US 2355618 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aus. 15, 1944.l A. G, BQDrNE, JR y 12,355,618
METHOD AND APIARATUS'FOR PUMPING y Filed April 17, 1941 3 Sheets-SheeI 1 /7l /N VENTO@ ALeRT G. oo//wgd/z Y HA RR/sj/fgsch', Fo: TER a HARR/J Aug. 15, 1944. A, G. BoDlNE, JR l 'y 2,355,618
l i METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PUMPING Filed April 17. 1941 s sheets-sheet `2 Armed/Veys Aug. 15, 1944. A. G. lBOBINE, JR 2,355,618-
METHOD AND 4APPARATUS FOR PUMPING Filed April 17,' -1941 3 sheets-sneer 5 We; Q7
'il ifi/UZ mag /N VEN TO'Q/ ALBERT 6. op//vE/Jf:
F01? TH FIRM Patented Aug. 15, 1944 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PUMPIN Albert G. Bodine, Jr., Burbank, Calif. v Application April 17, 1941, Serial No. 389,030
' l' (ci. 10s- 1) 45 Claims.
My invention relates to the pumping of fluid from one location to another by use of a iiuid column extending between such'locations, be they separated horizontally, as in a pipe line, or vertically, as in a well, the pumping being eilected by transmission of elastic vibrations. In general,
- approximately one quarter wave length or odd it involves the pumpingl of a liquid by transmission of energy through wave motion.
It'is an object of the invention to provide a novel method and apparatus for eillcient pumping of fluid by use of wave energy transmitted from one location to another to effect movement of fluid along a conduit extending between such locations. l
Another object is to provide a novel method and apparatus for pumping fluid by means of acoustic energy and which involves the use of` elastic vibrations, preferably existing under con' ditions of approximate resonance, to actuate one or more valve means in step vwith the undulations.
The invention also contemplates the provision of auxiliary acoustic means to assist movement of the pumped uid into the column, and it is a further object of the invention to provide a novel method 'and apparatus useful in this connection, and also'to provide a novel acoustic valve means.
Another object is to provide a novel method and apparatus for pumping iiuid in which pressure impulses are generated at one location in a iiuid column and moved to another location Where they are reiiected to produce a rarefaction of sufiicient intensity to admit luid to the column.
Still another object isto provide a novel method and apparatus for pumping fluid which involves the transmission of asymmetrical pressure waves or pressure reverberations in which a Wave of condensation is not necessarily followed by a wave of rarefaction of 'equivalent amplitude throughout all portions of the transmission system.
' Another object of the invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus for pumping uid which avoids excessive cavitation and excessive gas liberation by avoidance of high-amplitude waves of rarefaction and by effectively removing liberated gas so as not to interfere with the generation or transmission of the desired wave energy. i
Yet anotherfobject of the invention is to provide, in one embodiment, a system forgenerating acoustic vibrations and a iiuid discharge means operated in synchronism with the acoustic vibrations to discharge iiuid at predetermined parts of the vibration cycle.
multiple thereof.- In this connection. it is a. further object of the invention to remove uid from the system at a position at or near the zone of maximum velocity variations to obtain a discharge under more nearly constant pressure conditions.
Still another object of theA invention is to provide for the pumping of iiuids by acoustic transmission of energy through a fluid` column. the mean pressure in which is above atmospheric pressure at all sections of the column.
Another object of theinvention is to provide a method and apparatus for pumping iiuids by means of partial absorption of acoustic vibrations at a point along a iluid column.
Further objects and advantages oi' the invention will be made evident from the following de-4 scription, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a view, partially in section, of one form of my pumping apparatus:
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view of a part of the acoustic generating means shown in Figure l:
Figure 3 is a sectional view, taken on the line 0f the apparatus of Figure '1, viewed from the.
- lines 8 8 of Figure 7;
Figure 9 is a diagrammatic view, partially in section, of an"alternative pumping system;
Figurelo is an enlarged vertical sectional view or iiuids from a well. The subsequent description islargely directed thereto by way of example,
without intention of limiting the application to pumping through substantially vertical conduits, as the invention is applicable to pumping systems in which horizontal conduits are employed to transport iluid from one location to another. Further, while the invention 4will be described with particular reference to the transmission of elastic vibrations through the fluid being pumped, various aspects of the invention are not limited to the manner in which the elastic vibrations are transmitted to the inlet position of the iiuid column.
Considering the general problem of lifting water from a well by forces applied near the top of a fluid column extending downward to communicate with the iiuid tobe pumped, there are three possibilities of accomplishing this. If a piston at the top of the column is pulled upward slowly to reduce the pressure therebeneath, the depth to which pumping can be effected is limited to about 30. If the piston is pulled upward with extreme rapidity to create ararefaction wave traveling downward through the column of sufficient' intensity to reduce momentarily the hydrostatic pressure in the lower end ofthe column to a Value below that of the surrounding well uid in order to obtain a flow into, the column, Water can be pumped from a somewhat greater depth,
usually up to about 100'. Water cannot be pumped in this manner from a greater depth because the necessary rarefaction wave, which in this system must be created at the top of the well for subsequent downward transmission, results in cavitation (because of the lesser mean static pressure at the top of the fluid column), the quick upward movement of the piston actually breaking the water by exceeding the tensile strength thereof. 'I'he'tensile strength of pure water is about atmospheres and any impurities therein, even in small amount, willi reduce the tensile strength to about 10 atmospheres. Ordinary well water has a tensile strength inthe neighborhood of 4 atmospheres, or somewhat less than 60 lbs/sq. in. Correspondingly, with this system, the limit of depth of pumping is in the neighborhood of 100. f
The third method of pumping, employed in the preferred embodiment of my invention, is not directly concerned with the production of rarefaction waves at the top of the column and the transmission thereof to the bottom of the column for momentary reduction in pressure suiiicient to admit iiud. Instead, the present invention contemplates the transmission of positive or condensation waves downward through the column, corresponding negative or rarefaction waves being largely avoided, as by preventing their formation. correspondingly, the present invention is not concerned with the generation at the top of the well and the transmission through the fluid.
column of a rarefaction wave of sufficient intensity to reduce the pressure momentarly at the inlet end of the column to a value below the sur- Rather, the` preferred emrounding pressure. bodiment contemplates the generation and transmission of an asymmetrical pressure-pulse wave or a wave of pressure reverberation. Pressure impulses delivered to the top of the cclumn move downward therethrough to a reflecting surface, being there reiiected to again move upward. The intensity of the reflected pressure wave may be made to approach closely the intensity of the transmitted pressure wave by use of a good reiiecting surface. The reflecting of this wave tends to form a rarefaction of an intensity approximately equal in amplitude to the wave. The rarefactionthus created by the reilection reduces the pressure in the bottom of the column momentarily `to a value below the pressure of the surrounding iiuid. The amplitude of the rarefaction wave thus created is reduced by such en trance of fluid. Stated in other words, the pressure wave in its reiiection creates, at a period of time corresponding to one-half wave cycle after the reilection, a rarefaction which is used to admit fluid, but which is, to a large extent, absorbed by this entrance of fluid so that the rarefaction wave, moving upwardthrough the column and created because of the reflection of the positive wave, is considerably less in amplitude than the transmitted or reflected positive wave.
Most liquids contain occluded gases which are liberated upon violent reduction in pressure. This is true both with respect to water and particularly withrespect to oil. It is known that crude oil contains, in dissolved state, substantial amounts of gases. If these are liberated by a reduction in pressure, they will not immediately re-dissolve upon a re-application of the original pressure. correspondingly, it is desirable not to reduce the pressure on the pumped iluid more than is necessary. In my system, the maintenance of strong rarefaction waves is not necessary and, in fact, means are provided for limiting the degree to which the pressure on the fluid is decreased. Correspondingly, more of the occluded gases can be retained in the iluid and a more solid column can be maintained, this being desirable from the standpoint of wave transmission. Y
'I'hose principles can be explained further with reference to Figure l, which discloses a conduit I2 extending downward i-n a well, not shown, and which, if desired, may comprise a well casing. This conduit enclosesV a fluid column I3 extending from a first, or lower, location at which is positioned an acoustic valve means I4 to an upper, or second, location adjacent a generating means, indicated generally by the numeral I5. The intake side of the acoustic valve means opens on the fluid to be pumped. The exit side of this acoustic valve means communicates with the lower end of' the column through which the pumped fluid rises to be discharged in a manner to be hereinafter explained. The acoustic valve means I4 admits the uid into the column when an elastic rarefaction of suiiicient intensity occurs in the fluid adjacent this valve means.
