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Publication numberUS2354323 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 25, 1944
Filing dateMay 6, 1941
Priority dateMay 6, 1941
Publication numberUS 2354323 A, US 2354323A, US-A-2354323, US2354323 A, US2354323A
InventorsRoy Layton Le
Original AssigneeLansdowne Steel & Iron Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Billet bar breaker
US 2354323 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 25, 1944.

LE ROY I AYToNY 2,354,323

' BILLET BAR BREAKER Filed May e, 1941 2 sheets-sheet 1 E m @www n M o el s QN Q R Y 1 rfv N um. Q JM mm M. 11| v1 Nl MJ @i U f, NN ANN l M 1 \v .w S1 1% v WHMQV QN E l|. l \w\T\ Mv ww EN* N bw NGN QNQM. ,NN @uw .EN hm. Nm, W ON N .ww New ,N Nw Q mvo@ om. QN

July 25', 1'944.

LE ROY LAYTONA BILLET BAR BREAKER I Filed May 6, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheei 2 f Patented July 25, 1944 BILLET BAB BREAKER wne, Pa., assignorfto Lansn downe Steel & Iron Company, Morton, Pa., a

v Le Roy Layton, Lansdo corporation of Pennsylvania Application May 6, 1941, Serial No. 392,187

15 Claims.

This invention relates to apparatus for coldbreaking steel billet bars into separate units of predetermined lengths, suitable, for example, for use inthe forging processes disclosed in my prior United States Letters Patent No. 2,057,586, dated October 13, 1936, and No. 2,059,124, dated Octoe ber27, 1936, and in my copending applications Serial No. 234,713, filed October 12,' 1938, now Patent No..2,278,325, issued March 3l,- 1942, and Serial No. 271,570, led May 3, 1939, now Patent No.f2,248,002, issued July `1, 1941; aswell as for any other purpose for which it may be desirable tobreak relatively long bars of normally brittle metal into a 'number vof pieces of relatively shorter lengths, respectively.

'The object of the present `invention is to provide a highly eflicient hydraulically operated billet breaker of rigid compact construction, devoid of all overhead equipmentsuch as the rams, return cylinders, piping, valves, etc., normally em ployed in hydraulically operated devices of this general character.

Another object of the invention is to provide improved means for supporting the spaced normally fixed pair of breaker elements against which the single breaker element operated by the ram presses the bar, whereby the spaced breaker elements can movel relatively during simultaneous application of pressure to the bar in opposite drections by the three breaker elements collectively, to equalize the. pressure applied to the bar at all three points engaged by the-respective breaker elements, whereby undue strains on the apparatus are eliminated, and whereby'the billet broken from the bar is prevented from being hurled 1 lthrough the air when the bar snaps.

In the accompanying drawings:

Fig. 1 is a perspective View of a complete apparatus, including a breaker, a feed table, and a prescoring apparatus constructed and assembled in accordance with the principlesof the present invention;

Fig. 2 isa plan view oi the breaker; k

Fig. 3 is a sectional elevation taken on the lin .3-3, Fig. 2;

Fig. 4 isa side elevation, partly' in section, lwith the bar in position for breaking;

Fig. 5 is afragmentary view similar to Fig. 4

with thel bar in the act of being broken; and

Fig. 6 illustrates a modified form. of kapparatus for registering the prescorings of the bar successively over the anvil of the breaker. As shown mostclearly 'in Fig. 3, .the breaker A comprises albase I, which is adapted to rest on and preferablybe rigidly secured to a suitablel ing tapped 'openings in thefbas'e I.

concrete vor other solid foundation, floor, etc; Formedintegrally, in the present instance, with the base I, is` -a'yvertical `hydraulic cylinder2, of

full circular cross-sectiongMounted 'inand axe; ially aligned withthe' cylinder 2 is a vertically reciprocable ram, plunger, or piston 3.y 1

Preferably, the ram 3 is composed of cast iron or steel and is providedwith a central'cavity 4, which is adapted to befilled with a suitable material 5"of greater specific gravity,` per cubic inch, than the materialof which thel ram -3 is' composed, in order to provide the greatest possible` Weight Within ,the ram 3, Which, for the pur# poses of this inventionl'is of minimumvdimensions for the Work'required of it. In tllepresentirl-v stance, the cavity 4 is lled with lead. l

