement longitudinally of the tabie, a head mounted on and slidable along said bridge, a member mounted on said head for movement toward and away from said table and carrying a device adapted to perform a layout operation on a work piece supported on said table, two measuring devices having rotary indicating members rotatably supported on opposite end portions of said bridge, said devices having means respectively connected to said head and to a stationary point and operable during transverse movement of the bridge and movement of the head along the bridge to actuate the respective indicators, and a third measuring device having a rotary element mounted on said head and actuated by means attached to said member.
7. Layout apparatus comprising, in combination, a stationary table, a bridge extending transversely of the table and supported above the latter for bodily movement longitudinally of the table, a head mounted on and slidable along said bridge, a member mounted on said head for movement toward and away from said table and carrying a device adapted to perform a layout operation on a work piece supported on said table, three measuring devices having rotary indicating members mounted for movement with said bridge and visible by an operator in a control position adjacent the bridge, and means operable to actuate the respective indicating members during movements of said bridge, said head, and said member.
8. In layout apparatus of the character described, the combination of a horizontal bridge having a ball raceway along its top extending longitudinally thereof, a tool head including a frame having a raceway extending along said first raceway, a series of balls part of which ride in said raceways, a flexible endless cage holding said balls in spaced relation and rotataldly supported on said head, a belt extending along said bridge and covering said first raceway, and means on said head guiding the intermediate portion of said belt around said cage to enclose the cage and balls.
9. In layout apparatus of the character described, the combination of a horizontal bridge having ways along its top extending longitudinally and defining a straight V-groove, a tool head including a frame having a V-groove facing and extending along said first groove, a series of balls part of which ride in said grooves, a cage holding said balls in spaced relation and in an endless series, and pulleys supporting said cage and rotatably mounted on said head to turn about axes extending transversely of said grooves.
18. In layout apparatus of the character d scribed, the combination of a horizontal bridge having a longitudinal V-groove along its top, a head carrying a layout tool and comprising a frame encircling said bridge and having a groove coasting with said first groove to provide a ball raceway, balls in said raceway, and antiiriction means between said frame and the under side of said bridge hoiding said head against raising and serving to guide the head laterally of the bridge.
11. Layout apparatus comprising, in combination, a stationary work table, a bridge mounted above said table for transverse movement therealong, a head slidable along said bridge in a perpendicular direction, a member mounted on said head for vertical movement toward and away from said table, a holder supported on the lower end of said member for selective adjustment around a vertical axis, means on said holder and member interengageable in four different positions of said holder corresponding to the permissible directions of movement of said head, and a layout device mounted on said holder for selective adjustment to positions for adapting the device for operation on the top or a vertical side surface of a work piece on said table when said holder is disposed in any one of said four positions.
12, Layout apparatus comprising, in combination, a stationary work table, a bridge mounted above said table for transverse movement therealong, a head slidable along said bridge in a perpendicular direction, a member mounted on said head for vertical movement toward and away from said table, a holder supported on the lower end of said member for selective adjustment to positions corresponding to any one of the four directions of permissible movement of said head, and a layout device mounted on said holder for selective adjustment relative to the holder to positions for adapting the device for operation on the top or a vertical side surface of a work piece on said table.
13. A layout machine comprising, in combination, a stationary horizontal work support, two stationary parallel ways extending along opposite sides of said support, one being disposed substantially above said support and the other being adjacent the support, a rigid bridge member extending transversely of said support substantially above the latter and engaging one of said ways at zones spaced from the bridge on opposite sides thereof, said bridge engaging the other way at a singlle zone disposed adjacent said support and below the said first zones whereby to provide a three point support for the bridge, and a layout device carried by said bridge for engagement with a work piece on said support.
14. A layout machine comprising, in combination, a stationary work support, two stationary parallel ways extending along opposite sides of said support, a rigid bridge member extending transversely of said support substantially above the latter and engaging one of said ways at zones spaced from the bridge on opposite sides thereof and the other way at a zone adjacent said support, a layout device carried by said bridge for engagement with a workpiece on said support, interengaging feed. elements one being stationarily mounted adjacent said first guideway and extending along the latter, the other feed element being mounted on said bridge and engaging the first element between said spaced zones of engage ment, and power driven means for driving one of said elements to cause said bridge to be advanced along said work support.
ERIC S. GUTTMANN.