In the disclosed embodiment, the acoustic valve means I4 comprises a plurality of devices which -bored portions of the apertures I'I and provide valve seats 20 adjacent the continuations of the apertures. The cages I8 contain balls 2l of relatively small size, which are freely movable in a vertical direction within the cages I8, and which are adapted, by reason of the force of gravity or of ka downwardly-exerted pressure, as at the arrival of a wave of condensation in the iiuid column I3, to close against the seats 20. When the balls 2| are in engagement with their seats 20, the valve means I4 will act as a good reiiector of any wave of condensation which may travel down theuid column I3 and impinge upon the sunk cavities.
acoustic valve means. If, however, during 'the elastic vibration of the uid column I3, the presvsure of the fluid just above the valve' means I4 lis reduced below the pressure of the uid in the ,apertures I1, the balls 2l 'will rise and permit entrance of the fluid into the fluid column within the conduit I2.
acteristics of the valve means are of importance l in the present invention, the valve I4 functioning as a uni-directional acoustic wave transmitter, as will be later described. Figures 4 and 5 show six-check'valves disposed concentric with a small aperture I1' extending through the member I 6. In some instances,` another check valve can be disposed in this aperture, if desired, without departing Yfrom the spirit of the invention, or this aperture can be left open to assist in the performing of auxiliary functions to be later mentioned.
In any event, it is very desirable to form the acoustic valve means I4 to provide a good reflecting surface for any waveof condensation as it is desired to reflect such a wave violently upward and create a rarefaction at a time corresponding' to one half wave cycle thereafter.
correspondingly, it is desirable to use a large number of ball check valves and to leave the intervening area of thel flat upper surface of the member I 6 for reflection of the wave of condensation. In addition, the cages I8 desirably provide flat upper surfaces presenting reflecting surfaces to such a wave of condensation, and .it is desirable that such reflecting surfaces should be disposed `in the vicinity of the reflecting surface provided by the intervening surface of th'e member I6 so that the wave is deflected with a minimum of distortion. If closer correlation in the levels ofthese surfaces is desired, the embodiment shown in Figure 6 can desirably be used. Here, the intervening surfaces are at the same level 'as the surfaces provided by the cages I8, these cages being set in counter-sunk cavities I9 to provide for upward movement of entering fluid, this fluid moving through the apertures I1, between the ball-retaining arms of the cages I8, and thence upward between the peripheries of the flat surto generate acoustic waves or elastic vibrations in this fluid column. Various acoustic generating means can be employed in this connection, the embodiment shown in Eigures 1 and 2 showing a piston 25`which reciproeates with a short stroke in a cylinder 26, which may comprise an extension ofthe conduit I2. The fluid column extends to the face of the piston so that reciprocations thereof exert a greater or lesser pressure upon the fluid column to develop the elastic vibrations, and particularly the pressure impulses or condensation waves which are used in the invention.
The piston 25 is pivotally connected to a connecting rod 21 through a Wrist pin 23, and thel A flywheel 33 is preferably mounted on the shaft 3| to assure constant angular velocity, and the motive power source 32 is adapted to drive the shaft 3| at a constant, but preferably adjustable, speed of rotation. The shaft 3| is mounted for rotation in bearings 34 and 35 which are supported, respectively, in bearing supports 36 and 31 suitably secured to the conduit I2.
The eccentric means encircled by the journal 30 may comprise a turned portion on the shaft 3| of circular cross section and eccentric to the shaft 3|, and designated by the numeral 40, together with a bearing member 4| having an outer cylindrical bearing surface fitting the journal 33 and having an eccentric inner cylindrical surface of substantially the same diameter as the portion 40. The member 4I is adapted to be rotated on the member 40 to obtain any selected relative wardly-flanged cylindrical portion 42,' on the periphery of which are located sockets 43. A flange isattached to the shaft 3| and has an` overfaces of thesecages and the walls of the counterreflecting surface can be employed. However, it
is very desirable that the `movable elements be small so that they may oscillate in step with the elastic vibrations. If they are small, it is not always essential to provide flat-topped cages thereabove as the intervening surface of the member I6 will serve as a good reflector. However, it is usually notdesirable, particularly at high frequencies, to use a single large ball exposed to the condensation wave because of the j absorbing character of the spherical surface when impinged by a condensation wave, such a spherical surface tending to break up the wave into a plurality of smaller waves, `which are both out of phase with each othery and which are not re-` ected directly upward along the fluid column.
At the upper end of the uid column I3 is located the acoustic generator I5, which is adapted tricity of the portion 40 of the shaft 3| by rotating the member 4I relative to the flange member 45. stroke of the connecting rod 21 and the piston 25 to conditions existing in different pumping installations and to conditions arising from a change in the character of the liquid pumped. The member 4| may be turned into any of the angles in whichone of the sockets 43 registers with one of the holes 41 and,in such position,
may be connected for rotation with the shaft 3| by means of one or more of the pins 48.
A fluid discharge opening 50 is4 provided at some point along the conduit I2 connecting with the fiuidcolumn I3, and preferably located near the upper end thereof. I may,l for example, lo-
vcate the discharge opening 50 relativel'yfnear the generating piston 25, or I may, with advantage,
locate the discharge opening a distance from the piston 25 or from, any point fof substantially greatest pressure variation, equal to approximately one quarter of the wave ylength of the elastic vibration vbeing generated in the .fluid col- Such adjustment permits change in theV umn I3, or an odd multiple oi.' one quarter wave length,iif this discharge opening is to constitute the point of main delivery of fluid from the sys- I tem.l On the other hand, if this discharge opening is disposed at a point of maximum pressure variation and equipped with a' spring-loaded valve, the valve can be adjusted to act as a safety valve to relieve any dangerous internal pressure created by transient or excessive resonant conditions in the system, though usually it should not be set to open to cut oil' the peaks ofthe repeated pressure waves desirably transmitted to the acoustic valve means for reflection. Regardless of the positioning of the discharge opening 50, as mentioned above, it is preferably closed by a spring-loaded check valve 5I, or other suitable acoustic valve means adapted to permit iiuid under pressure within the fluid column I3 to discharge through the valve 5|. The discharge side of the valve 5I may communicate with a discharge conduit 52. In some instances, if the discharge opening 50 serves as the main uid discharge and if proper pressure conditions are present in the conduit `52, I may entirely eliminate the valve means for controlling the flow of fluid and simply provide the discharge opening or orifice 50 through which nfluid from the column I3 may discharge at any time wheny the pressure of fluid adjacent the opening 50 is of such value as to result in discharge of fluid therethrough.
In many instances, it is distinctly advantageous to locate the main discharge opening a distance from the piston 25 or from any point of substantially greatest pressure variation, equal to approximately one quarter of the wave length of the elastic vibrations being generated in the fluid column I3, or an odd multiple of one quarter wave length. For example, this relationship may hold with regard to the positioning of the discharge opening 50 shown in Figure 1. The discharge opening may, if desired, be located on v a branch conduit diverging from the conduit I2 and communicating therewith. Such a branch conduit is shown in Figure 1 by the numeral 53, and the provision of a spring-loaded valve 54 at or near the quarter wave length point, constructed similar to the valve 5I, is often advan-v tageous to maintain a higherl mean pressure on the fluid column, which is conducive to better wave transmission. The uid in the branch conduit 53 will resonate with the main fluid column and the discharge will be at or near a point of maximum velocity variation, thus giving a discharge of much more nearly constant pressure than would be the case if this ldischarge took place closer to a zone of maximum pressure variation.
Figure 1 discloses also a conduit 55 commun*- cating with the fluid column through a port 56 immediately adjacent the lower face of the piston 25 when in its uppermost position, this conduit including a valve 51. This conduit is useful in priming the system, the piston 25 being brought to its uppermost position, the valve 51 opened, and fluid introduced through the conduit 55 to nu the conduit l2 to such an extent that the fluid column I3 contacts the under face'of the pistonv 25, at which time the valve 51 may be closed 'partiallyor completely and the system set into operation. Such a conduit 55 can also-be used to discharge the pumped fluid from the column I3 in timed relationship with the generating means I5 as the piston 25 acts as 'a slide valve,
covering the port 53 in its downward stroke and uncovering this port in its upward stroke.
In operation, the piston 25 moves up and down in a cylinder 26 with approximately simple harmonic motion, the frequency being determined by the speed of the motive power source 32 and `the stroke being determind by the eccentricity of the eccentric portion of the member 4I relative to the shaft 3|, as explained above. As the piston 25 moves downward or inward, it compresses the uid'in the immediate vicinity thereof and, on its upward or outer stroke, it permits expansion or upward movement of the fluid adjacent thereto. On the downward stroke, therefore, an intense pressure wave or wave of condensation or pressure impulse is created. This pressure wave travels asV an elastic disturbance down the fluid column I3 with a velocity corresponding substantially to the velocity of sound in the medium constituting the fluid column. The pressure wave eventually reaches the bottom of the fluid column and is reflected back by the acoustic valve means I4, the reiiected wave being a pressure wave or wave of condensation. The reflected wave travels back up the fluid column I 3 with the same velocity and eventually arrives at the face of the piston 25, from which it is again reflected downward as a wave of condensation. If the motion of the piston 25 in the time elapsed between the generation of a pressurewave and its return to the piston has been such that, when the returning pressure wave arrives at the piston, this piston will again be generating a pressure wave, the returning wave can join with the newly-generated pressure wave and form a downwardly-directed pressure wave of increased intensity. Under such circumstances, the uid column I3 can be said to be in acoustic resonance and a largeamount of energy can be stored and transmitted in the fluid column. I preferably adjust the frequency of vibration of the piston 25 to maintain a condition of substantial resonance in the fluid column.