Inthe present instance, theupper end of the cylinder 2 is-eounterbored, as indicated at 6i, for the reception ofsuitable packing `material 1, and a packing ring 8. -The ring 8 is provided With an enlarged ange B'Vfor the reception of pressure screws l0, I0, Awhich passthroughvs'aid annular flange and are tapped into the upper end surface of the cylinder 2. V "f" The ram 3 is provided With'a diametrically-en-vr larged head II Vof circular form, as'shown in Figs; 2 and 3, and which extendsoutwardly'beyond andoverhang's the peripheral edges of the ring 9 and cylinder 2. Rigidly,A fecured to the over# hanging portionoithe ram-head I'I, is a series' of weight rings or :segments I2, I2, said Weight rings being secured to the head II vby bolts I3; The 'innerdiameter of theweight rings I2,'I2" is sufiiciently greater than the outside diameter of the cylinder 2 andpacking ring'flange 9`to proff vide working clearance I4 therebetween, as the ram'3 and weights I2, I2 rise'v and fall in a man-V ner hereinafter described.

1 Resting .on top of and rigidly secured to the ram-head IfI and centered about the vertical axis of the ram 3, is abreaker element or'a'nvll I5; which, as clearly shown in Figa-4 and 5, includes a supporting base member I6 of 'cast steel or kother tough construction. 'Thel supporting base I6 is provided with a-semicircular Vgroove Il, in the present instance', 'for' reception of a hard ened steel round bar I8, which makes actual con-f tactwith the bar being broken. l 1

symmetrically. disposed around' vthe axis' or the cylinder 2, radially beyond' the cylinder 2, is a'Y series of verticaly posts or vstarirlards 20, 20, the lower ends 'I 9 of which are reduced in' diame;i ter, threaded, and screwed'into the correspondy' The posts 20, 20 project upwardly through openings 2l;

ametrically reduced ends 22, 22 of the posts 2li,

20. 'I'he cross-heads 23, 23 extend in parallel relation to the central vertical longitudinal plane x-z of the breaker A above the maximum height attained by the ram-head II. The cross-heads 23, 23 are transversely bored and bushed to re! ceive trunnions 24, 24 of a compensating or equalizing rocker 25.

As shown in Figs. 4 and 5, the rocker 25 is prof vided with a pair of spaced breaker elements in the form of parallel `downwardly projecting rounded edges 26, 26, which arexadapted to engage one side of a billet bar Y to either side of the single breaker element I8 carried by the ram 3, and which is adapted to-engage the opposite side of the bar Yintermediate the breaker elements 26,26. l l

In accordance with the principles of the present invention, the billet bar Y is scored transversely across one surface thereof, from edge to edge thereof, at relatively yspaced ypoints along the length of the bar, as indicated at y, y in Figs. 1, 4 and 5.

The bar Y is adapted to be fed to the breaker A in a plane intermediate*- surface of the breaker element I8 and lower surfaces of the breaker elements 2,6, 2t;l carried by the rocker 25. One ofthe scorings y is adapted to be centered directly above the axis of the intermediate breaker element.V Hydraulic pressure is then admitted to the lower end of the cylinder 2, to force thev ram 3 and intermediate breaker element I8 upwardly, until the latter makes contact with the lower surface .of the bar Y vand moves the bar Y upwardly until the upper surface thereof engages the spaced breaker elements 26, 26 on the rocker 25.

The rocker 25 is. permitted to adjust itself about the aligned axes of its trunnions 24, 24 and relative to Vthe bar Y, to equalize the pressure exerted against the upper surface of the bar Y by the breaker elements 26,` 26 at opposite sides, respectively, of the vertical plane of the scoring y, in which the single intermediate breaker element I8 engages the under surface of the bar Y. Continued upward movement of the ram 3 applies sufcient pressure simultaneously at the three relatively spaced points I8, 2626 collectively to cause the bar Y to besnapped along the line of the `aligned scoring y and completely through the bar in a plane substantially at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the bar Y, as clearly shown in Fig. 5. v

In order to provide suiiicientclearance in the under side of the rocker 25, to permit` snapping of the bar Y, in the manner noted, a cavity 2'I is provided intermediate the breaker elements 26, 26 and the side arms 28,'28 of the rocker 25 from which the trunnions 24, 24 extend,

Thel hydraulic fluid Vpressure for raising the ram 3 is admitted to the lower end of the cyline der 2 vthrough Apipe 29, in the present instance, from any suitable source of hydraulic pressure, under Vcontrol of any suitablevreversible valve V, see Fig. 1, by whichthe flow of iiuid pressure thatl of the upper from the lower end of the cylinder 2.