The bottom of this fluid column, as determined by thefposition of the acoustic valve means I4, should be a zone of maximum pressure variation. The length of the uid column I3 between the piston 25 and the acoustic valve means4 I4 should be substantially equal to any multiple of one half wave length of the acoustic vibrations generated by the piston 25, if a condition of substantial resonance is to obtain.
It will be evident'that, because of the properties of elasticity and inertia of the fluid, there will be a tendency for each positive pressure or condensation pulse at any point in the uid column to be followed by a condition of rarefaction or decrease in ui'd pressure below the meanpressure value. In order that fluid be admitted through the acoustic valve means I4, it is desirable that the pressure on the exit side be reduced momentarily below the pressure on the entrance side thereof and, as pointed out above, this reduction in pressure is obtained by reflection of a positive or condensation wave reaching the acoustic valve means. The intensity of the rarefaction thus created adjacent the upper end of the acoustic valve means I4 is dependent upon the intensity of the positive pressure wave preceding, the rarefaction being greater for greater intensities of the positive pressure wave. If,
therefore, conditions of approximate resonance are established in the fluid column I3, the rarefactions adjacent the valve I='4 can easily be made large enough to overcome the static presv the limited area.
sure head tending to hold the valve closed and.
crement of fluid to enter the lower end of the column. When the succeeding pressure wave arrives at the acoustic valve I4, the balls 2| are forced against their seats to close the valve and retain in thefiuid column the iiuid which was taken in during the period of rarefaction.
The provision oi?v an open aperture I1' does not' substantially change this condition in view of It will thus be seen that the balls 2| move in step with'the undulations, and
spending to substantially one half wave length. under such circumstances the valvev Il opens at while still maintaining this valve adjacent a zonel l the time of each rareiaction to permit an inthatthe acoustic vibrations in the fluid column at the valve means are partially absorbed in that the rarefactions are reduced once liquid begins to flow into the column when the valve opens.
My system desirabiy employs transmitted positive-pressure or condensation waves for actuation of the acoustic valve means, rather than transmitted rarefaction waves. There is, of course, a
tendency for the vreciprocating'piston 26 to estab--4 lish both. condensation 4and rarefaction waves. However, I prefer to avoid the presence, at the lower end of the piston, of rarefaction waves corvconduit 55.
vCorrespondinglxn the pressure waves in the fluid column I3 are usually not symmetrical in my system as the waves of rarefaction in the upper and intermediate sections of the column do not equal in amplitude the waves of condensation. Not only are the waves of rarefaction reduced at the generating means I5, but it will also vbe apparent that the rarefaction created by reflection of the positive wave by the acoustic valve means is, to a large extent, absorbed by entrance of fluid to the iiuid column. Correspondingly, the wave employed in my invention can be asymmetrical, even to an extent of substantially cancelling rarefactions and producing a pressure wave of reverberation.
In the case in which a simple orifice is employed for discharging the fluid from the column, for example the orifice 50, the fluid from the column moves through the orifice whenever the mean pressure of the fluid is greater than the mean pressure in the discharge side of the orifice, or, if the port 56 is utilized for discharge, whenever this port is opened and the Internal pressure exceeds the external pressure. When a springloaded valve, such as designated by the numerals 6I or 5l, is employed, the iluid is discharged whenever the fluid pressure is sufliciently great to overcome the action of the spring and open the valve. `In practice, it is desirable to employ a spring-loaded discharge to maintain a consideror considerably more, in the conduit I2. In continuous operation of the system, the amount of the lower end of the conduit a distance correacoustic valve means. correspondingly, this upembodiment of an auxiliary means assisting the pumping action, and particularly the action of the acoustic valve means. The interior of the conduit I2' constitutes an acoustic chamber 68 and forms a part of an acoustic means assisting in the operation of the valve, in a manner which i will now be described.
When a wave of condensation reaches and reflects. from the acoustic valve means, the rarefaction created one. half wavecycle thereafter will be, in part, transmitted through the nowopen valves and through the aperture I'I' to the iiuid in the acoustic chamber 58. This rarefaction will move downward to the open lower end and produce a wave of condensation which travels upward through the fluid in the acoustic chamber to reach the acoustic valve one wave cycle after the rarefaction wave which moves through the ward-moving pressure wave .acts in step with the rarefaction created in the lower end of the uid column I3 to assist in opening the valves by moving the balls 2l thereof upward. This action can take place irrespective of whether the aperture sure' wave above thereof.
I1 is open, as shown, or closed by a check valve similar to those shown in Figure 4. Ii this aperture remains open, a further assisting action is established which is also in proper phase.v with the wave energy tending to open the valves. In this connection, it will be clear that, if the aperture I1. is open, a minor portion of the`condensation wave reaching the acoustic valve I4 will be transmitted to the acoustic chamber 58 and will move downward therein to produce a wave'y of rarefaction upon discharge from the lower end thereof. This wave of rarefaction will move upward through the fiuid in the acoustic chamber 58 to reach they lower portion of the acoustic valve means at the instant when avsucceeding condensation wave reaches the upper portion oi the acoustic valve through the iluid column I3. The rarefaction below the balls 2l assists the presthese balls to' insure seating In addition, the wave-transmitting action ofthe acoustic valve"means I4 permits a condition of substantial resonance to be obtained in the acoustic chamber 58, and it is believed to be new fio to pump fluid by use of an acoustic chamber on one side of the valve, in which a condition of approximate resonanceis established by undulations transmitted to the other side of the valve. It is believed to be new, also, to establish substantial resonance on both sides of an acoustic I valve. l
An alternative means for discharging fluid, having advantages in eiiiciency and in facility of control, is shown in Figures 7 and 8. In this embodiment, the discharge opening is opened and closed in synchronism with the generating piston 25. A cam 60 is preferably mounted on the end of the shaft 3| to rotate therewith. In the plane of rotation of the cam 60 is preferably mounted a cylinder 6I within which moves a preferably hollow plunger 62.' On the outer end vof the plunger 62 is rotatably mounted a ball -bearing 63, or other suitable wheel, adapted to ride in engagement with the cam 68. l The plung.
er 62 is forced outwardly into engagement with.
the cam 68 by a spring 64 acting between an outwardly-directed flange on the plunger 62 and a shoulder on the cylinder 6|.- Connected with the fluid chamber within the cylinder 6| is a fluid conduit 61 through which fluid is moved as the plunger 62 moves within the cylinder 6|. It will be evident that, as the shaft 8| rotates, the rotation of the cam 68 causes the plunger 62 to move in and out of the cylinder 6|. l
The part of the vibration cycle at which the plunger 62 is moved inwardly by the cam 68 de pends upon the angular orientation at which the cylinder 6| is fixed. Means are provided for varying the angular orientation of the cylinder 8| and comprises a stationary plate 68 having an arcuate slot I8 therein adapted to accommodate two screws 1| which pass lthrough supportinglugs 12 on the cylinder 5|. 'I'he cylinder 8| may be swung into any angle within a range of 180, and nuts I3 may be tightened to retain the cylinder 6| in the selected angular position permitted by the slot 18. If it is desired to move the piston 62 inwardly during the other half of the vibration cycle, the cam 68 is removed from the shaft 3| and replaced at an angle differing by 180 from its former position. The cylinder 6| may then be moved to any position along the slot 18 for line adjustment of the timing.
At the desired location for fluid discharge, which may, for example, be at the upper end of the iiuid column I8 in the general neighborhood of the generating piston 25, a flanged discharge member may be welded into the conduit |2. 'Ihe discharge member 15 may have apertures 16 suitably located for the discharge of fluid from the well. The member 15 is preferably shaped to provide a shoulder 11 against whichl rests a valve seat 18. The valve seat 18 may be forced against the shoulder 11 by a member 18 which,
in turn, is retained by a ring 8| which is screwed into the threaded outer end of the member 15. The member 18 is open over most of the periphery and is so located as not to interfere with the discharge of uid through the apertures 16. The member 18 is centrally bored and provides a supporting bushing for the stem of a valve 82 adapted to seat on the valve seat 18.
Pressure of iiuid in the fluid column I3 tends to close the valve 82 and, to open it, I provide fluid-operated means, as follows. Two stationary supporting members 85 and`.86 may be mounted on the discharge member 15 and be connected at their outer ends by a member 81. Within this framework, a fluid cylinder 88 is supported by means of an adjustable bracket 98.-
Within the cylinder 88 are preferably located two pistons 8| and 92 separated from one another to form within the cylinder 88 a chamber 83.' The uid conduit 61 leading from the cylinder u6| connects with the chamber 83 so that, when iuid pressure is transmitted through the conduit 61 to the chamber 83, the pistons 8| and 82 tend to move apart. The piston 82 is connected to a rod 85 which is slidably supported in an 'end of the cylinder 88 and extends into contact with the end of the stem of the valve 82. The piston 8| is connected to a rod 81 which is slidably supported in the 'other end of the cylinder 88 and carries a spring abutment 88. A screw |88 passes through the frame member 81 in threaded engagement therewith and carries at its end a spring abutment |02 within which it can rotate.
assuma placed a compression spring |84 which urges the piston 8| .toward the piston 82. The compression of the spring |84 may beadjusted by screwing in or out of the screw |88.
When the high part of the cam 68 comes under the plunger 62, the plunger 62 is forced into the cylinder 6| and iluid is forced through the con.
duit 61 into the chamber 93. The pistons 8| and 82 tend to move apart by reason of this pressure but, generally, the force with which the valve 82 is held closed by pressure within the well is greater than the force exerted by the spring |84 and, consequently, only the piston 8| at first moves.' The motion of the piston 8| away from the piston 82 continues until the force of compression exerted by the spring |84 equals the force with which the valve 82 is held on'its seat.
Any further pressure in the chamber 83 then location of the discharge outlet lalong the uid causes the piston 82 to move also, whereupon the valve 82 is lifted from its seat and uid from the fluidcolumn I3 may flow out through the discharge apertures 16. It will be clear that the point in the rotation of the cam 68 at which the pressure in the chamber 83 is sufdcient to open the valve 82 depends upon the initial state of compression of the spring |84, which may be adjusted by means of the screw |88 or through shifting of the adjustable bracket 88. When the cam 68 rotates around to where the plunger 62 l is permitted to move outwardly and reduce the pressure in the chamber 93,v the valve 82 will again close and will remain closed until the cam 68 once more forces the plunger 62 inwardly. By this means, then, I provide a discharge passage which is opened and closed with the same frequency as that of the generating piston 25. Moreover, it will be apparent that, by varying the angular orientation of the cylinder 6|, I may cause the valve 82 to open at any selected part of the vibration cycle, and that,.by adjustment of the compression of the spring |84, I may control the time interval during which the valve 82 is maintained open.
I have found that discharge of uid from the fluid column I3 through the synchronized discharge valve may be obtained when the opening .of the discharge valve is timed to occur at any part of the vibration cycle. The discharge of uid and the eiiiciency of pumping are, however, found to be greater for some particular timing and duration of the discharge period relative to the vibration cycle, depending upon the column and other existing conditions. In each th time interval during which the discharge valve is maintained open and, also, the timing of the opening of the discharge valve relative to the phase of the generating piston 25 in its vibration to secure the best results. One very satisfactory adjustment, 'which results in small energy dissipation, is that for which -fluid discharge takes place during a portion of the vibration cycle at which the uid pressure at the point of discharge is about equal to the'mean fluid pressure throughout the cycle.
A very desirable system for pumping fluids containing dissolved or occluded gases is shown in Figure 9, in which the main conduit is indicated by the numeral l2, the main fluid column by the numeral ||3, the acoustic valve by the numeral ||4, and the generating means (shown only diagrammatically)` by the numeral ||5.
The acoustic valve means is best shown in Between the spring abutments 88 and |82 is 1l vFigures 9 to 12 and represents a construction which can be used either in this embodiment or r in the other embodiments of the' invention.' As
. may roll by gravity to come into av seating position.
Suitable means is provided for maintaining the balls |2| in the general -vicinity of their seats,
and particular advantages accrue from the use of a reilecting member |22 in'this connection.
This member may be clamped between ya shoulder of the member H6 and ythe lower end of the conduit H2 at such elevation as to permit lifting of the balls while preventing removal thereof from the vicinity of the apertures This reflecting member |22 presents a ilat surface to a wave of condensation and serves as an excellent reilecting means therefor. Small openings |23 are provided therein for the conduction of uid, these openings preferably beingslightly disaligned with respect to the apertures but communicating respectivelywith the zones in which the balls |2| are positioned. This member is shown as providing an opening |23 in alignment with the aperture or, if this aperture is provided with a ball means, it will preferably be disaligned in accordance with the previous teaching. The member |22 can be made quite rigid or it can be made of a character to flex under the action of a condensation wave so that the central portion thereof moves in a manner "to assist the pumping action. f
In this embodiment of the -invention, an acoustic chamber is preferably provided below the vacoustic valvev I4 and serves a function similar to the Vacoustic chamber 53, previously described, though its construction is somewhat different. I'he chamber |30 is shown as being provided by a cylindrical member |3| extending. from `a position just above the acoustic valve. I4 to a lower position removed substantially one quarter wave length from the valve, the lower end being closed by a member |32 which, if desired, may provide a small aperture |33 for purpose of'removing from the chamberv |30 sand or other material which may separate therein under the resonant conditions therein. This cylindrical member |3| may be retained in place by any suitable means. shown diagrammatically in Figures 9 and 10 as including arms |34 extending inward to the cap member ||6. The diameter of the upper end of this cylindrical member |3| is'larger than the external diameter of the cap member |||i to provide an annular inlet opening |35 through which fluid is admitted to the acoustic chamber |30 preparatory to movement through the acoustic valve means.
This acoustic chamber |30 assists lin the pumping action and in the actuation of the acoustic valve means, as follows. When a condensation wave moving through the uld column |113 reaches the reecting member |22 to be violently reflected upward, a wave of rarefaction is estab- Y lished at a time corresponding to one half wave cycle later, as previously described, to permit upward flow of uid through the acoustic valve. A portion of this rarefaction wave is transmitted downward through the acoustic valve, through the now-opened check valves or through the apertures II'I, to the chamber |30. This'rarefaction moves downward through the uid in the acoustic chamber, reaching the member |32 at a time corresponding to one quarter wave cycle later, being then reflected upward as a rarefaction which moves through the annular inlet opening |35 after the lapse of another equal increment of time. This annular inlet opening acts similarly to an open-ended organ pipe so that the rarefaction wave moving therethrough creates a pressure wave which moves downward in the chamber |30 to be reflected upward from the member |32 to reach the acoustic valve means at a time corresponding to one full wave cycle after the rarefaction in the main column creating this phenomena. This pressure wave at the lower end. of the acoustick valve correspondingly assists the rarefaction generated at the lower end of the fluid column ||3 in opening the valve. If the aperture H1" is not valved, thethus-generated rarefaction wave can be transmitted in part therethrough, even to a greater extentvthan if the ball valve is used to close this aperture.
Also, if the aperture is not valved, as is usually preferable lin this embodiment, a compression wave reaching the member |22 will be partially transmitted (though predominantly reflected) and the transmitted portion will move 4through the opening |23 and the aperture iiected by the member 32 and move upward as a condensation wave to be present below the acoustic valve at a time corresponding to one half wave cycle after the arrivalof'the downward-moving condensation wave inthe :duid column ||3. In other words, this upward-moving pressure wave in the acoustic chamber. |30 reaches the bottom of the acoustic valve at a time when there exists above the valve a rarefaction created by reection of the main pressure wave. Correspondingly, an auxiliary ,action is obtained by use of the acoustic chamber |30 assisting the operation of the acoustic valve means and assisting in lthe up and down motion of the balls I2 'In the embodiment of the invention shown in Figure 9, the upper end of the fluid column is curved so that the piston |38 of the generating means I5 moves upward (though still inward with respect to the fluid column) to create the pressure impulses or waves of condensation. This can be accomplished by use of a curved conduit |40, or suitable dome structure, the showing being merely diagrammatic for purpose of illustration. Likewise, the means for reciprocating the piston is indicated diagrammatically by the numeral Ill but, in practice, will comprise the eccentric means previously described, or other means for oscillating'the piston or creating the desired undulations in the upper end of the column.
In this system, as in the embodiments previously described, the acoustic valve means IH will be positioned adjacent a zone of maximum prespumping fluids containing gases which are liberated upon any substantial reduction in pressure v|56 discharges through a conduit |51- to a suitable-'gas separator |58, which may be of any conc struction known in the art. Here, the liquid and belowy formation pressure, such reduction in pres..
sure being common in any well-pumping system because of the reduction in static head toward the surface of the ground. The mean pressure on the fluid column ||3 decreases toward the upper end, and if gases are liberated, the gas particles will tend to move to a zone of maximum velocity variation. They may remain there for a short interval of time before rather quickly moving upward to the next zone of maximum velocity variation. Eventually, however, they reach the curved conduit |40 and are removed with the fluid from the extreme upper end thereof through a discharge conduit |45. VIn pumping such gas-liberating-fluids, the discharge may be somewhat intermittent, the proportion of gas being greater at one time than at another. Similarly, the amount of energy stored in the fluid column may vary, reducing during the time that any excessive amount of gas is being discharged, and increas- .ing as soon as the excess gas has been expelled.