' In order to maintain the rocker 25 in position to receive the bar Y thereunder, the rocker is maintained resiliently in a normal central position by a pair of springs 30, 30, which encircle a rod 3I at opposite sides respectively of a central lugv or bracket 32 formed on or secured t0 the upper side of the rocker 25. One end of the equalizing rod 3i is connected to a bracket 33, which, in the present instance, spans the space between the two cross-heads 23, 23 and is secured at its opposite ends respectively to said crossheads by screws 34, 34. The springs 30, yield freely during pressure-equalizing rocking motion of the rocker 25. i

As the bar Y snaps under the equalized pressure exerted by the three-point contacts 26, I8, 25, collectively, the billet Y1 which is thereby broken from the remainder of the bar, drops onto and slides down a chute composed of a pair of aligned inclined surfaces and 36 formed on the anvil support I6 and ram-head Il, respectively, as shown in Fig. 5, the broken-off billets Y1, Y1 falling on the oor or into any suitable receptacle, as shown in Fig. 1;

When the bar Y snaps, the end underlying the left hand breaker element 26, as viewed in' Fig. 5, is forced upwardly by the rise of the ram 3 and rocks the rocker 25 to force the right hand breaker element 26 downwardly which slaps the broken-oir billet Yl downwardly against the chute {i5-36, thus preventing the billet from being hurled in the air as a result of the sudden snapping of the billet bar.

As shown in Fig. 1, the billet bars Y are adapted to be fed to the breaker A by and along a feed table B, which includes a suitable framework 31 for supporting a series of rollers 38, 38, on which the bars Y, Y rest for longitudinal movement into the breaker A between a pairof suitable guides 39, 39,' which are secured to the ram-head II.

While resting on the roller 38, 38, the scorings y, y are formed in the uppermost surface of the bar Y, by any suitable form of transversely reciprocable means, such as a milling cutter, or, as shown in the present instance, by an acetylene torch lli). Preferably, the torch or other cutter #lil of the scoring device C is rigidly mounted on a slide 4I. The slide 4I, in turn, is slidably mounted in suitable guideways 42 located at one side of the feed table B.

In order to center the scorings y, y, successively above the lower, intermediate breaker element I 8, an adjustable gauge 45 is secured to one of the cross-heads 23, at a distance from the axis Vof the breakerelemen'td equal to the interval between each two scorings y, y, so that when one of the scorings is in registry with the gauge 45, the next preceding scoring will be in registry with the breaker element I8.

If desired, the gauge 45 may also be employed in producing the scorings at equal distances apart, as shown in Fig, 1. Obviously, by producing one scoring y in the bar Y, while another of said scorings is in registry .withthe gauge 45, and subsequently ymoving the bar Y' longitudinally on thev Ieedtable B until the next successive: scoring. y

isjin registry with the gauge 45, the 'bar Y will beset up with respect` to the scoring tool Ml ina pos'itionto producea new scoring y in the bar Y in proper relation to the preceding scoring formed therein. v

1 vIl? desired, the gauge 45-maybe replaced by a ppawl Mi pivoted to across bar 33a spanning the space between the cross-heads 23, in amanner for the tipof the pawl to drop into the scorings y,'g/

successively, Lfor registering the scoring `successivelywith the breaker element I8, as shown in Fig. 6; ,v -I claim:

1. A billet bar breaker comprising two spaced rigidly connected breaker elements operable against one side of the bar, a vsingle intermediate breaker element solely operable against the opposite `side of the bar, and means affording relative movement between said two elements about `a ycommon pivotal axis intermediate said rigidly v'connected elements during simultaneous application of` pressure to the bar in opposite directions by all three elements collectively. I

v 2. A billet bar breaker comprising two spaced breaker elementsoperable against'one side ofthe bar, `a single intermediate breaker element sol'ey solely operable against the opposite side ofthe bar, rocker means-rigidly connecting said two -clements and aording `relative movement between said two elements about' a common pivotal .axis

intermediate said rigidly connected elementsdur ing simultaneous application of pressure tothe bar inopposite directions by allthree elements collectively, a pivot for said rocker, a support for saidpivot, a support for said single breaker ein# ment, means securing one of said supports .ift a xed position, and means` for eecting movement of the other support relative to the rst .supjgort to veilect 'said simultaneous application of pressure t0 the bar by said three elements. v