Even if the discharge from the system is largely composed of gasfor a short interval of time, the resonant conditions in thel fluid column donot `completely die down, though there will be less.
energy imparted to the system by the generating means because of the cushioning action of existing gases. These gases are removed from the extreme upper end of the system and, as soon as the presence of excessively large amounts of gas is corrected, the generating means will begin to store additional energy in the column and increase the amplitude of the pressure variations to effect further pumping. ,Depending upon the character of the fluid, the discharge through the conduit |45 may consist entirely of liquid, or may represent a relatively constant mixture of liquid and'gas, or may represent a varying mixture of liquid and gas.
The discharge conduit |45 may be valved by any of the means heretofore described, but I prefer to extend this conduit, preferably'slightly inclined, to a chamber |50 disposed a distance from the generating means .approximatelyv one quarter wave length, in which event the pressure in .this chamber will be relatively constant` and will substantially equal the mean pressure of the wave existing inthe curved conduit |40. This chamber is preferably closed and any mixture of liquid and gases entering same near its lower end may separate predominantly into bodies of liquid and gas, indicated respectively by the numerals |5| and |52, this body of gas being compressible to reduce further any pressure variations in th chamber |50.
While the gas and the liguid can be separately the gas separate into separate bodies |59 and mittently throughva pipe |8| and the liquid being withdrawn through a pipe |62. If desired, a constant-level' system can be employed, indicated generally bythe Anumeral |63, to control the discharge of'the'liquld. The pressure in the gas separator |58 may be made substantially above atmospheric pressure by throttling the separate discharge of the gas and oil,A or the pressure can be maintained close to atmospheric pressure,` if desired.
In the embodiment shown in Figure 9, I have disclosedl an advantageous method tending to overcome the presence of strong rarefaction waves in the upper end of the column by admitting iluid thereto in timed relationship with the generating means. For example, a pipe |10 may be connected to a port |1| which is uncovered by the piston |38 in its outward movement, or which, as suggested in Figure 9, can be disposed to be out of the'zone of travel of the piston to communicate with the fluid column at all times.
lIn `at least the latter event, this pipe |10 will be equipped with a checkvalve |12 to prevent any discharge of uid when the pressure in the column exceeds that in the pipe |13 to which the valve |12 and the pipe |10 into the curved conduit. The reduced pressure at which this flow takes place is controlled by adjusting the springloading of the valve |12.
As disclosed in Figure 9, the pipe |13 may extend to the vgas separator |58 to communicate with the bo'dy of liquid |58 therein. By such a system, a portion of the pumped 'fluid can be returned to the system and recycled through a portion thereof,l namely, that portion of the curved conduit |40 between the pipe |10 and the discharge conduitv |45, being ultimately discharged along withl the pumped uid rising in themain fluid'column H3.` Alternatively, fluid can be removed from a container |80 and thus drawn into the system, by closing a valve |8| in the pipe |13 and opening a valve |82. container |00 may belopen tothe atmosphere or closed therefrom, depending upon the desired -pressure therein, and the liquid therein may be the container |80. It is often advantageous to introduce in this manner al treating agent retained in the container |80 and which may be deremoved from the chamber |50, I prefer to dis,-
pose a discharge opening |54 at such position as to discharge both gas and liquid from this chamber. A spring-loaded valve |56 is preferably employed at this point to maintain a higher mean pressure onthe system and to prevent any return ow of fluid through the opening |54. This valve from the well.
sirable for incorporation into the pumped fluid to assist in the separation of its constituents, the wavemotion in the curved conduit |40 tending to mix this vintimately with the fluid being pumped Ifl desired, a treating agent can be used which has a deemulsifying action with respect to emulsions in the system, or this treating agent can be one which otherwise facilitates the pumping action .or the steps subsequently The , ing alone.
used in storing or processing the well-produced The principle of operation of' my pump is entirely-` different from ordinary pumps in which 'water aga-inst a suction head of several hundred feet. It is important to understand that, in the pumping system of my invention, the valve means M, at the lower end of the fluid column in the disclosed embodiment, is not opened by reason of a reduced pressure induced by the upward movement of the piston 25 and transmitted throughout the fluid column to its lower end, but is opened by a decreased pressure at the valve means I4 which occurs during the rarefaction part of th?,l vibration cycle following and, as a result of, the preceding positive pressure wave. This decrease in pressure occurring during the rarefaction part of the vibration cycle may, at Athe valve means I4, be many times the reduced pressure which could be induced by the upward movement of the piston 25.
In the case of ordinary well pumps using sucker rods extending the length of the well,'lt is common practice toemploy tubing within the well casing, if for no other reason than to restrain the sucker rod from excessive lateral movement. With my system, no sucker rod is required and the tubing can also be dispensed with, the fluid being conducted by use of the well cas- A tubing may, however, be employed within the well casing to conduct the fluid, if it is so desired.
tude and intervening waves of rarefaction of an amplitude much less than said waves of condensation and while controlling the frequency of said asymmetrical Waves in such manner asfto maintain a condition of approximate acoustic resonance in saidv fluid column, in which condition there exists along said fluid column a zone of substantially greatest pressure variation; reflecting said waves of condensation substantially at said zone of greatest pressure variation to ald in creating rarefactions tending to equal in amplitude the amplitude of said condensation waves; admitting fluid to said column adjacent such zone of reflection during each rarefaction to aid in making the wave transmitted through said column asymmetrical; and discharging fluid from said column at a positionspaced from the point of admission of said fluid to said column.
2. A method of pumping fluid from a first lo'- cation to a second location through a connecting fluid column, which method includes the steps of: generatingvelastic positivepressure waves in saidv fluid column to* the exclusion of equal-intensity intervening rarefactions while controlling the frequency of said waves in such manner as to maintain approximate resonance in said fluid column and while maintaining a mean pressure in allv portions of said column and which mean pressure is substantially above atmospheric pressure; reflecting said positive pressure Iwaves at said first location to create adjacent said first location a rarefaction following each reflection; admitting fluid into said fluid column at said first location during the succeeding rarefactions set up by said reflection of said pressure waves while precluding such fluid admission between such rarefactions;
and discharging fluid from said fluid column at While I have disclosed my method and apparatus for pumping in connection with a Well, and have mentioned liquids as examples of V. the pumped fluid, I do not intend my invention to be so limited. My invention may be applied to a wide variety of pumping problems other than those involving wells. My invention is applicable to the pumpingfof any fluid, the frequencyof vibration of the acoustic generator preferably being adjusted in each case, as above-described, to.
result in a condition of approximate acoustic resonance in the fluid column. In my use ofthe term acoustic, I intend it to pertain to elastic disturbances of any frequency, whether or not they are within the audible range. It will be understood that the parts of my apparatusherein-disclosed are merely illustrative, and that other means may be employed to perform `their respective functions in the apparatus. Various changes and modifications in the method and the apparatus herein-disclosed may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of theinvention defined in the appended claims.
This application is a ccntinuationin-part of my application, .Serial No. 258,223, filed February I claim as my invention:
1. A method of pumping fluid along a fluid column of given length, which methodincludes the steps of: imposing a static pressure substan tially above atmospheric pressure on all portions of said fluid column while transmitting through said fluid column asymmetrical waves comprising i successive waves of condensation of large magnia position spaced from said flrst location.
3. A method of pumping fluid along a fluid column from a flrst location to a second location, which method includes the steps of imposing a static pressure on all portions of said fluid column while transmitting pressure impulses through said fluid column from said second locafluid column adjacent said flrst location; controlling the frequency of the transmitted pressure impulses with respect to the distance between said locations to establish in said fluid column a condition of substantial resonance; and withdrawing fluid from said fluid column at a position spaced from said first location.
4. A method of pumping fluid along a fluid co1- umn from a first location to a second location,
which method includes the steps of: imposing a' static pressure substantially above atmospheric pressure on all portions of said fluid column while transmitting pressure impulses through said fluid column from said second location to said flrst location and while preventing transmission of corresponding-intensity rarefactions through said fluid column to said flrst location by admitting a fluid to said fluid column near said second location synchronously with the appearance of rarefactions at said second location and in an amount suiiicient to substantially reduce the rareiactions which would otherwise occur: reecting said pressure impulses from said ilrst location toward said second location to create at said iirst location rarefactions of suflicient intensity to admit addil. tional uid to said fluid column adjacent said Y nrst location; controlling the frequency oi' the transmitted pressure impulses with respect to the distance between said locations to establish in said iiuid column a condition of substantial resonance :-and withdrawing fluid from said iuid col- 'umn at a position spaced from said rst location.
greatest pressure variation; means for admitting fluid into said fluid column approximately at said zones of substantially greatest pressure variation; and means for discharging iiuid from said column at an exit position removed an odd multiple of a quarter wave length from said zone of maximum pressure variation.
6. A combination as dened in claim 5, including means for throttling the ow of iiuid from said iiuid column at said exit position to build up a back pressure on said uid column.
'7. Apparatus for pumping fluid, comprising: a conduit containing a fluid column; an acoustic valve means at one end of said uid column and providing a wave-renecting surface;` wave-generating means spaced along said column a distance vof approximately a multiple of one half wave length `from said acoustic valve means for generating high-amplitude pressure pulsesl and low-amplitude intervening rarefaction pulses to produce a highly asymmetrical wave train in said iiuid column; means for maintaining in said uid column a mean pressure from which saidlpressure pulses and said rarefaction pulses depart, the amplitude of said rarefaction pulses adjacent said wave-generating means being insufcient at the existing mean pressure to reduce the asymmetrical waves being transmitted through vsaid uid column and said pressure pulses being reflected from said acoustic valve means to create thereadjacent and at a time corresponding to one half wave length thereafter a rarefaction of suilicient magnitude to admit an increment of iiuid to said uid column; and means for discharging iiuid from said iluid column at a position spaced from the point of admission of said uid thereto.
8. Apparatus for pumping uid from a iirst location to a second location, comprising: a fluid column extending between said two locations; wave-generating means for generating pressure pulses and intervening rarefaction pulses in said fluid column, said means including means for reducing Vthe amplitude of said rarefaction pulses to a value very substantially below the amplitude of said pressure pulses, the length of said iluid column beingapproximately a multiple of one half'wave length of the wave generated by said wave-'generating means; means for maintaining in said uid column a mean pressure from which said pressure pulses and said rarefaction pulses depart; acoustic valve means at said rst location and capable of opening and closing at a irepressure in said iiuid column to zero value, the
quency corresponding to the frequency of said wave-generating means to admit fluid into said iiuid column at said iirst location, said acoustic valve means comprising means for reecting said .suiicient to admit a momentary iiow of uid into said column; and means for discharging uid from said uid column at a position spaced from said irst location.
9. Apparatus for pumping iiuid, including in combination: a conduit extending downward into a well and enclosing a uid column, the upper end of said conduit comprising a hollow structure providing a portion in open-communication with that portion oi said conduitwhich'extends into said well; a generating means for generating elastic vibrations, said generating means being in open` communication with another portion of. said hollow structure, said generating means being at an Aelevation below the upper end oi said hollow structure; an acoustic valve means for admitting uid to said fluid column in response to wave energy received from said generating means; and discharge means communicating with the upper end of said hollow structure and thus communicating with said fluid column at a position which is higher in elevation than said generating means, said discharge means )removing from said viiuid .column the pumped uid and any gases liberated during pumping.
10. Apparatus for' pumping nuid, including in combination: a conduit enclosing a iluid column; a generating means communicating with said uid column for generating elastic vibrations; an acoustic valve means for admitting fluid to said iiuid column in response to wave energy received from said generating means; discharge means communicating with said iiuid column at a position which is higher in elevation than said generating means for removing from said uid column the pumped uid and any gases liberated during pumping, said discharge means being positioned at the highest point of said uid column; and a gas-separation means communicating with said discharge means for separating gas from the pumped iiuid.
1l. Apparatus for pumping fluid, including in combination: a conduit enclosing a iiuid column;
a generating means communicating with said fluid column for generating elastic vibrations; an acoustic valve means for admitting uid to said iiuid column in response to wave energy received from said generating means; discharge means communicating with said iiuid column at a position which is higher in elevation than said generating means for removing from said fluid column the pumped iiuid and any gases liberated during pumping, said discharge means being positioned at the highest point of said iiuid column; a gas-separation means communicating with said discharge means for separating gas from the pumped iiuid; and means for returning to said iiuid column for re-discharge through said discharge means a portion of the uid separating from said gas in said gas-separation means.
l2. Apparatus for pumping fluid from a rst location to a second location, comprising: a iluid column extending between said two locations; means generating elastic pressure waves in said iluid column at said second location, the length of said fluid column being approximately a mulastaeie tiple of one half wave length of said waves;` an
acoustic valve means at said first location and opening and closing at a frequency corresponding to said means for generating pressure waves -for discharging fluid from said fluid column at a positionspacedfrom the point of admission'of fluid thereto; and a pressure-responsive relief valve disposed between said flrst and second locations approximately at a point along said fluid column in which pressure variations are a maximum, said relief valve offering sumcient resistance to flowto preclude discharge of fluid therethrough except at excessive resonant pressures.
13. A method of pumping uld along a fluid column, which method includes the\steps of transmitting acoustic impulses through said fluid column to establish substantially a condition of resonance therein; admitting fluid to said fluid column at one position in timed relation with said acoustic pressure impulses; withdrawing fluid from said fluid column at another position; and lntroducing fluid into` said fluid column `between successive pressure impulses at a third position spaced from said position to mingle with the fluid of said fluid column and discharge therewith at said other position. l
` 14. A method of pumping fluid from a lower entrance location to an upper exit location, which method includes the steps of: maintaining a column of fluid extending between said Klocations whereby the pressure head on said column increases toward said lower entrance location; building up a substantial superatmospheric' pressure on al1 portions of saidfluid column in addition to the pressure existing at any particular section due to the pressure head of the fluid thereabove to maintain the mean pressure in said. l column at a value considerably above atmospheric pressure; generating high-amplitude pressure impulses in said fluid column and transmitting these pressure impulses downward-through said fluid column to said lower entrance location;
`reflecting said pressure impulses adjacent said lower entrance location without substantial deformation of the wave front of the pressure-impulses to create a momentary rarefaction at said lower entrance location at a period of time corthrough, which method includes the steps of:
maintaining constantly intercommunicating fluid columns on opposite sides of said valve; generating elastic vibrations in one of said columns;
transmitting the elastic vibrations at Aleast in part through said acoustic valvev to the other of said fluid columns to establish secondary elastic vibrations in said second fluid column; and controlling the frequency of said elastic vibrations in said one column to maintain in said other column y a condition of approximate resonance and tov make said secondary elastic vibrations assist vin the actuation of said acoustic valve.
16. Apparatus for pumping fluid, includingin a substantially-flat reilecting surface traversing said-fluid column; means for generating pressure impulses in said fluidv column ata position approximately a'multiple of one half wave length 5 from said reflecting surface to establish a condition of approximate resonance in the intervening portion of said fluid column because of reflection of said impulses from said reflecting surface, said reflections creating succeeding rarefactions adja-A cent said reecting surface to reduce'the pressure within the fluid column adjacent said refleeting surface to a value sumciently low to admit fluid thereinto; and an acoustic-valve means adjacent said reflecting surface and comprising l5 a plurality oi' apertures communicating between the interior and exterior of said fluid column and a plurality of movable restricting meansffor said apertures, said movable restricting means being movable from a restricting position to impede escape of fluid from `said fluid column to an open position admitting fluid through said apertures to said column, said movable restricting means being of sumciently small mass toA be rapidly oscillated between said restricting and open'positions in step with said pressure impulses and intervening rarefactions existing adjacent said refleeting surface.
17. Apparatus for pumping'fluid, comprising:
a fluid column; means for generating acoustic u vibrations in said column of such wave length as to resonate said column and produce a zone of maximum pressure variation therein; means responsive to said vibrations to admit fluid into said column; and means for discharging fluid from said column, said discharge means communicating with said fluid column at a point removed from said generating means a distance corresponding approximately to an oddmultiple of a quarter wave length of the acoustic vibrations.
18. Apparatus for pumping fluid from an underground source thereof, comprising: al conduit enclosing a fluid column and extending downtion with said underground source offfluid; means at the earths surface for generating acoustic vibrations in said fluid column including a vibrating member having a face substantially normal to the axis of saidl column in contact with said fluid column, said member vibrating at such a frequency that the length of said fluid column is approximately a multiple of one khalf wave length of the acoustic vibrations set up in said fluid col- I umn; ansinwardly-opening check valve means at the lower end of said fluid column; and means removed from the vibrating member by a distance approximately equal to one quarter wave length orodd multiple thereof for discharging fluid from said fluid column 4in the vicinity of the earths surface.