`4. Abillet .bar breaker comprising two spac`d breaker elements operable .against one side of the bar, aJ single intermediate breaker element solely operable against the opposite side of the bar, rocker means rigidly connecting said twov cla ments and aiording relative movement between said two elements about a common pivctalaxis intermediate said rigidly connected elements during simultaneous application of pressure vtothe bar in opposite directions by all three elements collectively, a pivot for said rocker, a support for saidpivot, a support for said single breakerelement, means securing one of said supports in a cooperating breaker Vmeans spaced above and laterally at opposite sides solely of the flrstsaid breaker means, means for anchoring said cooperatingvbreaker means againstxbodily upward movement'to exert a counteracti-ng downward pressure againstthe opposite side of the bar, 'means-"for admitting fluid-pressure to said cylinder to A'raise' .said ram therein to eect breaking of a bar byan'd betweensaid breaker means and for exhausting-said fluid pressure` from said cylinder to :permit said ram to descend in said cylinder, and means attached tothe upper endfof said ram and depending therefrom outside said cylinder :for effecting said'descent.

69A billet bar breaker comprising a vertical cylinder, a ram operable :axially in said cylinder, vertically -movablel single breaker` means `carried bythe upper end of the ram r and adapted to exert an upward pressure onf the underside of the bar, cooperating breaker means spaced above and laterally at opposite sides solely of the first said breaker means, means for .anchoring said cooperating breaker means against bodily upward movement to exert a counteracting downward pressure against the opposite side of the bar, meansfor admitting fluid pressure tofsaid cylinderzto raise said ram therein to effect breaking of aibar'by and between said breakermeans and for exhausting. said fluid pressure from said cylin-y derz'to permit said ram to `descendcin said cylinder, and gravitational weight means attached tothe upper Iendvof said ram and dependingtherefrom outside said `cylinder for erfectingsaid descent 7. Abillet bar breaker comprising-a vertical cylindena ram operable in said cylinder, ahead on said ram extending outwardly beyond the periphery of said cylinder, means for admitting fluid pressure to v.and exhausting theA same from .the lower end of the cylinder, andweight means encircling ,saidrcylinder and secured'to said ram- -head for solely effecting descent of said ram in said cylinderupon release of said fluid pressure.

8. A billet bar breaker comprising a vertical cylindena ram operable in said cylinder, a head on said rram extending outwardly beyond the pe.- riphery'` 0f said cylinder, means vfor admitting fluid pressure to and exhausting the-same from thelower end of the cylinder, weight means encrclings'aid cylinder and secured to said ramhead; forfsolely eiecting Vdescent of-said ram in said cylinderupon release of said fluidpressure,

a Superstructure spaced above said, ram-head,

upper breaker means carried by said superstructure, and lower breaker means carried by said ram-head for cooperation in breaking a billet bar inserted between` said upper and lower breaker means prior to the rise of-said-ram.

fixed position, and hydraulic means for effecting vertically movable single breaker means carried.

by the upper end of the ram and adapted to exert an upward pressure on the underside of the bar,

,9. -A billet bar breaker-comprising a rigid'base structure,- a-vertical cylinder securedA to said base Structurae ram'operable in said cylinder, a head on saidframextending outwardly beyond thefpe'- riphery of said cylinder, means for admitting fluid pressure to and exhausting the same from the lower end of the cylinder, weight means encircling said cylinder and secured to said ramhead for effecting descent of said ram in said cylinder upon release of said uid pressure, a superstructure spaced above said ram-head, posts secured to and projecting upwardly from said base structure outside said cylinder through apertures in said ram-head and weight means for supporting said superstructure, upper breaker means carried by said superstructure, and lower breaker means carried by said ram-head for cooperation in breaking a billet bar inserted bea 10. A billet bar breaker comprising` a rigidbase structure, a vertical 4cylinder secured to said base .-structure, a ram operable in said cylinder, a, 'head on said ram extending outwardly beyond the periphery of said cylinder, means for admitting fluid pressure to and exhaustingv the same from the lower endl of the cylinder, weight means en-L circling said cylinder and secured torsaid ramhead for effecting descent of said1ram in said cylinder upon release of said fluid pressure, a superstructure spaced above said ram-head, posts secured to and projecting upwardly from said base structure outside said cylinder through apertures in said ram-head and weight means for supporting said superstructure, upper breaker means carried by said superstructure and comprising a pair of breaker elements spaced apart and located at opposite sides respectively of the vertical axis of the ram, and lower breaker means carried by said ram-head for cooperation in breaking a billet bar inserted between said upper and lower breaker means prior to the rise of said Iam.