19. Apparatus for pumping fluid, including in combination: a conduit enclosing a fluid column; walls dening an acoustic intake chamber `also containing fluid; a uni-directional wave transmitter disposed between said acoustic intake chamber and said fluid column including a through aperture continuously establishing communication between said acoustic intake chamber and said fluid column; and means for generating elastic vibrations in said fluid column `at such frequency as to establish substantially a condition of resonance in said acoustic intake chamber py undulations transmitted to said nu'id in directional wave transmitter.
combination: a conduit enclosing a uid column; 20. Apparatus for pumping fluid,including in wardlyfrom'the earths surface into communica-v combination: a; conduit enclosing a duid column; walls denning an acoustic intake chamber; an
acoustic ,valve means between saidiluid column and saidiacoustic intakechamber for conducting iluidJrom said chamber to said column while impeding a reverse now of said uuid, said acous tic valve means including an aperture continuously establishing communicationbetween said conduit and said acoustic intake chamber; and a wave generating means for owinguid from said intake chamber to said fluid column through said acoustic valve means` and for establishing a means for admitting nuid to-said fluid column 4 Awhen the internal uid pressure adjacent the exit side of said acoustic valve means is lower than the external pressure of-the fluid adjacent the entrance side of Y.said acoustic valve means,
said acoustic valve means including check valve means admitting uid to said column but impeding a reverse now of fluid and also including a constantly-open aperture extending therethrough; means for delivering elastic vibrations to saidacoustic valve means to periodically reassaoie i Y means toV discharge iluid from said column; and
means to actuate said discharge means in timed relationship' to the lvibration cycle, s'aid means including a cam driven l in synchronism with said vibrating means, a follower arranged mbe displaced periodically by said cam, means to shift the position of said follower relative to said cam while in motion, whereby the phase relationship between said follower and the vibrating means may be varied vduring operation,` and an operative connection from said' follower to said discharge means.
25,'Apparatus as in claim 24 and including resilient means to close said discharge means; hydraulic means to open said discharge means; means to produce uid pressure by the displacement of said follower "to actuate said hydraulic means; and means to vary the amount of displacement necessaryv to open said discharge means. c
26. Apparatus for pumping fluid, including in combination; a conduit enclosing a fluid column; a substantially flat renecting member providing a reflecting surface extending transversely of said duce the fluid pressure on the exit side of said lvalve means below theiiuid pressure-on the entrance side thereof to move said check valve means and produce a flow of fluid therethrough: and acoustic means on the entrance side of said acoustic valve means and responsive'to the elas-t means for generating sound waves in said column for pumping iiuid into said column through said acousticvalve means and thence along said `conduiteto discharge from said discharge means, the frequency of said Wave generation means being lsuch as to create substantially a condition of resonance in said uid column; and auxiliary means for delivering fluid tothe resonating fluid column during said pumping and during periods of rarefaction within said uid column to mingle' with the pumped fluid and be discharged therewith.
23. Apparatus for pumping, comprising: a fluid column; means for generating acoustic vibrations in said iluid column at one end thereof; acoustic valve means at the other end of said column adapted to admit uid into said iluid colf umn during periods of rarefaction adjacent said valve lmeans; means for discharging fluid from saidiiuid column during a selected discharge period in each vibration cycle; and means including a pressure responsive device adjustable during operation for changing the duration of said discharge period and the phase of said -acoustic vibrations at which said discharge period occurs.
24. Apparatusfor pumping fluid, comprising: a fluid column; means for generating acoustic vibrations in said column including a vibrating member in contact with said fluid at one end of said column and adapted to be vibrated at such a frequency as to substantially resonate said column; means responsive--to'said vibrations to induid column and occupying a substantial portion of the cross-sectional Varea of said column; means for generating pressure impulses in said fluid column at a position approximately a multiple of one half wave length from one side of said reflecting member to establish a condition of approximate resonance in the intervening portion of said fluid column because of reiiection of said impulses from said reecting surface, said reflections creating rarefactions adjacent one side 4of said reflecting member at a time corresponding to fone half wave length thereafter, said rarefactions reducing the pressure within the fluid column adjacent said renecting surface to a value sufdciently low to admit fluid. therein; a valve `means adjacent and on the other side of said reflecting member from said means for generating pressure impulses, said valve means providing a stationary element connected to said conduit and providing an opening, and a movable element movable with respect to said opening from a flow-restricting position to a flow-permitting position and vice versa; yand means for transmitting said rarefactions to said valve means to operate same to admit uid to said column.
2'7. A combination as defined in claim 17, in which said discharge means includes a uid-discharge restriction disposed approximately a quarter wav length from a point of maximum pressure variation and providing suicient restriction to the discharged uid to increase the mean lpressure throughout said uid column to a 'value substantially above atmospheric pressure.
posite side of said wall means from said reflecting surface and adjacent' said wall means for controlling the iiow of fluid through said passage means, said valve means comprising a stationary means comprising fluid conducting means and a movable member engageable with said stationary means to impede flow of uid through said iluid conducting means in one direction.
troduce fluid at the other end of said column; 29. Apparatus for pumping liquid, including in during such rarefactions created by reflection of combination: a conduit enclosing a column of said liquid; an acoustic intake valve means for delivering rliquid to said column when the pressure on the entrance side thereof is less than the pressure on the discharge side thereof; means for generating substantially a wave of reverberation at a position spaced along said liquidv column a distance of substantially one half wave length from vsaid acoustic intake valve means, said wave of reverberation comprising high-amplitude pressure pulses spaced from each other by rarefactions of an amplitude much less than the amplitude of said pressure pulses; meansfor imposing on said liquid column a sufficient mean pressure, from which said pressure pulses and said rarefactions depart, toV prevent said rarefactions from exceeding the tensile strength of said liquid of said column; and means for discharging liquid from said column. v
30. Apparatus for pumping fluid, including in combination: a conduit enclosing a fiuidcolumn; means for generating acoustic Vibrations in said fluid column at one position; an acoustic valve means for admitting fluid to said fluid column at another position; means for discharging fluid from said fluidA column; and means for throttling the flow of fluid from said fluid column to build up and maintain a back pressure on said fluid column and increase the mean pressure therein sufficient that the acoustic vibrations never reduce the pressure in said column to zero value.
31. In a fluid pumping system, thel combination will be transmitted in part to the otherlof said,
columns and including movable valve means restricting fluid flow in one direction through said acoustic 4valve means while Apermitting less restricted fluid flow in the other direction; and means for imparting sonic energy to said one of said columns at such frequency as 'to establish substantially a condition of acoustic resonance therein, the length of said other column being such that the sonic energy delivered thereto through said acoustic valve means at said frequency will establish substantially a condition of acoustic resonance therein.
32. Apparatus for pumping fluid from a first location to a second location, comprisingya fluid column extending between ,said locations; means Aat said second location for generating waves of condensation, said generating means tending to form waves `of rarefaction intervening said waves of condensation; means for admitting fluid .to said column in timed relationship with such tendency to form waves of rarefaction to substantially reduce such tendency, whereby said generating means and said admitting means cooperate in establishing asymmetrical waves which move to said first location and comprising waves from said fluid column the fluid entering same v said condensations; and means for discharging through said acoustic valve means and through said admitting means.
33. A method of pumping fluid along a fluid column, which method includes the steps of: transmitting acoustic pressure impulses to said fluid column; admitting uid to said fluid column at one position-in timed relation with said acoustic pressure impulses; withdrawing fluid from said fluid column at another position; and introducing a fluid comprising a treating agent into said fluid column at a third position to mingle with the fluid of said fluid column-and discharge therewith at said other position, said pressure impulses serving to mix said treating agent and the pumped fluid before they discharge from said fluid column.
34. Apparatus for pumping fluid, including in combination: a conduit enclosing a'fluid column; walls defining an acoustic intake chamber; ya unidirectional wave transmitter disposed between said acoustic intake chamber and said fluid column for admitting fluid to said column from said intake chamber, said uni-directional wave transmitter including an acoustic valve means lmpeding flow from said fluidcolumn to said intake 'chamber but permitting flow from said intakechamber to said fluid column, said uni-directional wave transmitter Aincluding also an v aperture openly communicating lbetween vsaid fluid column and said intake chamber and being of substantially smaller cross-sectional area than the cross-sectional area of said fluid column; and means for generating elastic-vibrations in said fluid column at such frequency as to establish substantially a condition of resonance in said acoustic intake chamber by undulations transmitted thereto through said uni-directional wave transmitter.
, 35. Apparatus for pumping fluid, including in combination: a conduit enclosing a fluid column; walls defining an acoustic intake chamber communicating at one end with said conduit and providing an open end which openly communicates with the fluid to .be pumped; a uni-directional wave transmitter disposed between said acoustic intake chamber and said fluid column for admitting fluid to said column from said intake chamber; and means for generating elastic vibrations in said fluid column at such frequency as to establish substantially a condition of resonance in said acoustic intake chamber by undulations transmitted thereto through said tween said open end and said uni-directional y wave transmitter being substantially one-half of the wave length of said'generated elastic vibrations in said fluid column.
36. Apparatus for pumping fluid, including in combination; a conduit enclosing a fluid column; walls comprising side and endwalls defining an acoustic intake chamber; a uni-directional wave transmitter disposed between said acoustic intake chamber and' said fluid column for admitting fluid to said column from said intake chamber; and means for generating elastic vibrations in said fluid column at such frequency as to establish substantially a ,condition of resonance in said acoustic intake chamber by undulations transmitted thereto through said uni-directional wave transmitter, the distance between said end wall andsaid uni-directional wave transmitter being substantially equal to one-quarter of the wave length of said generated elastic vibrationsin said fluid column. and said walls providing lan opening communicating between said acoustic intake' chamber' and the fluid to be pumped at a position near said uni-directional wave trans- 6 mitter. i
37. A method of pumping fluid comprising the steps of: establishing a body of fluid extending from a rst location to a second location; imparting pressure impulses to said fluid body at l said second location to generate elastic positive pressure wavesin said fluid body while maintaining a. mean pressure on said fluid body inexcess of 25 pounds per square inch; reflecting said positive pressure waves at `said first llocation to create a rarefaction adjacent said first location following each reflection; admitting fluid into said fluid body at said rst location only during the occurrence of said rarefactions; and discharging iluid from said fluid column at a position spaced from said first location and at a pressure in excess of said mean pressure.
38. A method of pumping fluid along a confined body of fluid, which method includes the steps of: generating sound waves in` said body of uid at a given position thus tending to establish in said fluid body positive-pressure waves with intervening rarefactions, while maintaining a high mean pressure in all portions of said body of fluid and which mean pressure is substantially above atmosphericpressure and while preventing rarefactions of intensity equal to said positive-pressure waves by introducing increments of fluid into said conilned body at a point adjacent the position at which said sound waves are generated and timed with the appearance of rarefactions at said point whereby said increments of fluid are introduced into said confined body ofiluid to substantially reduce the intensity of the rare- .factions, the increments of fluid thus introduced joining with the fluid of said confined body; controlling the frequency of generation of said sound waves so as to maintain a condition of approximate resonance in said confined fluid body; and discharging fluid from said confined body Voi? fluid vat a position spaced from the point where said increments of fluid are introduced. Y 39. Apparatus for pumping fluid, including in combination: walls confining a body of fluid; an acoustic valvezmeans for admitting fluid to said confined body of fluid; discharge means for discharging fiuid from said conned'body of iuid; wave generation means for generating sound waves in said confined body of fluid from pumping fluid into said confined body of fluid through Vsaid acoustic valve means and thence along, said confined body of fluid to discharge from said discharge means, the frequency of said wave generation means being such as to create substantially a condition of resonance in said confined body m of fluid; and auxiliary means for delivering fluid to the resonating confined body of fluid during said pumping and during periods of rarefaction within said confined body of fluid to mingle with Y the pumped fluid and be discharged therewith. 5
40. Apparatus for pumping fluid, including in combination: means forming a sonic chamber adapted to' contain a confined body of fluid under compression; a sound wave generator for generating acoustic vibrations in said confined body of 'm fluid at such frequency as to establish substantially a condition of standing-wave resonance therein whereby the pressure at one position in said confined body of fluid varies cyclically to increase when a wave of condensation is adja- 75.
cent said position and to decrease when a lwave of rarefaction is adjacent said position; an intake valve adjacent said position for admitting additional fluid to said confined body `of lluid when a wave of rarefaction is adjacent said position and for impeding flow of iluid from said confined body of fluid when a wave of condensation is adjacent said position; and means for discharging fluid from said confined body of fluid, said lastnamed means including a restricted orice disposed a distance from said sound wave generator corresponding to an odd multiple of one quarter wave length of said acoustic vibrations for restricting the discharge of fluid suillcient to build up a high mean pressure throughout said confined body of fluid of at .least 25 pounds per square inch.
41. Apparatus for pumping fluid, including in combination: means forming a sonic chamber adapted to contain a 'confined body of fluid under compression; a sound wave generator for generatingacoustic vibrations in said confined body of fluid at such frequency as to establish substa tially a condition of standing wave resonance herein whereby the pressure at one position in said confined body of fluid varies cyclically to increase when a wave of condensation is adjacent said position and to decrease when a wave of rarefaction is adjacent said position; an
intake valve adjacent said position for admitting additional fluid to said confined body of fluid when a wave of rarelaction is adjacent said position and for impeding flow of fluid from said confined body of duid when a wave of condensation' is adjacent said position; and a back-pressurev valve for discharging fluid from said confined body of fluid and for maintaining a high mean pressure throughout said connedbody of fluid of at least 25 pounds per square inch, said backpressure valve including relatively movable members defining a discharge orifice, and means for resiliently urging said members toward closed position to restrict the discharge of fluid from said confined body of fluid and establish said high mean pressure therein.
42. A combination as defined in claim 41, inV
which said back-pressure valve is spaced from said sound wave generator a distance, measured along the intervening fluid, corresponding sub-- stantially to an odd multiple of one-quarter of the wave length of the waves in' said intervening 43. Apparatus forpumping lluid, including in combination: means forming a sonic chamber adapted tocontain a confined body of fluid under compression; a sound wave generator for generating sound waves in said confined body of fluid at such frequency as to establish substantially a condition of standing wave resonance in said body of fluid and to establish cyclically recurring pressure pulses and rarefactions adjacent said sound wave generator; means adjacent said sound wave generator for admittingladditional increments of fluid to said confined bodyof fluid synchronously with the appearance of rarefacbody of uid for discharging iluid therefrom and imposing therewith a mean pressure of at least 25 pounds per square inch.
44. Apparatus for pumping iluid, including in combination: means forming a sonic chamber adapted to contain a conned body of fluid under compression; a sound wave generator for generating acoustic vibrations in said coniined body of uid at such frequency as to establish substantially a condition of standing-wave resonance therein whereby the pressure at 'one position in said confined body of fluid varies cyclically to increase when a wave of condensation is adjacent said position and to decrease when a wave of rarefaction is adjacent said position; an intake valve adjacent said position for admitting additional iluid to said conilned body of iluid when a wave of rarefaction is adjacent said position and for impeding flow of fluid from said conned body of uid when a wave of condensation is adjacent said position; a tuned intake pipe extending from said valve for supplying fluid thereto preparatory to entry into said conned body of uid through said intake valve, the wave motion in said conilned body of iluid being transmitted in part through said intake valve to the fluid in said intake pipe and the intake pipe being of such length relative to the thus-transmitted wave motion that the iluid in this intake pipe will resonate because of the thus-transmitted wave motion to establish a condition of resonance in said intake pipe to aid in the ow of fluid through said valve into said conilned body oi nuid; and huid-discharge means for discharging 'huid from said confined body of iiuid in a manner to build up a high mean pressure in said connned body of fluid of at least 25 pounds per square inch.
45. Apparatus for pumping iluid, includingin combination: means forming a sonic chamber adapted to contain a confined body of fluid under compression; a soundwave generator for generating acoustic vibrations in said confined body of fluid at such frequency as to establish substantially a condition of standing-wave resonance therein whereby the pressure at one position in said confined body of uid varies cyclically to increase when a wave of condensation is adjacent said position and to decrease when a wave of rarefaction is adjacent said position; an intake valve adjacent said position for admitting additional iiuid to said confined body of iluid when a wave of rarefaction is adjacent said position and for impeding flow of fluid from Vsaid coniined body of iiuid when a wave of condensation is adjacent said position, said intake valve including means deiining a plurality of aperturesv communicating between the uid in said conned body and uid exterior of .said conned body, and a movable restricting means for each aperture, said movable restricting means being movable from a restricting position to impede escape of uid from said confined body to an open position admitting fluid through said apertures to said confined body, each of said movable restricting means being of suiciently small mass to be rapidly oscillated between said restricting and open positions in step with the cyclic variation in pressure adjacent said intake valve; and means for discharging nuid from said body of fluid and including a restricted oriilce for restricting the discharge oi said fluid suicient to build up a high mean pressure throughout said confined body of uid of at least 25 pounds per square inch.
ALBERT G. BODINE, JR.
ond.l column, line 1|., strike out the word "of" after "out",
hoolumn, line 2h., claim 5, for "zones .after "removed" insert "approximately-g page 1:1-, first co p OERTIFIOATE OF CORRECTION. Y Patent No. 2,555,618. A August 1519ub.'
ALBERT e. BOBINE, JR.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification ofthe above mmbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 6, secpage 10, first readF--ZOne--I line 26, same claim, lumn, line 1'9, claim 15, after acoustic insert -pressure; Page 1lb fiI'lSt oolumn, line 51|., claim 59, for "from" read -for;A page '15, first column, line 2, claim 1,5, for "'therewim" read -therew1th1n; and that the sam natters Patent should be read with thist correction therein that the same may conform to the record vfthe Oase in the Patent Office.
Signed -an'd sealed this 10th day of 0otober., A. D. 19h11..
' Henry Van Arsdale (Seal) Acting Commissioner of Petents.