l1. A billet bar breaker comprising a rigid base structure, a vertical cylinder secured to said base structure, a ram operable in said cylinder, a head on said ram extending outwardly beyond the pe'- rphery of said cylinder, means for admitting fluid pressure to and exhausting the same from the lower end'of the cylinder, weight means enycircling said cylinder and securedto said ramhead 'for effecting descent of said ram in said cylinder upon release of said fluid'pressure, a superstructure spaced" above said ram-head, posts Vsecured tov and-projecting upwardly from said base structure outside said cylinder through apertures in said ram-head and'weight means for supporting said' superstructure, upper breaker means carried by said superstructure and comprising a pair of breaker elements spaced apart and located at opposite sides 'respectively of the vertical axis of the ram,.a rocker pivoted in said superstructure in the p lane of the vertical axisof Vthe ram and carrying said pair of breaker elements in said spaced relation, and lower breaker means carried by said ramhead for cooperation'in breaking a billet bar inserted between said upper and lower breaker structure spaced above said ram-head, pOSts secured to and projecting upwardlyV from-said base structure outside said cylinderlthrough apertures in said ram-head and-weight means for supporting said superstructure, upper breaker means carried by said superstructure and comprising@ pair of breaker elements spaced apart and 1dcated at oppositesides respectivelyv ofl the veli; tical axis of the ram, a rocker pivoted in sai, superstructure in the plane of thevertical axis of the ram and carrying said pair of breaker ele` ments in said spaced relation, and lower breaker means carried yby said ram-head for cooperation in breaking a, billet; bar inserted between said upper and lower breaker means prior to the .rise of said ram, and resilientumeans carried by said superstructure for maintaining said rocker in -a normal position with saidspaced breaker elements substantially horizontal above said lower breaker means to receive the billet ibar between said upper and lower breaker means.

13. A billet bar breaker comprising upperand lower breaker elements spaced apartvertically to receive the bartherebetween, afeed tableextending laterally from said breaker for supporting the bar in a plane to pass between said upper and lower breaker elements, said bar being Iprescored transversely at spaced intervals longitudinally where the breaks in the bar are to Abe made, and a gauge carried by the breaker for registry with one of said scorings of a bar resting on said" feed table to effect registration of another of said scorings with one of said breaker, elements said gauge being arranged in advance of and in fixed horizontally spaced relation to lthe last said breaker element. v y 'Y 14. A billet bar breakercomprising upper and lower breaker elements spaced apart vertically to receive the bar therebetween, a feed table extending laterally from said breaker for supporting the bar in a plane to pass between said upper and lower breaker elements, said bar Abeing'prescored transversely at spaced intervals longitudinally where the breaks in the bar are to be made, means along said feed table in advance of said breaker for producing said scorings on the bar prior to feeding the bar into the breaker, and a gauge carried by the Ibreaker for registry with one of said scorings of a bar resting on said feed table to effect registration of another of said scorings with one of said breaker elements.

15. A billet bar breaker comprising a pivoted rocker, a pair of breaker elements formed'. in-

tegrally with said rocker at opposite sides respectively of the rocker pivot for operation in one direction against one surface of the bar, and a single intermediate breaker element solely operable in the opposite direction againstrthe opposite surface of the `bar in the plane of the rocker pivot.

LE ROY LAYTO-N.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3137425 *Oct 20, 1959Jun 16, 1964Saint GobainApparatus for severing or breaking sheets of glass
US3182873 *Sep 11, 1961May 11, 1965Motorola IncMethod for dicing semiconductor material
US3371833 *Mar 11, 1966Mar 5, 1968Jerry S. SuttonGlass knife
US4231503 *Mar 5, 1979Nov 4, 1980Butler James KMicrotomy knife breaker
US4383630 *Mar 23, 1981May 17, 1983Solomon Steven PRail lifting and cutting machine
US4444345 *Oct 15, 1981Apr 24, 1984Solomon Steven PRail lifting and cutting machine
Classifications
U.S. Classification225/96, 100/266, 100/269.1, 92/172, 225/103, 225/104
International ClassificationB23D31/00
Cooperative ClassificationB23D31/002
European ClassificationB23D31/00C